Publications by authors named "Marion Pilorge"

7 Publications

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Complex nature of apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements in patients with autism spectrum disorder.

Mol Autism 2015 25;6:19. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

INSERM, UMR 1130, Neuroscience Paris Seine, 9 quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France ; CNRS, UMR 8246, Neuroscience Paris Seine, 9 quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France ; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 6, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, 9 quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France.

Background: Apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements can be associated with an abnormal phenotype, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genome-wide microarrays reveal cryptic genomic imbalances, related or not to the breakpoints, in 25% to 50% of patients with an abnormal phenotype carrying a microscopically balanced chromosomal rearrangement. Here we performed microarray analysis of 18 patients with ASD carrying balanced chromosomal abnormalities to identify submicroscopic imbalances implicated in abnormal neurodevelopment.

Methods: Eighteen patients with ASD carrying apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities were screened using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Nine rearrangements were de novo, seven inherited, and two of unknown inheritance. Genomic imbalances were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR.

Results: We detected clinically significant de novo copy number variants in four patients (22%), including three with de novo rearrangements and one with an inherited abnormality. The sizes ranged from 3.3 to 4.9 Mb; three were related to the breakpoint regions and one occurred elsewhere. We report a patient with a duplication of the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region, contributing to the delineation of this rare genomic disorder. The patient has a chromosome 4p inverted duplication deletion, with a 0.5 Mb deletion of terminal 4p and a 4.2 Mb duplication of 4p16.2p16.3. The other cases included an apparently balanced de novo translocation t(5;18)(q12;p11.2) with a 4.2 Mb deletion at the 18p breakpoint, a subject with de novo pericentric inversion inv(11)(p14q23.2) in whom the array revealed a de novo 4.9 Mb deletion in 7q21.3q22.1, and a patient with a maternal inv(2)(q14.2q37.3) with a de novo 3.3 Mb terminal 2q deletion and a 4.2 Mb duplication at the proximal breakpoint. In addition, we identified a rare de novo deletion of unknown significance on a chromosome unrelated to the initial rearrangement, disrupting a single gene, RFX3.

Conclusions: These findings underscore the utility of SNP arrays for investigating apparently balanced chromosomal abnormalities in subjects with ASD or related neurodevelopmental disorders in both clinical and research settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-015-0015-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4384291PMC
April 2015

Convergence of genes and cellular pathways dysregulated in autism spectrum disorders.

Am J Hum Genet 2014 May 24;94(5):677-94. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

Academic Centre on Rare Diseases, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland; Children's University Hospital Temple Street, Dublin 1, Ireland.

Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 × 10(-5)) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci associated with dominant or X-linked ASD and intellectual disability (odds ratio = 12.62, p = 2.7 × 10(-15), ∼3% of ASD subjects). Pathogenic CNVs, often showing variable expressivity, included rare de novo and inherited events at 36 loci, implicating ASD-associated genes (CHD2, HDAC4, and GDI1) previously linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as other genes such as SETD5, MIR137, and HDAC9. Consistent with hypothesized gender-specific modulators, females with ASD were more likely to have highly penetrant CNVs (p = 0.017) and were also overrepresented among subjects with fragile X syndrome protein targets (p = 0.02). Genes affected by de novo CNVs and/or loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants converged on networks related to neuronal signaling and development, synapse function, and chromatin regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4067558PMC
May 2014

Haploinsufficiency of Cyfip1 produces fragile X-like phenotypes in mice.

PLoS One 2012 10;7(8):e42422. Epub 2012 Aug 10.

Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: Copy number variation (CNV) at the 15q11.2 region, which includes a gene that codes for CYFIP1 (cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 1), has been implicated in autism, intellectual disability and additional neuropsychiatric phenotypes. In the current study we studied the function of Cyfip1 in synaptic physiology and behavior, using mice with a disruption of the Cyfip1 gene.

Methodology/principal Findings: We observed that in Cyfip1 heterozygous mice metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) induced by paired-pulse low frequency stimulation (PP-LFS) was significantly increased in comparison to wildtype mice. In addition, mGluR-LTD was not affected in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitor in the Cyfip1 heterozygous mice, while the same treatment inhibited LTD in wildtype littermate controls. mGluR-agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced LTD was also significantly increased in hippocampal slices from Cyfip1 heterozygous mice and again showed independence from protein synthesis only in the heterozygous animals. Furthermore, we observed that the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin was only effective at reducing mGluR-LTD in wildtype animals. Behaviorally, Cyfip1 heterozygous mice showed enhanced extinction of inhibitory avoidance. Application of both mGluR5 and mGluR1 antagonist to slices from Cyfip1 heterozygous mice reversed the increase in DHPG-induced LTD in these mice.

Conclusions/significance: These results demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of Cyfip1 mimics key aspects of the phenotype of Fmr1 knockout mice and are consistent with the hypothesis that these effects are mediated by interaction of Cyfip1 and Fmrp in regulating activity-dependent translation. The data provide support for a model where CYFIP1 haploinsufficiency in patients results in intermediate phenotypes increasing risk for neuropsychiatric disorders.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0042422PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3416859PMC
March 2013

Autism multiplex family with 16p11.2p12.2 microduplication syndrome in monozygotic twins and distal 16p11.2 deletion in their brother.

Eur J Hum Genet 2012 May 11;20(5):540-6. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

AP-HP, Robert Debré Hospital, Department of Genetics, Cytogenetics Unit, Paris, France .

The pericentromeric region of chromosome 16p is rich in segmental duplications that predispose to rearrangements through non-allelic homologous recombination. Several recurrent copy number variations have been described recently in chromosome 16p. 16p11.2 rearrangements (29.5-30.1 Mb) are associated with autism, intellectual disability (ID) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Another recognizable but less common microdeletion syndrome in 16p11.2p12.2 (21.4 to 28.5-30.1 Mb) has been described in six individuals with ID, whereas apparently reciprocal duplications, studied by standard cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques, have been reported in three patients with autism spectrum disorders. Here, we report a multiplex family with three boys affected with autism, including two monozygotic twins carrying a de novo 16p11.2p12.2 duplication of 8.95 Mb (21.28-30.23 Mb) characterized by single-nucleotide polymorphism array, encompassing both the 16p11.2 and 16p11.2p12.2 regions. The twins exhibited autism, severe ID, and dysmorphic features, including a triangular face, deep-set eyes, large and prominent nasal bridge, and tall, slender build. The eldest brother presented with autism, mild ID, early-onset obesity and normal craniofacial features, and carried a smaller, overlapping 16p11.2 microdeletion of 847 kb (28.40-29.25 Mb), inherited from his apparently healthy father. Recurrent deletions in this region encompassing the SH2B1 gene were recently reported in early-onset obesity and in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with phenotypic variability. We discuss the clinical and genetic implications of two different 16p chromosomal rearrangements in this family, and suggest that the 16p11.2 deletion in the father predisposed to the formation of the duplication in his twin children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2011.244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330222PMC
May 2012

A large-scale survey of the novel 15q24 microdeletion syndrome in autism spectrum disorders identifies an atypical deletion that narrows the critical region.

Mol Autism 2010 Mar 19;1(1). Epub 2010 Mar 19.

Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment, Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Background: The 15q24 microdeletion syndrome has been recently described as a recurrent, submicroscopic genomic imbalance found in individuals with intellectual disability, typical facial appearance, hypotonia, and digital and genital abnormalities. Gene dosage abnormalities, including copy number variations (CNVs), have been identified in a significant fraction of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In this study we surveyed two ASD cohorts for 15q24 abnormalities to assess the frequency of genomic imbalances in this interval.

Methods: We screened 173 unrelated subjects with ASD from the Central Valley of Costa Rica and 1336 subjects with ASD from 785 independent families registered with the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) for CNVs across 15q24 using oligonucleotide arrays. Rearrangements were confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization and quantitative PCR.

Results: Among the patients from Costa Rica, an atypical de novo deletion of 3.06 Mb in 15q23-q24.1 was detected in a boy with autism sharing many features with the other 13 subjects with the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome described to date. He exhibited intellectual disability, constant smiling, characteristic facial features (high anterior hairline, broad medial eyebrows, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, full lower lip and protuberant, posteriorly rotated ears), single palmar crease, toe syndactyly and congenital nystagmus. The deletion breakpoints are atypical and lie outside previously characterized low copy repeats (69,838-72,897 Mb). Genotyping data revealed that the deletion had occurred in the paternal chromosome. Among the AGRE families, no large 15q24 deletions were observed.

Conclusions: From the current and previous studies, deletions in the 15q24 region represent rare causes of ASDs with an estimated frequency of 0.1 to 0.2% in individuals ascertained for ASDs, although the proportion might be higher in sporadic cases. These rates compare with a frequency of about 0.3% in patients ascertained for unexplained intellectual disability and congenital anomalies. This atypical deletion reduces the minimal interval for the syndrome from 1.75 Mb to 766 kb, implicating a reduced number of genes (15 versus 38). Sequencing of genes in the 15q24 interval in large ASD and intellectual disability samples may identify mutations of etiologic importance in the development of these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-1-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2907565PMC
March 2010

Molecular characterization of a de novo 6q24.2q25.3 duplication interrupting UTRN in a patient with arthrogryposis.

Am J Med Genet A 2010 Jul;152A(7):1781-8

AP-HP, Cytogenetics Unit, Department of Genetics, Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France.

Chromosome 6q duplications have been documented repeatedly, allowing the delineation of a "6q duplication syndrome," characterized by hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, tented upper lip, short neck, severe mental and growth retardation, and joint contractures. Most reported cases result from malsegregation of a reciprocal translocation leading to a terminal 6q duplication and partial monosomy of another chromosome. Only 11 cases of de novo pure duplication have been reported so far. The breakpoints do not appear to be recurrent, but in most cases they have not been characterized molecularly, precluding genotype-phenotype correlation. We report on an 8-year-old girl with a phenotype consistent with mild 6q duplication syndrome, including characteristic physical findings, mild mental retardation, and joint contractures. She carries a 13 Mb de novo 6q24.2q25.3 duplication, diagnosed by high-resolution karyotype and confirmed by array-CGH. Molecular characterization of the duplicated segment with quantitative PCR showed that the proximal breakpoint is localized within the UTRN gene, encoding utrophin, the autosomal homologue of dystrophin. We discuss the possible implication of UTRN in arthrogryposis associated with duplications spanning the 6q23q26 region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.33433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2962443PMC
July 2010

Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders.

Nature 2010 Jul 9;466(7304):368-72. Epub 2010 Jun 9.

The Centre for Applied Genomics and Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.

The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability. Although ASDs are known to be highly heritable ( approximately 90%), the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Here we analysed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (<1% frequency) copy number variation in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic copy number variants (CNVs) (1.19 fold, P = 0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASD and/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P = 3.4 x 10(-4)). Among the CNVs there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes such as SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signalling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature09146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021798PMC
July 2010