Publications by authors named "Marion Bauer"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Small-angle neutron scattering study of micropore collapse in amorphous solid water.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2014 Aug;16(30):16013-20

Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Vapor-deposited amorphous solid water (ASW) is the most abundant solid molecular material in space, where it plays a direct role in both the formation of more complex chemical species and the aggregation of icy materials in the earliest stages of planet formation. Nevertheless, some of its low temperature physics such as the collapse of the micropore network upon heating are still far from being understood. Here we characterize the nature of the micropores and their collapse using neutron scattering of gram-quantities of D2O-ASW of internal surface areas up to 230 ± 10 m(2) g(-1) prepared at 77 K. The model-free interpretation of the small-angle scattering data suggests micropores, which remain stable up to 120-140 K and then experience a sudden collapse. The exact onset temperature to pore collapse depends on the type of flow conditions employed in the preparation of ASW and, thus, the specific surface area of the initial deposit, whereas the onset of crystallization to cubic ice is unaffected by the flow conditions. Analysis of the small-angle neutron scattering signal using the Guinier-Porod model suggests that a sudden transition from three-dimensional cylindrical pores with 15 Å radius of gyration to two-dimensional lamellae is the mechanism underlying the pore collapse. The rather high temperature of about 120-140 K of micropore collapse and the 3D-to-2D type of the transition unraveled in this study have implications for our understanding of the processing and evolution of ices in various astrophysical environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cp00593gDOI Listing
August 2014

Clathrate hydrate formation after CO2-H2O vapour deposition.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011 Nov 26;13(44):19765-72. Epub 2011 Sep 26.

Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

We study vapour condensation of carbon dioxide and water at 77 K in a high-vacuum apparatus, transfer the sample to a piston-cylinder apparatus kept at 77 K and subsequently heat it at 20 MPa to 200 K. Samples are monitored by in situ volumetric experiments and after quench-recovery to 77 K and 1 bar by powder X-ray diffraction. At 77 K a heterogeneous mixture of amorphous solid water (ASW) and crystalline carbon dioxide is produced, both by co-deposition and sequential deposition of CO(2) and H(2)O. This heterogeneous mixture transforms to a mixture of cubic structure I carbon dioxide clathrate and crystalline carbon dioxide in the temperature range 160-200 K at 20 MPa. However, no crystalline ice is detected. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of CO(2) clathrate hydrate formation from co-deposits of ASW and CO(2). The presence of external CO(2) vapour pressure in the annealing stage is not necessary for clathrate formation. The solid-solid transformation is accompanied by a density increase. Desorption of crystalline CO(2) atop the ASW sample is inhibited by applying 20 MPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus, and ultimately the clathrate is stabilized inside layers of crystalline CO(2) rather than in cubic or hexagonal ice. The vapour pressure of carbon dioxide needed for clathrate hydrate formation is lower by a few orders of magnitude compared to other known routes of CO(2) clathrate formation. The route described here is, thus, of relevance for understanding formation of CO(2) clathrate hydrates in astrophysical environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1cp21856eDOI Listing
November 2011

Integrative nucleophosmin mutation-associated microRNA and gene expression pattern analysis identifies novel microRNA - target gene interactions in acute myeloid leukemia.

Haematologica 2011 Dec 31;96(12):1783-91. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

Background: MicroRNAs are regulators of gene expression, which act mainly by decreasing mRNA levels of their multiple targets. Deregulated microRNA expression has been shown for acute myeloid leukemia, a disease also characterized by altered gene expression associated with distinct genomic aberrations such as nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations. To shed further light on the role of deregulated microRNA and gene expression in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutation we performed an integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression data sets.

Design And Methods: Both microRNA and gene expression profiles were investigated in samples from a cohort of adult cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia patients (n=43; median age 46 years, range 23-60 years) with known NPM1 mutation status (n=23 mutated, n=20 wild-type) and the data were integratively analyzed. Putative microRNA-mRNA interactions were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. For selected microRNAs, sensitivity of microRNA-overexpressing cells to cytarabine treatment was tested by FACS viability and cell proliferation assays.

Results: Our integrative approach of analyzing both microRNA- and gene expression profiles in parallel resulted in a refined list of putative target genes affected by NPM1 mutation-associated microRNA deregulation. Of 177 putative microRNA - target mRNA interactions we identified and validated 77 novel candidates with known or potential involvement in leukemogenesis, such as IRF2-miR-20a, KIT-miR-20a and MN1-miR-15a. Furthermore, our data showed that deregulated expression of tumor suppressor microRNAs, such as miR-29a and miR-30c, might contribute to sensitivity to cytarabine, which is observed in NPM1 mutated acute myeloid leukemia.

Conclusions: Overall, our observations highlight that integrative data analysis approaches can improve insights into leukemia biology, and lead to the identification of novel microRNA - target gene interactions of potential relevance for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2011.046888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3232260PMC
December 2011

Cryoflotation: densities of amorphous and crystalline ices.

J Phys Chem B 2011 Dec 31;115(48):14167-75. Epub 2011 Aug 31.

Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

We present an experimental method aimed at measuring mass densities of solids at ambient pressure. The principle of the method is flotation in a mixture of liquid nitrogen and liquid argon, where the mixing ratio is varied until the solid hovers in the liquid mixture. The temperature of such mixtures is in the range of 77-87 K, and therefore, the main advantage of the method is the possibility of determining densities of solid samples, which are instable above 90 K. The accessible density range (~0.81-1.40 g cm(-3)) is perfectly suitable for the study of crystalline ice polymorphs and amorphous ices. As a benchmark, we here determine densities of crystalline polymorphs (ices I(h), I(c), II, IV, V, VI, IX, and XII) by flotation and compare them with crystallographic densities. The reproducibility of the method is about ±0.005 g cm(-3), and in general, the agreement with crystallographic densities is very good. Furthermore, we show measurements on a range of amorphous ice samples and correlate the density with the d spacing of the first broad halo peak in diffraction experiments. Finally, we discuss the influence of microstructure, in particular voids, on the density for the case of hyperquenched glassy water and cubic ice samples prepared by deposition of micrometer-sized liquid droplets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp204752wDOI Listing
December 2011

HuCAL PLATINUM, a synthetic Fab library optimized for sequence diversity and superior performance in mammalian expression systems.

J Mol Biol 2011 Oct 12;413(1):261-78. Epub 2011 Aug 12.

MorphoSys AG, Lena-Christ-Strasse 48, 82152 Martinsried, Germany.

This article describes the design of HuCAL (human combinatorial antibody library) PLATINUM, an optimized, second-generation, synthetic human Fab antibody library with six trinucleotide-randomized complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). Major improvements regarding the optimized antibody library sequence space were implemented. Sequence space optimization is considered a multistep process that includes the analysis of unproductive antibody sequences in order to, for example, avoid motifs such as potential N-glycosylation sites, which are undesirable in antibody production. Gene optimization has been used to improve expression of the antibody master genes in the library context. As a result, full-length IgGs derived from the library show both significant improvements in expression levels and less undesirable glycosylation sites when compared to the previous HuCAL GOLD library. Additionally, in-depth analysis of sequences from public databases revealed that diversity of CDR-H3 is a function of loop length. Based upon this analysis, the relatively uniform diversification strategy used in the CDR-H3s of the previous HuCAL libraries was changed to a length-dependent design, which replicates the natural amino acid distribution of CDR-H3 in the human repertoire. In a side-by-side comparison of HuCAL GOLD and HuCAL PLATINUM, the new library concept led to isolation of about fourfold more unique sequences and to a higher number of high-affinity antibodies. In the majority of HuCAL PLATINUM projects, 100-300 antibodies each having different CDR-H3s are obtained against each antigen. This increased diversity pool has been shown to significantly benefit functional antibody profiling and screening for superior biophysical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2011.08.012DOI Listing
October 2011

How many amorphous ices are there?

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011 May 23;13(19):8783-94. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Institute of Physical Chemistry University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Many acronyms are used in the literature for describing different kinds of amorphous ice, mainly because many different preparation routes and many different sample histories need to be distinguished. We here introduce these amorphous ices and discuss the question of how many of these forms are of relevance in the context of polyamorphism. We employ the criterion of reversible transitions between amorphous "states" in finite intervals of pressure and temperature to discriminate between independent metastable amorphous "states" and between "substates" of the same amorphous "state". We argue that the experimental evidence suggests we should consider there to be three polyamorphic "states" of ice, namely low-(LDA), high-(HDA) and very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA). In addition to the realization of reversible transitions between them, they differ in terms of their properties, e.g., compressibility, or number of "interstitial" water molecules. Thus they cannot be regarded as structurally relaxed variants of each other and so we suggest considering them as three distinct megabasins in an energy landscape visualization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0cp02600jDOI Listing
May 2011

Pressure-amorphized cubic structure II clathrate hydrate: crystallization in slow motion.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011 Feb 22;13(6):2167-71. Epub 2010 Nov 22.

Institute of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

A range of techniques has so far been employed for producing amorphous aqueous solutions. In case of aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) this comprises hyperquenching of liquid droplets, vapour co-deposition and pressure-induced amorphization of the crystalline cubic structure II clathrate. All of these samples are thermally labile and crystallize at temperatures above 110 K. We here outline a variant of the pressure-amorphization protocol developed by Suzuki [Phys. Rev. B, 2004, 70, 172108], which results in a highly crystallization resistant amorphous THF hydrate. The hydrate produced according to our protocol (annealing to 180 K at 1.8 GPa rather than to 150 K at 1.5 GPa) does not transform to the cubic structure II THF clathrate even at 150 K. We track the reason for this higher stability to the presence of crystalline remnants when following the Suzuki protocol, which are removed when using our protocol involving higher pressures and an annealing step. These crystalline remnants later serve as crystallization seeds lowering the thermal stability of the amorphous sample. Our protocol thus makes a purely amorphous THF hydrate available to the research community. We use powder X-ray diffraction to study the process of nucleation and slow crystal growth in the temperature range 160-200 K and find that the local cage structure and periodicity of the fully crystalline hydrate develops even at the earliest stages of crystallization, when the "clathrate crystal" has a size of about two unit cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0cp01351jDOI Listing
February 2011

Hexagonal ice transforms at high pressures and compression rates directly into "doubly metastable" ice phases.

J Chem Phys 2009 Dec;131(22):224514

Institute of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

We report compression and decompression experiments of hexagonal ice in a piston cylinder setup in the temperature range of 170-220 K up to pressures of 1.6 GPa. The main focus is on establishing the effect that an increase in compression rate up to 4000 MPa/min has on the phase changes incurred at high pressures. While at low compression rates, a phase change to stable ice II takes place (in agreement with earlier comprehensive studies), we find that at higher compression rates, increasing fractions and even pure ice III forms from hexagonal ice. We show that the critical compression rate, above which mainly the metastable ice III polymorph is produced, decreases by a factor of 30 when decreasing the temperature from 220 to 170 K. At the highest rate capable with our equipment, we even find formation of an ice V fraction in the mixture, which is metastable with respect to ice II and also metastable with respect to ice III. This indicates that at increasing compression rates, progressively more metastable phases of ice grow from hexagonal ice. Since ices II, III, and V differ very much in, e.g., strength and rheological properties, we have prepared solids of very different mechanical properties just by variation in compression rate. In addition, these metastable phases have stability regions in the phase diagrams only at much higher pressures and temperatures. Therefore, we anticipate that the method of isothermal compression at low temperatures and high compression rates is a tool for the academic and industrial polymorph search with great potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3271651DOI Listing
December 2009

Raman spectroscopic study of the phase transition of amorphous to crystalline beta-carbonic acid.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2009 ;48(15):2690-4

Institute of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Austria.

What's the matter? The laboratory Raman spectra for carbonic acid (H(2)CO(3)), both for the beta-polymorph and its amorphous state, are required to detect carbonic acid on the surface of the pole caps of Mars in 2009, when the Mars Microbeam Raman Spectrometer lands on the planet. The picture shows a martian crater with ice of unknown composition, possibly containing carbonic acid (image adapted from DLR, with permission from ESA, DLR, and FU Berlin--G. Neukum).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200805300DOI Listing
May 2009