Publications by authors named "Mario Rajchenberg"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Poroid Hymenochaetaceae associated with trees showing wood-rot symptoms in the Garden Route National Park of South Africa.

Mycologia 2020 Jul-Aug;112(4):722-741. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria , Pretoria, 0028, South Africa.

Poroid Hymenochaetaceae associated with wood rots of trees in three timber-harvesting compartments of the Garden Route National Park (GRNP), South Africa, were investigated using multilocus phylogenetic analyses and morphology of the basidiomes. Results revealed the presence of 10 species belonging to five genera. Six of the species are known, but four are described as new. The known species include , and . The new species are described as , and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2020.1753160DOI Listing
June 2020

Biotransformation of grape pomace from Vitis labrusca by Peniophora albobadia LPSC # 285 (Basidiomycota).

An Acad Bras Cienc 2020 Mar 13;92(1):e20181174. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Cátedra de Microbiología Agrícola, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 60 y 119, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.

Grape pomace from Vitis labrusca is an important sub-product of the "American table wine" industry. It is recalcitrant to degradation, and its accumulation is a serious problem with negative environmental impacts. We analyzed the ability of five white-rot fungi to transform this residue in-vitro. Mass loss and phenol removal in grape pomace treated with each fungus were compared after 30-day solid-state fermentation. Since Peniophora albobadia isolate LPSC 285 was the fungus that showed the highest degradative ability and the lowest free phenol levels in the residue transformed, we selected this fungus to monitor its effect on this residue after 30, 60, and 90 days of incubation. We analyzed mass loss of the residue caused by the fungus activity and its chemical changes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After 90 days of incubation, Peniophora albobadia isolate LPSC 285 reduced grape pomace mass by 20.48%, which was associated with degradation of polysaccharides and aromatic structures. We concluded that Peniophora albobadia LPSC # 285 isolate is a promising fungus to transform grape pomace from Vitis labrusca under solid-state fermentation conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202020181174DOI Listing
March 2020

An overview of and related genera of Polyporales from the Neotropics.

Mycologia 2019 Sep-Oct;111(5):813-831. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET) and Área de Protección Forestal, Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico , C.C. 14, 9200 Esquel , Chubut , Argentina.

The genus includes resupinate and pileate species of polypores with a dimitic hyphal system, small, globose to cylindrical basidiospores, absence of cystidia, tetrapolar mating system, and haplo-dikaryotic nuclear behavior. Recent studies, however, indicate that is highly polyphyletic, so many of its species have been transferred to other genera. This study reviews the systematic status and diversity of from the Neotropics based, in part, on studies of type specimens. Collections from Brazil were used for molecular analysis of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS), nuc 28S rDNA (28S), and portions of genes encoding translation elongation factor 1-α () and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (). Eight genera are confirmed to include Neotropical species treated as in a broad sense: s. str., , and . Molecular data reveal the occurrence of two new species, described as , the only Neotropical species of s. str. known so far, and . In addition, was found to nest in the genus , close to the Grifolaceae and Polyporaceae; therefore, the new combination is proposed. Comments on the eight -related genera as well as species with uncertain taxonomic position are provided, together with a key to their identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2019.1633895DOI Listing
March 2020

Taxonomy and species diversity of species in the Garden Route National Park of South Africa inferred from morphology and multilocus phylogenies.

Mycologia 2019 Sep-Oct;111(5):730-747. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria , Pretoria , 0028 , South Africa.

is a cosmopolitan genus that encompasses species with cultural, economic, and pathogenic importance. Despite the importance of this genus, knowledge pertaining to the species diversity of in South Africa is limited. This study aimed at elucidating the identity and phylogenetic placements of samples obtained during a survey of wood-rotting fungi in the Garden Route National Park (GRNP) of South Africa, supplemented with isolates obtained from other localities across the country. Identification was achieved by means of multilocus phylogenetic inference combined with morphological evaluation. In total, eight distinct species of were recovered from different hosts and localities across the country. Of these, cf. and cf. represent possible new records for South Africa. Two novel species are described, namely, . and , sp. nov., is characterized by a triquetrous and broadly attached basidiome, a sulcate or zonate yellowish brown to brown pilear surface, and ovoid to ellipsoid basidiospores. is distinguished by an applanate to ungulate, sometimes convex, dimidiate to broadly attached basidiome, a chocolate-brown pilear surface covered with a hard woody-like crust and ellipsoid, broadly ellipsoid to ovoid basidiospores. The discovery of two new species in this study raises the known species in South Africa to 13.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2019.1635387DOI Listing
March 2020

A discussion on the genus (Hymenochaetaceae, Hymenochaetales) and first record of from southern South America.

MycoKeys 2018 28(38):77-91. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Región del Bío Bío, Chile.

has traditionally been delimited based on the gross morphology of the basidiomes, hyphal structure and basdiospores. Recently, phylogenetic studies supported the incorporation of an extensive number of species within the genus. Although most of its species are nested in the 'Phellinotus clade' (Hymenochaetaceae, Basidiomycota), genera such as , and were not included in previous analysis. To further our understanding of the genus, new sequences from 28S and ITS nuc rDNA genes were jointly analysed with a large selection of taxa in the 'Phellinotus clade', also with re-examination of morphological and ecological data. Results showed several lineages in what has hitherto been considered to represent , indicating that the genus is paraphyletic as presently circumscribed. There is a well-supported core group that includes the type species and nine other monophyletic lineages with high support, of which those representing , and are distinct from the core group by macro and micromorphological traits and/or biogeographic distribution. , a species described from SE USA, was found in the Patagonian forests of southern Argentina and Chile; it is the taxon responsible for the white heart-rot found on standing and one of the taxa decaying wooden tiles of historic churches in Chiloé Is., Chile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.38.27310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160837PMC
August 2018

Extensive characterization of the new genus Rickiopora (Polyporales).

Fungal Biol 2016 08 10;120(8):1002-1009. Epub 2016 May 10.

Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botânica, Av. Miguel Estefano 3687, 04301-90 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Ceriporiopsis latemarginata and Antrodiella angulatopora are two Neotropical polypores that are very similar morphologically and are characterized by effused-reflexed basidiomes, large angular pores, small ellipsoid to ovoid basidiospores and a monomitic hyphal system with presence of thick-walled hyphae with infrequent clamps. In order to verify the evolutionary relations of C. latemarginata and to find its taxonomic placement, morphological, biological, and phylogenetic studies were carried out, as well as comparisons with Antrodiella s.s. and Ceriporiopsis s.s. Mono- and poly-sporic cultures were obtained and used for mating system and nuclear behaviour studies, as well as for DNA sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit-like gene. Type specimens of C. latemarginata and A. angulatopora were morphologically examined and their synonymy was confirmed. The results obtained support the description of a new polypore genus Rickiopora in the residual polyporoid clade characterized by a bipolar mating system, an astatocoenocytic nuclear behaviour, and a monomitic hyphal system that display a metachromatic reaction in cresyl blue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2016.05.001DOI Listing
August 2016

New species of Tomentella (Thelephorales) from the Patagonian Andes forests.

Mycologia 2016 Jul-Aug;108(4):780-90. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico (CIEFAP), C.C. 14, Ruta 259 km 14.6, Esquel, Chubut, 9200 Argentina, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), ArgentinaUniversidad Nacional de la Patagonia S.J. Bosco, Facultad de Ingeniería, Sede Esquel, Ruta 259 km 14.6, Esquel, Chubut, 9200 Argentina.

The genus Tomentella forms abundant ectomycorrhizae in coniferous and deciduous forests worldwide. Molecular identification of root tips suggests undescribed species in the Nothofagus forests of Patagonia, Argentina. Tomentella tenuissima, T. pulvinulata and T. patagonica are described here as new to science based on morphological and molecular analyses. Their host range is addressed using available soil sequences. The identity of previous records of T. galzinii and T. radiosa are discussed with morphological and molecular evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/15-244DOI Listing
January 2018

The phylogenetic position of poroid Hymenochaetaceae (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from Patagonia, Argentina.

Mycologia 2015 Jul-Aug;107(4):754-67. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Centro Forestal CIEFAP-CONICET, CC14, 9200 Esquel, Chubut, Argentina and Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia SJ Bosco, Ruta 259 km 16.2, 9200 Esquel, Chubut, Argentina.

Six poroid Hymenochaetaceae from Patagonia, Argentina, were studied phylogenetically with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S rDNA sequences, together with morphological data. Two new genera and a new species are introduced as well as two new combinations proposed. Arambarria destruens gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for a taxon fruiting on fallen or standing, dead Diostea juncea and Lomatia hirsuta and previously recorded erroneously as Inocutis jamaicensis; it is distinguished by annual, effused to effused-reflexed basidiomes forming pilei, a monomitic hyphal system, thick-walled and yellowish basidiospores (brownish chestnut in potassium hydroxide solution), lack of a granular core in the context and lack of setoid elements. Nothophellinus gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate Phellinus andinopatagonicus, the main white wood-rotting polypore of standing Nothofagus pumilio and also an important wood-decayer of other Nothofagus species from southern Argentina and Chile. It is morphologically similar to Phellopilus (type species P. nigrolimitatus) but differs by lacking setae. The new combinations Pseudoinonotus crustosus and Phellinopsis andina are proposed for Inonotus crustosus and Phellinus andinus, respectively. Phellinus livescens, which decays the sapwood of several standing Nothofagus species, is closely related to Phellinus uncisetus, a Neotropical species related to Fomitiporia; for the time being P. livescens is retained in Phellinus sensu lato. An unidentified taxon responsible for a white heart-rot in living Austrocedrus chilensis grouped with Phellinus caryophyllii and Fulvifomes inermis, but its generic affinities remain ambiguous. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm this unidentified taxon has an imperforate parenthesome, which is typical of the Hymenochaetaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/14-170DOI Listing
September 2015

Phylogenetic relationships of Hydnum peroxydatum support the synonymy of Hydnochaete with Hymenochaete (Hymenochaetaceae, Agaricomycetes).

Mycologia 2014 Mar-Apr;106(2):323-7

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Botânica, Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Porto Alegre, CEP 91501-970, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

A combined dataset of rDNA ITS and LSU sequences was used to infer the phylogenetic relationships of Hydnochaete peroxydata (≡ Hydnum peroxydatum), the type species of Hydnochaete. The species was retrieved nested within the Hymenochaete s. str. clade; therefore Hydnochaete is regarded as a synonym of Hymenochaete and the new combination Hymenochaete peroxydata is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/106.2.323DOI Listing
July 2014

Nuclear behavior of the mycelium and the phylogeny of Polypores (Basidiomycota).

Mycologia 2011 Jul-Aug;103(4):677-702

Protección Forestal, Centro Forestal CIEFAP, C.C. 14, 9200 Esquel, Chubut, Argentina.

This is a review of the available knowledge on nuclear behavior of the mycelium within polypore genera (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota). Information on 68 genera showed that nuclear behavior is a distinct and consistent feature at genus level and can be coupled with phylogenetic differentiation. The sole exception was found in Polyporus, where different species with normal, heterocytic and astatocoenocytic nuclear behaviors were found. Of the 68 genera treated 41 (60.3%) displayed a normal nuclear behavior, nine (13.2%) were heterocytic, nine (13.2%) were astatocoenocytic and another eight (11.8%) were holocoenocytic. In 95% of the genera a unique compatibility system was found, with the exceptions of Antrodia, which includes both homothallic and bipolar species all associated with a normal nuclear behavior, and Spongipellis, in which bipolar and tetrapolar species are found, all displaying an astatocoenocytic nuclear behavior. Normal and heterocytic nuclear behaviors were associated mostly with tetrapolarity, astatocoenocity was associated mostly with bipolarity, and holocoenocity was associated with either bipolarity or purported homothallism. The combination of nuclear behavior with mating system and brown or white rot capability appeared as a strong feature characterizing and distinguishing the genera of polypores, each combination being valuable to differentiate between apparently related genera, as is supported by phylogenetic studies. Several examples are presented to support this idea, as well as the cases of species that are problematic to this concept. Poroid genera of Hymenochaetaceae were treated apart because of the lack of knowledge regarding their nuclear behavior. In addition new information on the sexuality and/or nuclear behavior of 15 polyporoid taxa is given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/10-310DOI Listing
September 2011

Multiple cryptic species with divergent substrate affinities in the Serpula himantioides species complex.

Fungal Biol 2011 Jan 23;115(1):54-61. Epub 2010 Oct 23.

Microbial Evolution Research Group (MERG), Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

Serpula himantioides is a widespread saprotrophic morphospecies mainly colonising coniferous wood in nature, but it appears frequently in buildings as well. From an earlier study, it is known that at least three divergent lineages occur within the S. himantioides species complex. In this study, a broader sample of S. himantioides isolates has been analysed by multi-locus sequencing, including new isolates from Asia, North and South America. Altogether five phylogenetical species (PS1-5) were detected, all recognised across independent gene phylogenies. A new southern South American phylogenetic species (PS1) was found, representing an early diverging lineage within the S. himantioides species complex. The two closely related PS2 and PS3 lineages included isolates from North America only, and PS4 was also dominated by North American isolates. Most of the investigated isolates (76%) clustered into PS5, a lineage that has been found on most continents, including North America. Overall, little phylogeographical structure was found in PS5, indicating frequent and recent long-distance dispersal events within this widespread lineage. Our analyses indicate that South and North America are the centres of divergence for the S. himantioides species complex. Some of the lineages seem adapted to various substrates, but PS5 is able to decay a wide array of angiosperms and gymnosperms, which may have facilitated the spread of this lineage throughout the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2010.10.004DOI Listing
January 2011

Taxonomy of Armillaria in the Patagonian forests of Argentina.

Mycologia 2010 Mar-Apr;102(2):392-403

Forest Protection Area, Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico, Ruta 259 km4, CC14 (9200), Esquel, Chubut, Argentina.

The taxonomy of Armillaria in southern South America has received little attention since the work of Singer and others. In this study we examine the morphological traits and cultural features for taxa representing the lineages revealed based on molecular phylogeny, and we link them to previously described taxa based on morphology. Lineages I-IV were identified as Armillaria novae-zelandiae, A. montagnei, A. umbrinobrunnea comb. nov. and A. sparrei respectively. They could be differentiated morphologically based on dimension, features of the epicutis, annulus, stipe, hymenophoral trama and flavor and characteristics in culture. Furthermore there was no evidence of host preference for the species recognized. This is the first study integrating the phylogeny and morphology of Armillaria species from Patagonia, and it provides a foundation for future research on these fungi in South America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/09-105DOI Listing
May 2010

Perenniporiella chaquenia sp. nov. and further notes on Perenniporiella and its relationships with Perenniporia (poriales, basidiomycota).

Mycologia 2009 Sep-Oct;101(5):657-73

IMBIV-CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Perenniporiella chaquenia sp. nov. is described from Argentina. New records of P. pendula and P. micropora are discussed. A key to Perenniporiella species is presented. Preliminary phylogenetic relationships of Perenniporiella are inferred from parsimony and Bayesian analysis of a combined set of DNA sequence data (nuclear ribosomal partial LSU and ITS). It demonstrated that Perenniporiella forms a well resolved monophyletic clade distantly related to Perenniporia s.s. It also clearly showed that within Perenniporia as usually conceived other morphologically homogeneous group of taxa, such as the P. ochroleuca or P. vicina alliances, form well resolved clades, which could be recognized as distinct genera. The differentiation of the hyphal system and the basidiospores morphology are outlined as critical features for the definition of genera in the Perenniporia complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/08-040DOI Listing
October 2009

Anatomy and cytology of Taphrina entomospora during infection of Nothofagus.

Mycol Res 2007 May 6;111(Pt 5):592-8. Epub 2007 Mar 6.

Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670. 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

Taphrina entomospora is one of the few species of the genus described on native plants of the Southern Hemisphere and also one of the few leaf pathogens known on Nothofagus species. The anatomical changes it produces on N. pumilio leaves, and its morphology, cytology, and sporogenesis were studied. The fungus is a perennial species that overwinters as mycelium in the foliar buds and infects the developing leaves, so the whole blade develops the disease symptoms. Interveinal areas of the leaves become chlorotic, thickened and rounded. Palisade parenchyma fails to develop, with spongy parenchyma developing as packed, rounded, isodiametric cells with little intercellular space. The mycelium is subcuticular, dikaryotic, and produces ascogenous hyphae, asci, and ascospores as described for other species in the genus. Before ascus discharge, ascospores bud in a regular, unique way. The life-cycle of T. entomospora is compared with other representative taxa in the genus and the distribution of this pathogen is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2007.02.010DOI Listing
May 2007

A new Gloeoporus species growing on bamboo from southern Brazil.

Mycologia 2006 Sep-Oct;98(5):821-7

Departamento FUE, CE, UFSM, Campus, CEP 97110 050, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.

Gloeoporus guerreroanus sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens collected on bamboo in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The new taxon presents hymenium continuum along the tubular internal surface and dissepiments and represents an addition into the relatively small, poroid-merulioid genus Gloeoporus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.98.5.821DOI Listing
March 2007

Phytophthora species from declining Austrocedrus chilensis forests in Patagonia, Argentina.

Mycologia 2005 Jan-Feb;97(1):218-28

Protección Forestal, Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico Esquel, Chubut, Argentina.

A survey of Phytophthora spp. in declining and healthy Austrocedrus chilensis forest was conducted to obtain an overview of the species that inhabit these forests. Seventeen declining and three healthy stands plus 11 associated streams were surveyed. Five Phytophthora species were recovered. P. syringae was the most common species isolated from soil and/or streams at nine declining sites and one healthy site. P. gonapodyides was isolated from streams only, at five declining sites. P. cambivora was isolated from soil and the undescribed taxa 'P. taxon Pgchlamydo' and 22 'P taxon Raspberry' were isolated from streams at one declining site each. The species were identified by ITS rDNA sequences and morphological features. Brief descriptions of each species and a discussion of their possible relationship with "mal del ciprés" are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.97.1.218DOI Listing
February 2006

Parenthesome structure of some corticioid fungi.

Mycol Res 2005 Aug;109(Pt 8):923-6

Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The parenthesome structure of seven corticioid species, traditionally referred to the family Corticiaceae (Basidiomycota), were studied in order to better understand their taxonomic position: Phanerochaete velutina, Phlebia radiata, P. rufa, Rhizochaete americana (syn. Ceraceomyces americana), R. brunnea, R. filamentosa (syn. Phanerochaete filamentosa) and R. radicata (syn. Phanerochaete radicata). All possessed the perforate type of parenthesome that is commonly encountered in homobasidiomycetes. This feature excludes the above taxa from both the hymenochaetoid and the cantharelloid clades which are the only groups that have imperforate parenthesomes in the homobasidiomycetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0953756205003333DOI Listing
August 2005

Rhizochaete, a new genus of phanerochaetoid fungi.

Mycologia 2004 Mar-Apr;96(2):260-71

Centro de Investigación y Extensión Forestal Andino Patagónico (CIEFAP), C.C. 14, 9200 Esquel, Chubut, Argentina.

A new basidiomycete genus, Rhizochaete (Phanerochaetaceae, Polyporales), is described. Rhizochaete is characterized by a smooth to tuberculate, pellicular hymenophore and hyphal cords that turn red or violet in potassium hydroxide, monomitic hyphal system of simple or nodose septate hyphae, cystidia, and small, cylindrical to subglobose basidiospores. It morphologically is most similar to Phanerochaete. Analyses of nuclear ribosomal and internal-transcribed spacer region sequence data support a close relationship between Rhizochaete and Phanerochaete. The new taxon R. brunnea, from southern Argentina, is described and illustrated. In addition, the new combinations R. americana, R. borneensis, R. filamentosa, R. fouquieriae and R. radicata are proposed. A key to the species of Rhizochaete is provided.
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October 2012

Presence of Pleurotus ostreatus in Patagonia, Argentina.

Rev Iberoam Micol 2002 Jun;19(2):111-4

PRHIDEB-CONICET, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Specimens belonging to the genus Pleurotus were collected growing on fallen trunks of Araucaria araucana, a native tree with a poorly known mycoflora, which grows in Patagonia, Argentina. Fruitbodies were produced in culture on sawdust from an isolated strain. Interspecific pairing tests performed between mating types of Pleurotus from Patagonia and tester strains of P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus showed the Patagonia strain to be 100% compatible with P. ostreatus and incompatible with P. pulmonarius. Dikaryons obtained on sawdust were fertile, since they were able to produce fruitbodies and viable spores. This is the first documented record of P. ostreatus from Argentina and the first gilled fungus found growing on Araucaria araucana.
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June 2002

New species causing decay on living Polylepis australis in Cordoba, central Argentina.

Mycologia 2003 Mar-Apr;95(2):347-53

Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, C.C. 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina.

Two new species of poroid Hymenochaetaceae (Aphyllophorales, Basidiomycota) are described and illustrated. They were causing decay on living and standing dead Polylepis australis ("tabaquillo" or "queñoa") in the Córdoba Mountains in central Argentina. Inonotus serranus is characterized by a biannual basidiocarp, with a dark line separating tomentum from context; ellipsoid to ovoid, thick walled, colored spores; and the absence of setae. Phellinus uncisetus is characterized by uncinate setae with ventricose uniradicate base and well-differentiated apical portion; a basidiocarp attached by a narrow area to the substrate; ventricose, hyaline cistidioles; and by subglobose, hyaline spores, with very thick walls. The identity of Phellinus setulosus is discussed.
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October 2012