Publications by authors named "Mario D"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Academic performance and use of psychoactive drugs among healthcare students at a university in southern Brazil: cross-sectional study.

Sao Paulo Med J 2020 Jan-Feb;138(1):27-32

PhD. Professor, School of Dentistry, Postgraduate Program on Dentistry, Faculdade Meridional (IMED), Passo Fundo (RS), Brazil.

Background: People have been using psychoactive substances for a long time. Over the last few years, this practice has spread among university students, who use these substances to improve their academic performance, relieve stress and increase concentration and memory.

Objectives: To estimate the use of psychoactive drugs among healthcare students at a higher education institution in the city of Passo Fundo (RS), Brazil, and to ascertain the associated demographic and lifestyle factors.

Design And Setting: Cross-sectional study in a higher education institution.

Methods: We included 287 undergraduate medicine and dentistry students in this study. They answered a self-administered questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables. The statistical analysis used univariate and bivariate analyses with Pearson's chi-square test (P-value < 0.05). -Multivariate analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The SPSS software, version 20.0, was used.

Results: The prevalence of use of psychoactive substances among the students was 24.7%. Among these students, high frequencies of psychoactive drugs had been prescribed by physicians (95.8%) and for the purpose of relaxation or stress relief (73.2%). Women, medical students (compared with dental students) and participants with lower academic performance were more likely to use psychoactive drugs. After the multivariate adjustment, the "course" and "academic performance" remained associated with use of psychoactive drugs.

Conclusion: There was high prevalence of psychoactive drug use among the students at the higher education institution investigated. Some variables (female sex, medical students and low academic performance) were associated with the outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-3180.2019.0182.R1.21102019DOI Listing
July 2020

Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for early oral cavity cancer (pT1-2,N0-1): A review.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2019 Nov 31;143:67-75. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Radiotherapy 1 and 2 Units, Fondazione IRCCS, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Early stage (T1-2, N0-1) oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a generally favorable prognostic outcome. However, locoregional recurrences can occur in up to 30-35% of patients, and 20% will eventually die of disease. National and international treatment guidelines do not recommend the use of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in a setting of early OSCC, and highlight surgery alone as the standard single modality treatment. Notwithstanding, the negative prognostic impact of some adverse pathological features, such as perineural and lymphovascular invasion, poor differentiation, depth of invasion >4 mm, and presence of nodal metastasis, is well known. The advantages of PORT in such scenarios are still debated. The aim of this study was to review the more recent literature to provide evidence on the benefits of PORT in the context of early stage OSCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.08.003DOI Listing
November 2019

Quality of Prenatal Care in Brazil: National Health Research 2013.

Cien Saude Colet 2019 Mar;24(3):1223-1232

Curso de Medicina, Escola de Saúde, Faculdade Meridional IMED. R. Senador Pinheiro, Vila Rodrigues. 99070-220 Passo Fundo RS Brasil.

This study aimed to assess the adequacy of prenatal care in Brazil associated with sociodemographic determinants. The study included a data analysis from the National Health Research performed in Brazil in 2013. Two outcomes on the adequacy of prenatal care were assessed: the Kessner index modified by Takeda index that, in addition to the former, assessed whether blood pressure and weight were measured in all appointments, as well as the performance of blood and urine tests and ultrasound. Both quality indicators were assessed for Brazil and for its macro-regions. According to Outcome 1, 80.6% of women received adequate prenatal care. When adding the performance of tests (Outcome 2), the rate dropped to 71.4%. Adequate prenatal care was more frequent among white women who performed prenatal care in the private health sector. The northern region had the lowest rate of adequate prenatal care, while the southeast region showed the highest rates. Despite the extensive coverage, prenatal care in Brazil still presents inequities and low service quality, especially for women from the poorest regions of the country.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018243.13122017DOI Listing
March 2019

Presence of Candida spp. and candidiasis in liver transplant patients.

An Bras Dermatol 2018 06;93(3):356-361

Department of Clinical and Surgical Nursing, Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity caused by fungi of the genus Candida and usually associated with immunosuppressed individuals.

Objectives: To evaluate the presence of oral candidiasis and identify the presence of Candida spp. in liver transplant recipients and assess the association between the presence of the fungus and sociodemographic variables, dietary habits and environmental exposure.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 49 patients who had undergone liver transplants at Hospital São Vicente de Paulo in Passo Fundo - RS. Patient information was collected to obtain sociodemographic data, eating habits and environmental exposure. Fungal infections were screened by oral clinical examination and the presence of Candida spp by the collection of oral samples with a sterile swab, seeded in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, incubated at 25°C and observed at 48 hours. To identify Candida albicans, the germ tube test was performed.

Results: In 49 patient samples, 39% had the yeast of the genus Candida isolated and, of these patients, 12% had candidiasis, 66% of atrophic type and 34% pseudomembranous. Eleven yeast species were (58%) Candida non-albicans and eight (42%) Candida albicans.

Study Limitations: The present study presents as a limitation the inclusion of patients in different stages of immunosuppression.

Conclusion: The high incidence of Candida non-albicans in the oral cavity of transplant patients with a long period of transplantation is warning to a more effective control of the health of these individuals, especially those with older age.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20186533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001082PMC
June 2018

Sporothrix brasiliensis produces the highest levels of oxidative stress in a murine model among the species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Jul-Aug;50(4):554-557

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.

Introduction:: We compared indicators of oxidative stress in the tissue of mice infected with strains from Sporothrix schenckii complex.

Methods:: Mice were inoculated with Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana or Sporothrix albicans. The activity of catalase and glutathione were accessed in the liver and spleen.

Results:: Animals infected with S. brasiliensis exhibited splenomegaly and significant decrease in catalase activity, and protein and non-protein thiol content compared to animals infected with the other species.

Conclusions:: Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibits higher pathogenicity compared to other species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by increasing oxidative stress in animal tissue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0171-2016DOI Listing
November 2017

Activity of Combined Antifungal Agents Against Multidrug-Resistant Candida glabrata Strains.

Mycopathologia 2017 Oct 10;182(9-10):819-828. Epub 2017 May 10.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus UFSM, Prédio 20, sala 4139, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of echinocandins, azoles, and amphotericin B alone and in combination against echinocandin/azole-sensitive and echinocandin/azole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates. Susceptibility tests were performed using the broth microdilution method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M27-A3. The checkerboard method was used to evaluate the fractional inhibitory concentration index of the interactions. Cross-resistance was observed among echinocandins; 15% of the isolates resistant to caspofungin were also resistant to anidulafungin and micafungin. Synergistic activity was observed in 70% of resistant C. glabrata when anidulafungin was combined with voriconazole or posaconazole. Higher (85%) synergism was found in the combination of caspofungin and voriconazole. The combinations of caspofungin with fluconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, micafungin with fluconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole, and anidulafungin with amphotericin B showed indifferent activities for the majority of the isolates. Anidulafungin combined with fluconazole showed the same percentage of synergism and indifference (45%). Antagonism was detected in 50% of isolates when micafungin was combined with amphotericin B. Combinations of echinocandins and antifungal azoles have great potential for in vivo assays which are required to evaluate the efficacy of these combinations against multidrug-resistant C. glabrata strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-017-0141-9DOI Listing
October 2017

Effect of photoactivation on the reduction of composite resin contamination.

Eur J Oral Sci 2017 06 24;125(3):223-226. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

School of Dentistry, IMED - Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Composite resins are predominantly marketed in developing countries in tube form, and the contents of the tube may be used in numerous procedures for different patients. This represents a problem because of the risk of cross-contamination. This study aimed to evaluate contamination in vitro of the internal contents of composite resin tubes in the dental clinics of a higher-education institution, as well as the effect of photoactivation on the level of contamination. Twenty-five tubes containing composite resin were randomly chosen (by lottery). From each tube, two samples of approximately 2 mm of composite resin were removed, and then one sample, but not the other, was photoactivated. These samples were plated on Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI), Sabouraud and MacConkey agars, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h. Colony counting and Gram staining were performed for subsequent microscopic identification of fungi and bacteria. The non-photoactivated composite resin group presented significantly higher microbial contamination in relation to the photoactivated composite resin group. The photoactivation of camphorquinone present in composite resin produces reactive oxygen species, which might promote cell death of contaminant microorganisms. Thus, although the same tube of composite resin may be used for a number of different patients in the dental clinics of developing countries, the photoactivation process potentially reduces the risk of cross-contamination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eos.12345DOI Listing
June 2017

Sporothrix schenckii COMPLEX:SUSCEPTIBILITIES TO COMBINED ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENZYMATIC PROFILES.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2015 Jul-Aug;57(4):289-94

Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, BR.

Sporothrix schenckii was reclassified as a complex encompassing six cryptic species, which calls for the reassessment of clinical and epidemiological data of these new species. We evaluated the susceptibility of Sporothrix albicans(n = 1) , S. brasiliensis(n = 6) , S. globosa(n = 1), S. mexicana(n = 1) and S. schenckii(n = 36) to terbinafine (TRB) alone and in combination with itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), and voriconazole (VRZ) by a checkerboard microdilution method and determined the enzymatic profile of these species with the API-ZYM kit. Most interactions were additive (27.5%, 32.5% and 5%) or indifferent (70%, 50% and 52.5%) for TRB+KTZ, TRB+ITZ and TRB+VRZ, respectively. Antagonisms were observed in 42.5% of isolates for the TRB+VRZ combination. Based on enzymatic profiling, the Sporothrix schenckii strains were categorized into 14 biotypes. Leucine arylamidase (LA) activity was observed only for S. albicans and S. mexicana. The species S. globosa and S. Mexicana were the only species without β-glucosidase (GS) activity. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of virulence and resistance among species of the genus Sporothrix in further studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0036-46652015000400003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616912PMC
May 2016

In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from condiments against fluconazole-resistant and -sensitive Candida glabrata.

J Mycol Med 2015 Sep 14;25(3):213-7. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

In the present study, the antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Salvia officinalis (sage), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Ocimum basilicum (basil) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) were assessed against Candida glabrata isolates. One group contained 30 fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata isolates, and the second group contained fluconazole-resistant isolates derived from the first group after the in vitro induction of fluconazole-resistance, for a total of 60 tested isolates. The broth microdilution methodology was used. Concentrations of 50μg/mL, 100μg/mL, 200μg/mL, 400μg/mL, 800μg/mL, 1600μg/mL and 3200μg/mL of the essential oils were used, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined. Thyme, sage, rosemary, basil and ginger essential oils showed no antifungal activity at the tested concentrations. Antimicrobial activity less than or equal to 3200μg/mL was observed for oregano, Mexican oregano and cinnamon essential oils. Both the oregano and Mexican oregano essential oils showed high levels of antifungal activity against the fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata group, whereas the cinnamon essential oil showed the best antifungal activity against the fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2015.06.003DOI Listing
September 2015

Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates.

Braz J Microbiol 2015 Mar 31;46(1):125-9. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.

In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506) and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole) against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%), followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%), against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata , a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%), itraconazole (73%), voriconazole (63%) and fluconazole (60%). The synergisms that we observed in vitro , notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-838246120120442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4512076PMC
March 2015

Interference of melanin in the susceptibility profile of Sporothrix species to amphotericin B.

Rev Iberoam Micol 2016 Jan-Mar;33(1):21-5. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: The presence of melanin in the fungal cell is a major virulence factor of the genus Sporothrix since it protects the fungal cells against the defense systems.

Aims: The present study aimed to investigate the interference of melanin in the susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto to amphotericin B and itraconazole, drugs recommended as therapy for disseminated and subcutaneous sporotrichosis, respectively.

Methods: Yeast cells were cultivated in minimal medium with or without l-DOPA in order to induce the production of melanin. Microdilution and killing assay methods were used to determine the antifungal activity against yeast cells with different amounts of melanin.

Results: The killing assay showed that melanization protected isolates within the S. schenckii complex from amphotericin B, particularly in the lower concentrations tested.

Conclusions: Studies combining amphotericin B and inhibitors of melanin are required in order to avoid this effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.riam.2015.03.001DOI Listing
December 2016

In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Amphotericin B Combined with Posaconazole against Experimental Disseminated Sporotrichosis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Aug 26;59(8):5018-21. Epub 2015 May 26.

Microbiology Unit, Medical School, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, IISPV, Reus, Spain

We evaluated the combination of posaconazole with amphotericin B in vitro and in a murine model of systemic infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto. In vitro data demonstrated a synergistic effect, and although posaconazole alone was effective against sporotrichosis, efficacy in terms of survival and burden reduction was increased with the combination. This combination might be an option against disseminated sporotrichosis, especially when itraconazole or amphotericin B at optimal doses are contraindicated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00052-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4505257PMC
August 2015

Scutia buxifolia Reissek essential oil: in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2014 Sep;86(3):1463-9

Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.

The volatile oil from the stem bark of Scutia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-one components were identified representing 99.93 % of the total oil composition, spathulenol (35.87%), β-cubebene (17.26%), germacrene D (6.43%), linalool (5.19%), carvacrol (4.05%) were the main components of S. buxifolia essential oil. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil were evaluated by free radical scavenging (DPPH) assay and micro broth dilution method, respectively. S. buxifolia essential oil presented interesting radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 15.03 ± 0.11 µg/mL). The antibacterial assay showed that S. buxifolia stem bark essential oil was moderately active against the Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus sp. (MIC = 500 µg/mL) and Escherichia coli (250 µg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the S. buxifolia collected from Brazil.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201420120034DOI Listing
September 2014

Antifungal activities of diphenyl diselenide alone and in combination with fluconazole or amphotericin B against Candida glabrata.

Mycopathologia 2013 Aug 23;176(1-2):165-9. Epub 2013 Jun 23.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus UFSM, Prédio 20, sala 4139, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brazil.

Here, we evaluated combinations of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] with fluconazole and amphotericin B in a checkerboard assay against clinical Candida glabrata strains. Minimal inhibitory concentration (geometric mean) ranged from 0.25 to >64 (5.16 μg/mL) for (PhSe)2, 1 to 32 (5.04 μg/mL) for fluconazole and 0.06 to 0.5 (0.18 μg/mL) for amphotericin B. Synergistic (76.66 %) and indifferent (23.34 %) interactions were observed for (PhSe)2 + amphotericin B combination. (PhSe)2 + fluconazole combination demonstrated indifferent (50 %) and antagonistic (40 %) interactions, whereas synergistic interactions were observed in 10 % of the isolates. New experimental in vivo protocols are necessary and will promote a better understanding of the antimicrobial activity of (PhSe)2 against C. glabrata and its use as an adjuvant therapy with antifungal agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-013-9672-xDOI Listing
August 2013

[Susceptibility of Candida albicans blood isolates to 3 antifungal drugs: retrospective study in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1999-2009].

Rev Iberoam Micol 2013 Oct-Dec;30(4):243-7. Epub 2013 Mar 14.

Programa de Postgrado en Ciencias Pneumológicas, Universidad Federal de Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre/Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Electronic address:

Background: Candidiasis is one of the most important among recurrent invasive yeast infections in patients, thus antifungal treatment becomes a challenge.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of clinical Candida albicans isolates from blood cultures to fluconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin, in a hospital from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Methods: The susceptibility of 153 isolates to the 3 drugs mentioned was tested according to Clinical and Laboratory Standars Institute. Minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC, MFC, respectively) of each drug were determined, as well as the epidemiological cutoff value (ECV).

Results: All of the isolates were susceptible to anidulafungin, MIC and MFC ≤ 1 μg/ml; however, when compared with ECV, 3% of the isolates exhibited higher values against fluconazole, 96% were susceptible, 3% susceptible dose-dependent, and 1% resistant. Also, it was observed that 21% of the isolates exhibited higher values than ECV. One isolate was resistant to amphotericin B; the other ones, susceptible, based on the MFC; furthermore, 1.5% of the isolates exhibited higher values.

Conclusions: C. albicans isolates exhibited more susceptibility to anidulafungin, and 90% of them (MIC90) exhibited the lowest values against amphotericin B. Based on ECV and Pfaller classification, isolates could be resistant to fluconazole, demonstrating the importance of the combination of these parameters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.riam.2013.02.003DOI Listing
August 2014

A simple, rapid and inexpensive screening method for the identification of Pythium insidiosum.

J Microbiol Methods 2013 Apr 16;93(1):52-4. Epub 2013 Feb 16.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Av. Roraima no. 1000, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Growth of Pythium insidiosum mycelia around minocycline disks (30μg) did not occur within 7days of incubation at 35°C when the isolates were grown on Sabouraud, corn meal, Muller-Hinton or RPMI agar. This technique offers a simple and rapid method for the differentiation of P. insidiosum from true filamentous fungi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2013.02.002DOI Listing
April 2013

Effects of antifungal agents alone and in combination against Candida glabrata strains susceptible or resistant to fluconazole.

Mycopathologia 2012 Sep 22;174(3):215-21. Epub 2012 Apr 22.

Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

The rise of Candida spp. resistant to classic triazole antifungal agents has led to a search for new therapeutic options. Here, we evaluated combinations of antifungals in a checkerboard assay against two groups of Candida glabrata strains: one containing fluconazole-susceptible clinical isolates (FS) and another containing fluconazole-resistant laboratory derivative (FR). The most synergistic combination observed was amphotericin B + flucytosine (synergistic for 61.77 % of FS strains and 76.47 % of FR strains). The most antagonistic combination observed was ketoconazole + flucytosine (FS 61.77 % and FR 55.88 %). Surprisingly, most combinations evidenced indifferent interactions, and the best synergism appeared when amphotericin B and flucytosine were combined against both groups of isolates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-012-9538-7DOI Listing
September 2012

The activity of echinocandins, amphotericin B and voriconazole against fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Brazilian Candida glabrata isolates.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2012 May;107(3):433-6

Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.

The extensive use of azole antifungal agents has promoted the resistance of Candida spp to these drugs. Candida glabrata is a problematic yeast because it presents a high degree of primary or secondary resistance to fluconazole. In Brazil, C. glabrata has been less studied than other species. In this paper, we compared the activity of three major classes of antifungal agents (azoles, echinocandins and polyenes) against fluconazole-susceptible (FS) and fluconazole-resistant (FR) C. glabrata strains. Cross-resistance between fluconazole and voriconazole was remarkable. Among the antifungal agents, the echinocandins were the most effective against FS and FR C. glabrata and micafungin showed the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762012000300022DOI Listing
May 2012

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate reduces the mortality in Candida albicans bloodstream infection and prevents the septic-induced platelet decrease.

Inflammation 2012 Aug;35(4):1256-61

Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica, Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Franciscano, UNIFRA, Rua dos Andradas 1614, sala 115, 97010-032, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Due to the fact that an increased number of patients have experienced bloodstream infections caused by Candida species and the high mortality of this infection, there is a need for a strategy to reduce this scenery. One possible strategy is the use of new drugs, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), which is a high-energy glycolytic metabolite and has shown to have therapeutic effects in several pathological conditions such as ischemia, shock, toxic injuries, and bacterial sepsis. The aim of this manuscript was to determine the role of FBP in experimental Candida albicans bloodstream infection. We used mice that were divided into three experimental groups: sham (not induced), bloodstream infection (induced with intratracheal instillation of C. albicans) and FBP (bloodstream infection plus FBP 500 mg/kg i.p.). Blood was taken for assessment of complete hematological profile and cytokine assay (IL-6 and MCP-1). Results of the study demonstrated that mortality decreased significantly in groups that received FBP. All cytokine and hematological indexes of FBP group were similar to bloodstream infection group with exception of platelets count. FBP significantly prevented the decrease in platelets. Taken together, our results demonstrate that FBP prevented the mortality in C. albicans bloodstream infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-012-9436-7DOI Listing
August 2012

In vitro activities of antifungal agents alone and in combination against fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant strains of Candida dubliniensis.

Braz J Infect Dis 2012 Jan-Feb;16(1):78-81

Postgraduate Course in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

In the present study we used two groups of Candida dubliniensis strains: one containing fluconazole-susceptible clinical isolates and another containing fluconazole-resistant laboratory derivative from the former to examine the changes on susceptibility accompanying the development of resistance to fluconazole. Our findings confirmed the ability of C. dubliniensis isolates to become resistant to fluconazole and indicated that this resistance was crossed with ketoconazole, itraconazole, ravuconazole and terbinafine. We also tested combinations of terbinafine, amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole against both groups of isolates in a checkerboard assay. Surprisingly, most combinations evidenced indifferent interactions, and the best synergism appeared when terbinafine and itraconazole were combined against the fluconazole-resistant group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1413-8670(12)70279-9DOI Listing
September 2012

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate protects against Zymosan-induced acute lung injury in mice.

Inflammation 2012 Jun;35(3):1198-203

Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica, Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Franciscano, UNIFRA, Rua dos Andradas 1614, Sala 115, 97010-032 Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

It has been previously showed that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on several experimental inflammation models. However, the effects and mechanism of FBP on Zymosan-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice had not been tested. In this study, our aim was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of FBP on Zymosan-induced ALI. We found that in vivo treatment with FBP (500 mg/kg i.p.) markedly decreased the nitric oxide (NO) levels in the lungs and significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total cell and neutrophil counts and protein exudation after Zymosan challenge. Furthermore, FBP inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities in RAW macrophages. Meanwhile, FBP did not inhibit the cyclooxigenase 2, interleukin-6, and nuclear factor kappa B transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBP shows anti-inflammatory effects through inhibiting lung edema, NO, and iNOS activities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-012-9429-6DOI Listing
June 2012

In vitro antifungal evaluation and structure-activity relationship of diphenyl diselenide and synthetic analogues.

Mycoses 2011 Sep 25;54(5):e572-6. Epub 2011 May 25.

Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

We report on in vitro antifungal activity and the structure-activity relationship of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)(2) ] and its synthetic analogues, (p-Cl-C(6) H(4) Se)(2), (m-CF(3)-C(6) H(4)Se)(2) and (p-CH(3)O-C(6) H(4)Se)(2), against 116 strains of pathogenic fungi. (PhSe)(2) showed the highest inhibitory activity against Candida albicans (minimum inhibitory concentration of 4-32 μg ml(-1) ), Candida dubliniensis (2-16 μg ml(-1)), Aspergillus spp. (0.5-64 μg ml(-1)) and Fusarium spp. (2-16 μg ml(-1)). Its minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied among C. albicans (4-64 μg ml(-1)), C. dubliniensis (2-32 μg ml(-1) ) and Fusarium spp. (4-64 μg ml(-1)). Antifungal activity was decreased by the introduction of functional groups to the (PhSe)(2) molecule: (PhSe)(2) >(p-CH(3)O-C(6)H(4) Se)(2) >(m-CF(3)-C(6)H(4)Se)(2) >(p-Cl-C(6) H(4)Se)(2).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2010.01994.xDOI Listing
September 2011

In vitro susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011 Jul 2;55(7):3588-90. Epub 2011 May 2.

Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

We describe the in vitro activity of macrolides and tetracycline antibiotics against Pythium insidiosum. The MICs were determined according to CLSI procedures (visual MIC) and by a colorimetric method [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. The lowest geometric mean (GM) MIC (MICs in μg/ml) (0.39 and 0.7 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively) and MIC ranges (0.125 to 2.0) were obtained for minocycline, while the highest MICs were shown for erythromycin (GM of 7.58 and 12.25 by visual reading and colorimetric method, respectively, and MIC ranged from 2 to 32). This significant in vitro activity makes these classes of antibiotics good candidates for experimental treatment of pythiosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01586-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3122472PMC
July 2011

Differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans with the use of killer toxins.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2010 May-Jun;52(3):161-2

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to report the ability of killer toxins, previously used as biotyping techniques, as a new tool to differentiate C. albicans from C. dubliniensis. The susceptibility of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis to killer toxins ranged from 33.9 to 93.3% and from 6.67 to 93.3%, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0036-46652010000300009DOI Listing
October 2010

Candida dubliniensis does not show phospholipase activity: true or false?

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2010 Mar-Apr;43(2):205-6

Pharmaceutical Sciences Post-Graduate Program, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS.

Introduction: The phospholipase activity in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolated from oral candidiasis cases were studied.

Methods: The phospholipase activity was evaluated in egg yolk agar.

Results: All the C. albicans isolates (n = 48) showed phospholipase activity (mean Pz = 0.66). However, none of the C. dubliniensis isolates (n = 24) showed this activity.

Conclusions: The authors discuss whether these findings are a true characteristic of C. dubliniensis or a consequence of the methodology employed, which includes the possibility that NaCl may have inhibited the enzymatic activity of C. dubliniensis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0037-86822010000200020DOI Listing
August 2010

In vitro interactions between amphotericin B and other antifungal agents and rifampin against Fusarium spp.

Mycoses 2011 Mar;54(2):131-6

Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Fusarium species are common hyaline soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that are opportunistic fungal pathogens of immunocompromised patients. The treatment for fusariosis remains uncertain with an unfavourable prognosis; new possibilities for treatment, such as various synergistic drug interactions, must be uncovered. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro interactions of amphotericin B with caspofungin, ketoconazole, 5-flucytosine, itraconazole, miconazole, rifampin, fluconazole, terbinafine and voriconazole against isolates of Fusarium spp. using the chequerboard method with interactions evaluated by fractional inhibitory concentration indices. The highest percentages of synergistic interactions were observed for the combinations of amphotericin B and caspofungin (68.7%), amphotericin B and rifampin (68.7%), amphotericin B plus 5-flucytosine (59.3%) and amphotericin B with voriconazole (37.5%). The pattern of susceptibility to antifungal agents among Fusarium species and their consequence on the effects of drug combinations are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2009.01773.xDOI Listing
March 2011
-->