Publications by authors named "Marinus de Kleuver"

61 Publications

The Scoliosis Research Society adult spinal deformity standard outcome set.

Spine Deform 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Norton Leatherman Spine Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Purpose: Symptomatic adult spinal deformity (ASD) with an extremely variable presentation with pain, with and without neurogenic leg pain, and/or disturbed sagittal and coronal balance, causes a significant societal burden of disease. It is an important consequence of the aging adult population, generating a plethora of spine-related interventions with variable treatment efficacy and consistently high costs. Recent years have witnessed more than a threefold increase in the prevalence and treatment of ASD, and further increases over the coming decades are expected with the growing elderly population worldwide. The ability to monitor and assess clinical outcomes has not kept pace with these developments. This paper addresses the pressing need to provide a set of common outcome metrics for this growing group of patients with back pain and other disabilities due to an adult spinal deformity.

Methods: The standard outcome set was created by a panel with global representation, using a thorough modified Delphi procedure. The three-tiered outcome hierarchy (Porter) was used as a framework to capture full cycle of care. The standardized language of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF) was used.

Results: Consensus was reached on a core set of 25 WHO-ICF outcome domains ('What to measure'); on the accompanying globally available clinician and patient reported measurement instruments and definitions ('How to measure'), and on the timing of the measurements ('When to measure'). The current work has brought to light domains not routinely reported in the spinal literature (such as pulmonary function, return to work, social participation), and domains for which no adequate instruments have yet been identified (such as how to clinically quantify in routine practice lumbar spinal stenosis, neurogenic claudication, radicular pain, and loss of lower extremity motor function).

Conclusion: A standard outcome set was developed for patients undergoing treatment for adult spinal deformity using globally available outcome metrics. The current framework can be considered a reference for further work, and may provide a starting point for routine methodical and systematic monitoring of outcomes. Post-COVID e-health may accelerate the routine capture of these types of data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00334-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Toward the Development of a Comprehensive Clinically Oriented Patient Profile: A Systematic Review of the Purpose, Characteristic, and Methodological Quality of Classification Systems of Adult Spinal Deformity.

Neurosurgery 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Existing adult spinal deformity (ASD) classification systems are based on radiological parameters but management of ASD patients requires a holistic approach. A comprehensive clinically oriented patient profile and classification of ASD that can guide decision-making and correlate with patient outcomes is lacking.

Objective: To perform a systematic review to determine the purpose, characteristic, and methodological quality of classification systems currently used in ASD.

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science for literature published between January 2000 and October 2018. From the included studies, list of classification systems, their methodological measurement properties, and correlation with treatment outcomes were analyzed.

Results: Out of 4470 screened references, 163 were included, and 54 different classification systems for ASD were identified. The most commonly used was the Scoliosis Research Society-Schwab classification system. A total of 35 classifications were based on radiological parameters, and no correlation was found between any classification system levels with patient-related outcomes. Limited evidence of limited quality was available on methodological quality of the classification systems. For studies that reported the data, intraobserver and interobserver reliability were good (kappa = 0.8).

Conclusion: This systematic literature search revealed that current classification systems in clinical use neither include a comprehensive set of dimensions relevant to decision-making nor did they correlate with outcomes. A classification system comprising a core set of patient-related, radiological, and etiological characteristics relevant to the management of ASD is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyab023DOI Listing
February 2021

No added value of 2-year radiographic follow-up of fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Eur Spine J 2021 Mar 3;30(3):759-767. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Orthopedics, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: For fusion surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) consensus exists that a 2-year radiographic follow-up assessment is needed. This standard lacks empirical evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the radiographic follow-up after corrective surgery in AIS, from pre-until 2 years postoperative.

Methods: In this historical cohort study, 63 patients surgically treated for AIS, age ≤ 25 years, with 2-year radiographic follow-up, were enrolled. The primary outcome measure was the major Cobb angle. Secondary outcomes were coronal and sagittal spino-pelvic parameters, including proximal junction kyphosis (PJK) and distal adding-on. Change over time was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA.

Results: The major curve Cobb angle showed a statistically significant change for pre- to 1 year postoperative, but not for 1- to 2-year follow-up. Seven out of 63 patients did show a change exceeding the error of measurement (5°) from 1- to 2-year follow-up (range -8° to +7°), of whom 2 patients showed curve progression and 5 showed improvement. PJK or distal adding-on was not observed.

Conclusions: No statistically significant changes in major curve Cobb angle were found during postsurgical follow-up, or in adjacent non-fused segments. The findings of this study are not supportive for routine radiographs 2 years after fusion surgery in AIS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-020-06696-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Intraoperative neuromonitoring practice patterns in spinal deformity surgery: a global survey of the Scoliosis Research Society.

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 23;9(2):315-325. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: Although multimodal IONM has reached a widespread use, several unresolved issues have remained in clinical practice. The aim was to determine differences in approaches to form a basis for taking actions to improve patient safety globally.

Methods: A survey comprising 19 questions in four sections (demographics, setup, routine practices and reaction to alerts) was distributed to the membership of the SRS.

Results: Of the estimated 1300 members, 205 (~ 15%) completed the survey. Respondent demographics reflected SRS member distribution. Most of the respondents had > 10 years of experience. TcMEP and SSEP were available to > 95%. Less than 5% reported that a MD/PhD with neurophysiology background routinely examines patients preoperatively, while 19% would consult if requested. After an uneventful case, 36% reported that they would decrease sedation and check motor function if the patient was to be transferred to ICU intubated. Reactions to dropped signals that recovered or did not fully recover varied between attempting the same correction to aborting the surgery with no rods and returning another day, with or without implant removal. After a decrease of signals, 85.7% use steroids of varied doses. Of the respondents, 53.7% reported using the consensus-created checklist by Vitale et al. Approximately, 14% reported never using the wake-up test while others use it for various conditions.

Conclusion: The responses of 205 experienced SRS members from different regions of the world showed that surgeons had different approaches in their routine IONM practices and in the handling of alerts. This survey indicates the need for additional studies to identify best practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00246-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Pulmonary function in patients with spinal deformity: have we been ignorant?

Acta Orthop 2020 10 3;91(5):503-505. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Orthopedics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453674.2020.1786267DOI Listing
October 2020

Neurophysiological monitoring of spinal cord function during spinal deformity surgery: 2020 SRS neuromonitoring information statement.

Spine Deform 2020 08 25;8(4):591-596. Epub 2020 May 25.

Radboud University Medical Center, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The Scoliosis Research Society has developed an updated information statement on intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring of spinal cord function during spinal deformity surgery. The statement reviews the risks of spinal cord compromise associated with spinal deformity surgery; the statement then discusses the various modalities that are available to monitor the spinal cord, including somatosensory-evoked potentials, motor-evoked potentials, and electromyographic (EMG) options. Anesthesia considerations, the importance of a thoughtful team approach to successful monitoring, and the utility of checklists are also discussed. Finally, the statement expresses the opinion that utilization of intraoperative neurophysiological spinal cord monitoring in spinal deformity surgery is the standard of care when the spinal cord is at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00140-2DOI Listing
August 2020

The Natural History of Progression in Adult Spinal Deformity: A Radiographic Analysis.

Global Spine J 2020 May 1;10(3):272-279. Epub 2019 May 1.

Sint Maartenskliniek, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Study Design: Historical cohort study.

Objective: To evaluate progression in the coronal and sagittal planes in nonsurgical patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD).

Methods: A retrospective analysis of nonsurgical ASD patients between 2005 and 2017 was performed. Magnitude of the coronal and sagittal planes were compared on the day of presentation and at most recent follow-up. Previous reported prognostic factors for progression in the coronal plane, including the direction of scoliosis, curve magnitude, and the position of the intercrest line (passing through L4 or L5 vertebra), were studied.

Results: Fifty-eight patients were included with a mean follow-up of 59.8 ± 34.5 months. Progression in the coronal plane was seen in 72% of patients. Mean Cobb angle on the day of presentation and most recent follow-up was 37.2 ± 14.6° and 40.8° ± 16.5°, respectively. No significant differences were found in curve progression in left- versus right-sided scoliosis (3.3 ± 7.1 vs 3.7 ± 5.4, = .81), Cobb angle <30° versus ≥30° (2.6 ± 5.0 vs 4.3 ± 6.5, = .30), or when the intercrest line passed through L4 rather than L5 vertebra (3.4 ± 5.0° vs 3.8 ± 7.1°, = .79). No significant differences were found in the sagittal plane between presentation and most recent follow-up.

Conclusions: This is the first study that describes progression in the coronal and sagittal planes in nonsurgical patients with ASD. Previous reported prognostic factors were not confirmed as truly relevant. Although progression appears to occur, large variation exists and these results may not be directly applicable to the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568219845659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160806PMC
May 2020

[Complexity of disease; a modern view in times of ageing populations and multimorbidity].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2019 08 19;163. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Universiteit van Amsterdam, Faculteit Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica, Institute for Advanced Study, Amsterdam.

Complexity of patient care is rapidly increasing as a consequence of rising numbers of patients with complex multimorbidity. Not just the patient as a whole, but also the networks of organs, tissues and cells are forming a complex adaptive system (CAS). A CAS is defined as a network of several components ('agents') with lots of mutual feedback loops between which there are circular causalities; the predictability of a CAS is limited by definition. However, current guidelines and evidence-based medicine assume that diseases and the medical interventions to address them are predictable. Physicians' brains are complex neural networks that are much better at dealing with complex situations than guidelines. In the near future, physicians will also get help from advanced computer simulation models that make better diagnostic analyses on the basis of detailed phenotyping and are more accurate when predicting possible courses of disease and treatment outcomes.
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August 2019

Responding to Intraoperative Neuromonitoring Changes During Pediatric Coronal Spinal Deformity Surgery.

Global Spine J 2019 May 8;9(1 Suppl):15S-21S. Epub 2019 May 8.

AOSpine Knowledge Forum Deformity, Davos, Switzerland.

Study Design: Retrospective case study on prospectively collected data.

Objectives: The purpose of this explorative study was: 1) to determine if patterns of spinal cord injury could be detected through intra-operative neuromonitoring (IONM) changes in pediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity corrections, 2) to identify if perfusion based or direct trauma causes of IONM changes could be distinguished, 3) to observe the effects of the interventions performed in response to these events, and 4) to attempt to identify different treatment algorithms for the different causes of IONM alerts.

Methods: Prospectively collected neuromonitoring data in pre-established forms on consecutive pediatric patients undergoing coronal spinal deformity surgery at a single center was reviewed. Real-time data was collected on IONM alerts with >50% loss in signal. Patients with alerts were divided into 2 groups: unilateral changes (direct cord trauma), and bilateral MEP changes (cord perfusion deficits).

Results: A total of 97 pediatric patients involving 71 females and 26 males with a mean age of 14.9 (11-18) years were included in this study. There were 39 alerts in 27 patients (27.8% overall incidence). All bilateral changes responded to a combination of transfusion, increasing blood pressure, and rod removal. Unilateral changes as a result of direct trauma, mainly during laminotomies for osteotomies, improved with removal of the causative agent. Following corrective actions in response to the alerts, all cases were completed as planned. Signal returned to near baseline in 20/27 patients at closure, with no new neurological deficits in this series.

Conclusion: A high incidence of alerts occurred in this series of cases. Dividing IONM changes into perfusion-based vs direct trauma directed treatment to the offending cause, allowing for safe corrections of the deformities. Patients did not need to recover IONM signal to baseline to have a normal neurological examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568219836993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6512195PMC
May 2019

Predictive factors for brace treatment outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a best-evidence synthesis.

Eur Spine J 2019 03 3;28(3):511-525. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To evaluate predictive factors for brace treatment outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) by a systematic review of the literature.

Methods: Eligible studies evaluating one or more predictive factors for brace treatment outcome were included following a systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE on October 23, 2017. Inclusion criteria were: (1) subjects diagnosed with AIS, (2) age ≤ 18 years, (3) treated with a thoraco-lumbo-sacral orthosis (TLSO), and (4) evaluated one or more predictive factors of treatment outcome (failure and/or success). The methodological quality of included studies was independently assessed by two authors. Pooling was not possible due to heterogeneity in statistical analysis. Predictive factors were presented according to a best-evidence synthesis.

Results: The literature search identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria, and multiple types of TLSO braces were identified (Boston, Wilmington, Chêneau, Osaka Medical College, Dresdner Scoliosis Orthosis and SPoRT). A total of 19 radiographic and 8 clinical predictive factors were reported. Strong evidence was found that lack of initial in-brace correction is associated with treatment failure. Moderate evidence suggests that brace wear time is associated with failure and success, whereas initial curve magnitude and curve type are not.

Conclusion: The results of this review suggest that lack of initial in-brace correction is strongly associated with brace treatment failure. Future studies on the threshold for minimal immediate in-brace correction, as a potential indication for brace treatment, are recommended. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-018-05870-6DOI Listing
March 2019

Radiographic Axial Malalignment is Associated With Pretreatment Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis: Implementation of a Novel Radiographic Software Tool.

Spine Deform 2018 Nov - Dec;6(6):745-752

Spine Surgery Unit, Vall d'Hebron Hospital, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Study Design: Retrospective study of prospectively collected data.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between apical vertebral axial rotation and pretreatment patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL), disability, and pain in patients with adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) using a novel radiographic software tool.

Summary Of Background Data: Recent studies have demonstrated that in ADS, sagittal and coronal plane deformity are weakly to moderately associated with HRQOL, disability, and pain. However, as ADS is a three-dimensional spinal deformity, the impact of axial malalignment on HRQOL is yet to be determined.

Methods: A total of 74 ADS patients were enrolled. HRQOL measures included the Short Form-36v2 (SF-36v2) and Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire (SRS-22r). Disability and pain measures included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scale back and leg pain. Radiographic measures included Cobb angle (CA), sagittal spinopelvic parameters, lateral and anteroposterior (AP) translation of the apical vertebra. The amount of apical vertebral axial rotation was measured on digital AP radiograph images using a novel software technology. Subjects were stratified into four clinical groups based on the degree of apical vertebral axial rotation.

Results: Apical vertebral axial rotation showed no association with lateral (r = 0.21; p = .15) and AP (r = 0.08, p = .80) translation of the apical vertebra. A significant moderate association was found between apical vertebral axial rotation and Cobb angle (r = 0.57; p < .05). Patients in the group with the highest degree of apical vertebral axial rotation reported significantly worse ODI and SRS-22r Subtotal and Pain scores (p < .05), irrespective of sagittal spinopelvic parameters.

Conclusions: This is the first study that reports on the association between apical vertebral axial rotation and pretreatment HRQOL, disability, and pain in ADS. This study suggests that increased apical vertebral axial rotation is associated with suboptimal pretreatment health status scores.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2018.03.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Can patient-reported profiles avoid unnecessary referral to a spine surgeon? An observational study to further develop the Nijmegen Decision Tool for Chronic Low Back Pain.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(9):e0203518. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is a heterogeneous condition with lack of diagnostic clarity. Therapeutic interventions show small effects. To improve outcomes by targeting interventions it is recommended to develop a triage system to surgical and non-surgical treatments based on treatment outcomes. The objective of the current study was to develop and internally validate prognostic models based on pre-treatment patient-reported profiles that identify patients who either respond or do not respond to two frequently performed treatments (lumbar spine surgery and multidisciplinary pain management program).

Methods: A consecutive cohort study in a secondary referral spine center was performed. The study followed the recommendations of the PROGRESS framework and was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR5946). Data of forty-seven potential pre-consultation (baseline) indicators predicting 'response' or 'non-response' at one-year follow-up for the two treatments were obtained to develop and validate four multivariable logistic regression models. The source population consisted of 3,410 referred CLBP-patients. Two treatment cohorts were defined: elective 'spine surgery' (n = 217 [6.4%]) and multidisciplinary bio-psychosocial 'pain management program' (n = 171 [5.0%]). Main inclusion criteria were age ≥18, CLBP (≥6 months), and not responding to primary care treatment. The primary outcome was functional ability: 'response' (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] ≤22) and 'non-response' (ODI ≥41).

Results: Baseline indicators predictive of treatment outcome were: degree of disability (all models), ≥2 previous spine surgeries, psychosocial complaints, age (onset <20 or >50), and patient expectations of treatment outcomes. The explained variances were low for the models predicting response and non-response to pain management program (R2 respectively 23% and 26%) and modest for surgery (R2 30% and 39%). The overall performance was acceptable (c-index; 0.72-0.83), the model predicting non-response to surgery performed best (R2 = 39%; c-index = 0.83).

Conclusion: This study was the first to identify different patient-reported profiles that predict response to different treatments for CLBP. The model predicting 'non-response' to elective lumbar spine surgery performed remarkably well, suggesting that referrals of these patients to a spine surgeon could be avoided. After external validation, the patient-reported profiles could potentially enhance timely patient triage to the right secondary care specialist and improve decision-making between clinican and patient. This could lead to improved treatment outcomes, which results in a more efficient use of healthcare resources.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203518PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6145570PMC
February 2019

What are the risk factors for surgical site infection after spinal fusion? A meta-analysis.

Eur Spine J 2018 10 20;27(10):2469-2480. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Spine Research Laboratory, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E 71st Street, New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Purpose: Although many risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) following spinal fusion have been described in the literature, methodologies and study cohorts vary widely. Patient- and procedure-specific risk factors for (SSI) can be identified via a meta-analysis. We sought to review the existing data and isolate significant risk factors for SSI in patients undergoing thoracolumbar spinal fusion.

Methods: The literature was searched through December of 2016. Studies including adult patients undergoing thoracolumbar spinal fusion surgery (single or multilevel, anterior, posterior or combined approach) were identified. Only studies that included an odds ratio (OR) for SSI or sufficient data to calculate it were included. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1. Depending on heterogeneity (I), OR with 95% confidence intervals was calculated using either the fixed-effects model (when I < 60%) or the random-effects model (when I > 60%).

Results: 6482 manuscripts were identified and reviewed. 29 manuscripts with 374,488 patients met the criteria for inclusion. Twelve risk factors were assessed by the meta-analysis and grouped into two categories (patient related and procedure related). Significant patient-related factors for SSI included obesity, diabetes, ASA score, tobacco use and revision status. Procedure-related risk factors included operative time, use of osteotomy, fusion length and extension of fusion to the sacrum or pelvis.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis identified significant risk factors for SSI following spine arthrodesis. These included potentially modifiable factors such as obesity, diabetes, smoking status and procedure-related parameters. Non-modifiable risk factors were identified, including ASA score and age. These factors may prove useful for patient counseling as well as surgical planning.

Level Of Evidence: Level III (Meta-analysis including studies with a level of evidence of III or higher). These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-018-5733-7DOI Listing
October 2018

Posterior spinal surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not induce compensatory increases in distal adjacent segment motion: a prospective gait analysis study.

Spine J 2018 12 7;18(12):2213-2219. Epub 2018 May 7.

Sint Maartenskliniek Research, Sint Maartenskliniek, Mailbox 9011, 6500 GM, Ubbergen, The Netherlands.

Background Context: Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) perform surprisingly well after spinal correction and fusion. It was previously hypothesized that, during gait, certain mechanisms compensate for the loss in spinal motion. Still, previous studies could not identify such compensatory mechanisms in the lower body.

Purpose: This study aims to test the hypothesis of a compensatory increased motion of the distal unfused part of the spine during gait after posterior spinal correction and fusion.

Study: This is a prospective gait study.

Patients And Methods: Twelve patients with AIS were included. Sets of three VICON skin markers were used to measure the 3D motion of the proximal part of the fusion in relation to the pelvis (PFP) and the distal part of the fusion in relation to the pelvis (DFP). By doing so, PFP represents the motion of the fused and unfused parts of the spine, and DFP represents the motion of the unfused part of the spine. Measurements were performed preoperatively and 3 and 12 months after posterior spinal correction and fusion.

Results: Surgery resulted in a decrease in PFP transversal plane range of motion (ROM) (8.3° vs. 5.9°, p=.006). No compensatory increase in the ROM of DFP could be identified. Actually, DFP transversal plane ROM also decreased (8.2° vs. 5.6°, p=.019). No improvement over time was observed when comparing the 3- and 12-month postoperative measurements.

Conclusions: The hypothesis of a compensatory increase in motion of the distal unfused segments after spinal fusion for AIS is a much researched and controversial topic. This study is the first to study this hypothesis in such detail during gait and could not demonstrate such increase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2018.05.010DOI Listing
December 2018

High incidence of intraoperative calcar fractures with the cementless CLS Spotorno stem.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2018 Oct 7;28(7):1291-1296. Epub 2018 May 7.

Department of Orthopedics, Rijnstate Hospital, P.O. Box 9555, 6800 TA, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Introduction: This study reports on the incidence of intraoperative calcar fractures with the cementless Spotorno (CLS) stem, and the potential role of a learning curve and implant positioning is investigated.

Methods: After introduction of the CLS stem, 800 consecutive cementless total hip arthroplasties (THA) were analyzed. The incidence of calcar fracture in the first 400 THA was compared with the second 400 THA, in order to study a potential learning curve effect. According to the instruction for users, varus positioning of the stem was avoided and a femoral neck osteotomy was aimed relatively close to the lesser trochanter since these are assumed to be correlated with calcar fractures. Implant positioning (neck-shaft angle, femoral offset and osteotomy-lesser trochanter distance) was measured on postoperative pelvic radiographs of all THA with calcar fractures and 100 randomly selected uncomplicated control cases.

Results: Seventeen (2.1%) intraoperative calcar fractures were recorded. The incidence of calcar fracture differed between the first 400 THA (n = 11) and the second 400 THA (n = 6). This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.220); however, these numbers indicate a trend toward a learning effect. No significant difference in stem positioning nor the height of the femoral neck osteotomy was measured between THA with a calcar fracture (n = 17) and the control cases (n = 100).

Conclusions: We report on a high incidence of intraoperative calcar fractures with the use of a CLS stem. The risk for calcar fractures remains clinically significant even after adequate implant positioning in the hands of experienced hip surgeons. Surgeons should be aware of this implant related phenomenon and be alert on this phenomenon intraoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-018-2217-8DOI Listing
October 2018

Sagittal radiographic parameters demonstrate weak correlations with pretreatment patient-reported health-related quality of life measures in symptomatic de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis: a European multicenter analysis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2018 06 23;28(6):573-580. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

3Spine Surgery Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

OBJECTIVE Previous studies have demonstrated that among patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD), sagittal plane malalignment is poorly tolerated and correlates with suboptimal patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL). These studies included a broad range of radiographic abnormalities and various types of ASD. However, the clinical and radiographic characteristics of de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DNDLS), a subtype of ASD, may influence previously reported correlation strengths. The aim of this study was to correlate sagittal radiographic parameters with pretreatment HRQOL in patients with symptomatic DNDLS. METHODS In this multicenter retrospective study of prospectively collected data, 74 patients with symptomatic DNDLS were enrolled based on anteroposterior and lateral 36-inch standing radiographs. Measurements included Cobb angle, coronal imbalance, pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), thoracic kyphosis, pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), T1-pelvic angle, and global tilt. HRQOL questionnaires included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22r), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, and numeric rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain. Correlations between radiographic parameters and HRQOL were assessed. Finally, HRQOL and increasing severity of sagittal modifiers (SVA, PI-LL, and PT) were evaluated. RESULTS Weak correlations were found between SVA and ODI (r = 0.296, p < 0.05) and PT with NRS back pain and the SRS pain domain (r = -0.260, p < 0.05, and r = 0.282, p < 0.05, respectively). Other sagittal radiographic parameters did not show any significant correlation with HRQOL. No significant differences in HRQOL were found concerning the increasing severity of PT, PI-LL, and SVA. CONCLUSIONS While DNDLS is a severe disabling condition, no noteworthy association between clinical and sagittal radiographic parameters was found through this study, demonstrating that sagittal radiographic parameters should not be considered the unique predictor of pretreatment suboptimal health status in this specific group of patients. Future studies addressing classification and treatment algorithms will have to take into account the existing subgroups of ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.8.SPINE161266DOI Listing
June 2018

Functional outcome of non-surgical and surgical management for de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis: a mean follow-up of 10 years.

Scoliosis Spinal Disord 2017 5;12:35. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: No studies have evaluated the long-term results of non-surgical and surgical management in de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DNDLS). This study reports on the long-term functional outcome of patients being treated for DNDLS by non-surgical and surgical management.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of a single center database of DNDLS patients that underwent surgical or usual non-surgical management between 1996 and 2007. In a total of 88 patients, 50 (57%) underwent non-surgical and 38 (43%) surgical management. Baseline demographic, radiological-, clinical-, and surgical-related variables were collected. An Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) 2.0 questionnaire was sent to all patients after written informed consent.

Results: Twenty-nine of 88 patients participated in the study, 15 (52%) had undergone surgical and 14 (48%) non-surgical management with a mean follow-up of 10.9 years (range 8-15 years). There were no significant differences ( > 0.05) between non-surgical and surgical patients at baseline for age, body mass index, coronal Cobb angle, and clinical data. None of the non-surgical patients had undergone surgery during follow-up. In the surgical group, 40% had revision surgery. There was no significant difference in ODI total scores between groups at final follow-up ( = 0.649). A larger proportion of patients in the non-surgical group reported an ODI total score of ≤ 22, reflecting minimal disability (43 versus 20%;  = 0.245).

Conclusions: This is the first study that describes the long-term 10-year functional outcome of non-surgical and surgical management in a cohort of patients with DNDLS. No significant difference in functional outcome was found between groups after a mean follow-up of 10 years. Despite the significant potential for selection bias, these results indicate that non-surgical management of patients with DNDLS may lead to adequate functional outcome after long periods of time, with no crossover to surgery. Further study is warranted to define which patients may benefit most from which management regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13013-017-0143-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5716239PMC
December 2017

Asymmetrical trunk movement during walking improved to normal range at 3 months after corrective posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Eur Spine J 2018 02 7;27(2):388-396. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Sint Maartenskliniek Research, Sint Maartenskliniek, P.O. box 9011, 6500 GM, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of posterior spinal fusion (PSF) and curve type on upper body movements in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) patients during gait.

Methods: Twenty-four girls (12-18 years) with AIS underwent PSF. 3D-Gait-analyses were performed preoperatively, at 3 months and 1 year postoperatively. Mean position (0° represents symmetry) and range of motion (ROM) of the trunk (thorax-relative-to-pelvis) in all planes were assessed. Lower body kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters were also evaluated.

Results: Mean trunk position improved from 7.0° to 2.9° in transversal plane and from 5.0° to - 0.8° in frontal plane at 3 months postoperative (p < 0.001), and was maintained at 1 year. Trunk ROM in transverse plane decreased from 9.6° to 7.5° (p < 0.001) after surgery. No effects of PSF were observed on the lower body kinematics during the gait cycle. Patients with a double curve had a more axial rotated trunk before and after surgery (p = 0.013).

Conclusion: In AIS patients, during gait an evident asymmetrical position of the trunk improved to an almost symmetric situation already 3 months after PSF and was maintained at 1 year. Despite a reduction of trunk ROM, patients were able to maintain the same walking pattern in the lower extremities after surgery. This improvement of symmetry and maintenance of normal gait can explain the rapid recovery and well functioning in daily life of AIS patients, despite undergoing a fusion of large parts of their spine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5369-zDOI Listing
February 2018

Decision support tools in low back pain.

Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2016 12 5;30(6):1084-1097. Epub 2017 Aug 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Information from individual classification systems or clinical prediction rules that aim to facilitate stratified care in low back pain is important but often not comprehensive enough to be used to support clinical decision-making. The development and implementation of a clinically useful decision support tool (DST) that considering all key features is a challenging enterprise, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Key features are inclusion of all relevant treatment options, patient characteristics, and benefits and harms and presentation as an accessible and easy to use toolkit. To be of clinical value, a DST should (1) be based on large numbers of high-quality data, allowing robust estimation of benefits and harms; (2) be presented using visually attractive and easy-to-use software; (3) be externally validated with a clinical beneficial impact established; and (4) include a procedure for regular updating and monitoring. As an illustration, we describe the development; presentation; and plans for further validation, implementation, and updating of the Nijmegen Decision Tool for Chronic Low Back Pain (NDT-CLBP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2017.07.002DOI Listing
December 2016

Defining a core outcome set for adolescent and young adult patients with a spinal deformity.

Acta Orthop 2017 Dec 15;88(6):612-618. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

a Department of Orthopedic Surgery , Radboud University Medical Center , Nijmegen , the Netherlands.

Background and purpose - Routine outcome measurement has been shown to improve performance in several fields of healthcare. National spine surgery registries have been initiated in 5 Nordic countries. However, there is no agreement on which outcomes are essential to measure for adolescent and young adult patients with a spinal deformity. The aim of this study was to develop a core outcome set (COS) that will facilitate benchmarking within and between the 5 countries of the Nordic Spinal Deformity Society (NSDS) and other registries worldwide. Material and methods - From August 2015 to September 2016, 7 representatives (panelists) of the national spinal surgery registries from each of the NSDS countries participated in a modified Delphi study. With a systematic literature review as a basis and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework as guidance, 4 consensus rounds were held. Consensus was defined as agreement between at least 5 of the 7 representatives. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results - Consensus was reached on the inclusion of 13 core outcome domains: "satisfaction with overall outcome of surgery", "satisfaction with cosmetic result of surgery", "pain interference", physical functioning", "health-related quality of life", "recreation and leisure", "pulmonary fatigue", "change in deformity", "self-image", "pain intensity", "physical function", "complications", and "re-operation". Panelists agreed that the SRS-22r, EQ-5D, and a pulmonary fatigue questionnaire (yet to be developed) are the most appropriate set of patient-reported measurement instruments that cover these outcome domains. Interpretation - We have identified a COS for a large subgroup of spinal deformity patients for implementation and validation in the NSDS countries. This is the first study to further develop a COS in a global perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453674.2017.1371371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5694805PMC
December 2017

A Novel Spinal Implant for Fusionless Scoliosis Correction: A Biomechanical Analysis of the Motion Preserving Properties of a Posterior Periapical Concave Distraction Device.

Global Spine J 2017 Aug 7;7(5):400-409. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Study Design: Biomechanical study.

Objective: Recently, a posterior concave periapical distraction device for fusionless scoliosis correction was introduced. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of the periapical distraction device on spinal range of motion (ROM) in comparison with traditional rigid pedicle screw-rod instrumentation.

Methods: Using a spinal motion simulator, 6 human spines were loaded with 4 N m and 6 porcine spines with 2 N m to induce flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). ROM was measured in 3 conditions: untreated, periapical distraction device, and rigid pedicle screw-rod instrumentation.

Results: The periapical distraction device caused a significant ( < .05) decrease in ROM of FE (human, -40.0% and porcine, -55.9%) and LB (human, -18.2% and porcine, -17.9%) as compared to the untreated spine, while ROM of AR remained unaffected. In comparison, rigid instrumentation caused a significantly ( < .05) larger decrease in ROM of FE (human, -80.9% and porcine, -94.0%), LB (human, -75.0% and porcine, -92.2%), and AR (human, -71.3% and porcine, -86.9%).

Conclusions: Although no destructive forces were applied, no device failures were observed. Spinal ROM was significantly less constrained by the periapical distraction device compared to rigid pedicle screw-rod instrumentation. Therefore, provided that scoliosis correction is achieved, a more physiological spinal motion is expected after scoliosis correction with the posterior concave periapical distraction device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568217699377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5544155PMC
August 2017

An international consensus on the appropriate evaluation and treatment for adults with spinal deformity.

Eur Spine J 2018 03 5;27(3):585-596. Epub 2017 Aug 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Evaluation and surgical management for adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients varies between health care providers. The purpose of this study is to identify appropriateness of specific approaches and management strategies for the treatment of ASD.

Methods: From January to July 2015, the AOSpine Knowledge Deformity Forum performed a modified Delphi survey where 53 experienced deformity surgeons from 24 countries, rated the appropriateness of management strategies for multiple ASD clinical scenarios. Four rounds were performed: three surveys and a face-to-face meeting. Consensus was achieved with ≥70% agreement.

Results: Appropriate surgical goals are improvement of function, pain, and neural symptoms. Appropriate preoperative patient evaluation includes recording information on history and comorbidities, and radiographic workup, including long standing films and MRI for all patients. Preoperative pulmonary and cardiac testing and DEXA scan is appropriate for at-risk patients. Intraoperatively, appropriate surgical strategies include long fusions with deformity correction for patients with large deformity and sagittal imbalance, and pelvic fixation for multilevel fusions with large curves, sagittal imbalance, and osteoporosis. Decompression alone is inappropriate in patients with large curves, sagittal imbalance, and progressive deformity. It is inappropriate to fuse to L5 in patients with symptomatic disk degeneration at L5-S1.

Conclusions: These results provide guidance for informed decision-making in the evaluation and management of ASD. Appropriate care for ASD, a very diverse spectrum of disease, must be responsive to patient preference and values, and considerations of the care provider, and the healthcare system. A monolithic approach to care should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5241-1DOI Listing
March 2018

Which patient-reported factors predict referral to spinal surgery? A cohort study among 4987 chronic low back pain patients.

Eur Spine J 2017 11 30;26(11):2782-2788. Epub 2017 Jun 30.

Department of Health Sciences and EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: It is unknown which chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients are typically referred to spinal surgery. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore which patient-reported factors are predictive of spinal surgery referral among CLBP patients.

Methods: CLBP patients were consecutively recruited from a Dutch orthopedic hospital specialized in spine care (n = 4987). The outcome of this study was referral to spinal surgery (yes/no), and was assessed using hospital records. Possible predictive factors were assessed using a screening questionnaire. A prediction model was constructed using logistic regression, with backwards selection and p < 0.10 for keeping variables in the model. The model was internally validated and evaluated using discrimination and calibration measures.

Results: Female gender, previous back surgery, high intensity leg pain, somatization, and positive treatment expectations increased the odds of being referred to spinal surgery, while being obese, having comorbidities, pain in the thoracic spine, increased walking distance, and consultation location decreased the odds. The model's fit was good (X  = 10.5; p = 0.23), its discriminative ability was poor (AUC = 0.671), and its explained variance was low (5.5%). A post hoc analysis indicated that consultation location was significantly associated with spinal surgery referral, even after correcting for case-mix variables.

Conclusion: Some patient-reported factors could be identified that are predictive of spinal surgery referral. Although the identified factors are known as common predictive factors of surgery outcome, they could only partly predict spinal surgery referral.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5201-9DOI Listing
November 2017

Measuring outcomes in adult spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review to identify current strengths, weaknesses and gaps in patient-reported outcome measures.

Eur Spine J 2017 08 22;26(8):2084-2093. Epub 2017 May 22.

Department of Orthopedics, Radboud University Medical Center, Huispost 611, 6500HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) causes severe disability, reduces overall quality of life, and results in a substantial societal burden of disease. As healthcare is becoming more value based, and to facilitate global benchmarking, it is critical to identify and standardize patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). This study aims to identify the current strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in PROMs used for ASD.

Methods: Studies were included following a systematic search in multiple bibliographic databases between 2000 and 2015. PROMs were extracted and linked to the outcome domains of WHO's International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF) framework. Subsequently, the clinimetric quality of identified PROMs was evaluated.

Results: The literature search identified 144 papers that met the inclusion criteria, and nine frequently used PROMs were identified. These covered 29 ICF outcome domains, which could be grouped into three of the four main ICF chapters: body function (n = 7), activity and participation (n = 19), environmental factors (n = 3), and body structure (n = 0). A low quantity (n = 3) of papers was identified that studied the clinimetric quality of PROMs. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 has the highest level of clinimetric quality for ASD.

Conclusions: Outcome domains related to mobility and pain were well represented. We identified a gap in current outcome measures regarding neurological and pulmonary function. In addition, no outcome domains were measured in the ICF chapter body structure. These results will serve as a foundation for the process of seeking international consensus on a standard set of outcome domains, accompanied PROMs and contributing factors to be used in future clinical trials and spine registries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5125-4DOI Listing
August 2017

Spinal biomechanical properties are significantly altered with a novel embalming method.

J Biomech 2017 04 21;55:144-146. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In vitro tests on the biomechanical properties of human spines are often performed using fresh frozen specimens. However, this carries the risk of pathogen transfer from specimen to the worker and the specimens can only be used for a limited amount of time. Human spinal specimens embalmed with formaldehyde carry an almost absent risk of transfer of pathogens and can be stored and used for a long time, but the tissue properties are strongly affected making this method inapplicable for biomechanical testing. In this study, a new embalming technique called Fix for Life (F4L), which claims to preserve the tissue properties, was tested. The range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of six fresh human spinal specimens was measured using a spinal motion simulator before and after F4L embalming. After F4L embalming, spinal stiffness increased in flexion-extension by 230%, in lateral bending by 284% and in axial rotation by 271%. ROM decreased by 46% in flexion-extension, 56% in lateral bending and 54% in axial rotation. In conclusion, based on this study, F4L does not maintain physiological spinal biomechanical properties, and we propose that this method should not be used for biomechanical studies. Nevertheless, the method may be an alternative to formaldehyde fixation in situations such as training and education because the effect on spinal biomechanics is less detrimental than formaldehyde and tissue color is maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.02.012DOI Listing
April 2017

De novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis: a systematic review of prognostic factors for curve progression.

Eur Spine J 2016 08 24;25(8):2347-58. Epub 2016 May 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To identify prognostic factors for curve progression in de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DNDLS) by performing a systematic review of the literature.

Methods: Studies were selected for inclusion following a systematic search in the bibliographic databases PubMed and EMBASE prior to September 2015 and hand searches of the reference lists of retrieved articles. Two authors independently assessed methodological quality. Data were extracted and presented according to a best evidence synthesis.

Results: The literature search generated a total of 2696 references. After removing duplicates and articles that did not meet inclusion criteria, 12 studies were included. Due to the lack of statistical analyses, pooling of data was not possible. Strong evidence indicates that increasing intervertebral disk degeneration, lateral vertebral translation ≥6 mm, and an intercrest line through L5 (rather than L4) are associated with DNDLS curve progression. Moderate evidence suggests that apical vertebral rotation Grade II or III is associated with curve progression. For the majority of other prognostic factors, we found limited, conflicting, or inconclusive evidence. Osteoporosis, a coronal Cobb angle <30°, lumbar lordosis, lateral osteophytes difference of ≥5 mm, and degenerative spondylolisthesis have not been shown to be risk factors. Clinical risk factors for progression were not identified.

Conclusions: This review shows strong evidence that increased intervertebral disk degeneration, an intercrest line through L5, and apical lateral vertebral translation ≥6 mm are associated with DNDLS curve progression. Moderate evidence was found for apical vertebral rotation (Grade II/III) as a risk factor for curve progression. These results, however, may not be directly applicable to the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-016-4619-9DOI Listing
August 2016

Movement Along the Spine Induced by Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Related Electrode Positioning.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2016 Jul;41(14):1128-1132

Department of Orthopedics, Ziekenhuis Rivierenland Tiel, The Netherlands.

Study Design: A prospective, nonrandomized cohort study.

Objective: To describe a technique quantifying movement induced by transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) induced movement in relation to the positioning of electrodes during spinal deformity surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: TES induced movement may cause injuries and delay surgical procedures. When TES movements are evoked, muscles other than those being monitored any adjustments in stimulation protocols and electrode positioning may be expected to minimize movement whereas preserving quality of monitoring. In this study, seismic evoked responses (SER) induced through TES were studied at different electrode positions.

Methods: Intraoperative TES-motor evoked potentials were carried out in 12 patients undergoing corrective spine surgery. Accelerometer transducers recorded SER in two directions at four different locations of the spine for TES-electrode montage groups Cz-Fz and C3-C4. A paired t test was used to compare the means of SER and the relationship between movement and TES electrode positioning.

Results: SERs were strongest in the upper body. All mean SERs values for the Cz-Fz group were up to five times larger when compared with the C3-C4 group. However, there were no differences between the C3-C4 and Cz-Fz groups in the lower body locations. Both electrode montage groups showed a gradual stepwise reduction in all mean SER values along the spine from the cranial to caudal region. For the upper body locations, there were no significant associations between SER and both montages; in contrast, a significant association SER was demonstrated in the lumbar region.

Conclusion: At supramaximum levels, movements resulting from multipulse TES are likely caused by relatively strong contractions from muscles in the neck resulting from direct extracranial stimulation. When interchanging electrode montages in individual cases, the movement in the neck may become reduced. At lumbar levels transcranial evoked muscle contractions dominate movement in the surgically exposed areas.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000001495DOI Listing
July 2016

Poor Radiological and Good Functional Long-term Outcome of Surgically Treated Scheuermann Patients.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2016 Jul;41(14):E869-E878

Department of orthopaedic surgery, Sint Maartenskliniek, Ubbergen, the Netherlands.

Study Design: Cohort study.

Objective: To analyze long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of surgically treated Scheuermann patients.

Summary Of Background Data: Long-term clinical and radiological outcomes of surgery for Scheuermann kyphosis are unknown. A single-center cohort of 33 consecutive, surgically treated (between 1991 and 1998) Scheuermann patients was studied.

Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 29 surgically treated Scheuermann patients were collected (posterior approach n = 13; combined anterior-posterior procedure n = 16), after a mean follow-up of 18 years. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were measured preoperatively (PRE) and twice postoperatively: 2 to 8 years postoperative (FU 1) and 14 to 21 years postoperative (FU 2). Visual Analog Score pain, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EQ-5d scores were recorded at FU 2 only. Radiographs were analyzed for correction, distal and proximal junctional kyphosis, and implant failures.

Results: Mean preoperative kyphosis of the corrected levels was 76° (range 60°-105°) and decreased to a Cobb of 58°(range 30°-105°) at FU 2. Median Visual Analog Score was 2.5 points (range 0-8) and median ODI score was 12 (range 0-62) at FU 2. The ODI score at FU 1 was significantly better as compared to PRE (P < 0.001) and FU 2 (P < 0.001). Also, anterior-posterior treated group had a significantly better ODI score as compared to the posterior-only group (P = 0.023). EQ-5d scores on mobility, usual activities, and pain/discomfort were worse compared to an age-matched population control group; however, SF-36 outcome scores were comparable.Proximal junctional kyphosis was present in 53% of patients, distal junctional kyphosis did not occur, and implant failure/removal had occurred in 69% of patients. Radiological complications do not relate with the ODI, EQ-5d, and SF-36 and 72% of the patients were satisfied.

Conclusion: Radiological results of this cohort were disappointing but did not relate to clinical outcome scores. Even lumbar pain could not prevent a high patient satisfaction and quality of life. Patients treated with a combined anterior-posterior approach tended to perform better.

Level Of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000001402DOI Listing
July 2016