Publications by authors named "Marina V Serebryakova"

74 Publications

Inhibition of Neutrophil Secretion Upon Adhesion as a Basis for the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Tricyclic Antidepressant Imipramine.

Front Pharmacol 2021 5;12:709719. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

A.N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Recent studies demonstrate the involvement of inflammatory processes in the development of depression and the anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants. Infiltration and adhesion of neutrophils to nerve tissues and their aggressive secretion are considered as possible causes of inflammatory processes in depression. We studied the effect of the antidepressant imipramine on the adhesion and accompanied secretion of neutrophils under control conditions and in the presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). As a model of integrin-dependent neutrophil infiltration into tissues, we used integrin-dependent adhesion of neutrophils to the fibronectin-coated substrate. Imipramine inhibited neutrophil adhesion and concomitant secretion of proteins, including matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which modify the extracellular matrix and basement membranes required for cell migration. Imipramine also significantly and selectively blocked the release of the free amino acid hydroxylysine, a product of lysyl hydroxylase, an enzyme that affects the organization of the extracellular matrix by modifying collagen lysine residues. In contrast, imipramine enhanced the release of ROS by neutrophils during adhesion to fibronectin and stimulated apoptosis. The anti-inflammatory effect of imipramine may be associated with the suppression of neutrophil infiltration and their adhesion to nerve tissues by inhibiting the secretion of neutrophils, which provides these processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.709719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375473PMC
August 2021

Stearic acid blunts growth-factor signaling via oleoylation of GNAI proteins.

Nat Commun 2021 07 28;12(1):4590. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Covalent attachment of C16:0 to proteins (palmitoylation) regulates protein function. Proteins are also S-acylated by other fatty acids including C18:0. Whether protein acylation with different fatty acids has different functional outcomes is not well studied. We show here that C18:0 (stearate) and C18:1 (oleate) compete with C16:0 to S-acylate Cys3 of GNAI proteins. C18:0 becomes desaturated so that C18:0 and C18:1 both cause S-oleoylation of GNAI. Exposure of cells to C16:0 or C18:0 shifts GNAI acylation towards palmitoylation or oleoylation, respectively. Oleoylation causes GNAI proteins to shift out of cell membrane detergent-resistant fractions where they potentiate EGFR signaling. Consequently, exposure of cells to C18:0 reduces recruitment of Gab1 to EGFR and reduces AKT activation. This provides a molecular mechanism for the anti-tumor effects of C18:0, uncovers a mechanistic link how metabolites affect cell signaling, and provides evidence that the identity of the fatty acid acylating a protein can have functional consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24844-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319428PMC
July 2021

Proteolytic degradation patterns of the receptor for advanced glycation end products peptide fragments correlate with their neuroprotective activity in Alzheimer's disease models.

Drug Dev Res 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Cellular Mechanisms of Memory Pathology, Institute of Cell Biophysics (RAS), Pushchino, Russia.

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays an essential role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously demonstrated that a fragment (60-76) of RAGE improved the memory of olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) and Tg 5 × FAD mice - animal models of AD. The peptide analog (60-76) with protected N- and C-terminal groups was more active than the free peptide in Tg 5 × FAD mice. This study investigated proteolytic cleavage of the RAGE fragment (60-76) and its C- and N-terminally modified analog by blood serum using HPLC and mass spectrometry. The modified peptide was proteolyzed slower than the free peptide. Degrading the protected analog resulted in shortened fragments with memory-enhancing effects, whereas the free peptide yielded inactive fragments. After administering the different peptides to OBX mice, their performance in a spatial memory task revealed that the effective dose of the modified peptide was five times lower than that of the free peptide. HPLC and mass spectrometry analysis of the proteolytic products allowed us to clarify the differences in the neuroprotective activity conferred by administering these two peptides to AD animal models. The current study suggests that the modified RAGE fragment is more promising for the development of anti-AD therapy than its free analog.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21836DOI Listing
May 2021

Neutrophil Adhesion and the Release of the Free Amino Acid Hydroxylysine.

Cells 2021 03 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia.

During infection or certain metabolic disorders, neutrophils can escape from blood vessels, invade and attach to other tissues. The invasion and adhesion of neutrophils is accompanied and maintained by their own secretion. We have previously found that adhesion of neutrophils to fibronectin dramatically and selectively stimulates the release of the free amino acid hydroxylysine. The role of hydroxylysine and lysyl hydroxylase in neutrophil adhesion has not been studied, nor have the processes that control them. Using amino acid analysis, mass spectrometry and electron microscopy, we found that the lysyl hydroxylase inhibitor minoxidil, the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor doxycycline, the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors wortmannin and the Akt1/2 inhibitor and drugs that affect the actin cytoskeleton significantly and selectively block the release of hydroxylysine and partially or completely suppress spreading of neutrophils. The actin cytoskeleton effectors and the Akt 1/2 inhibitor also increase the phenylalanine release. We hypothesize that hydroxylysine release upon adhesion is the result of the activation of lysyl hydroxylase in interaction with matrix metalloproteinase, the PI3K/Akt pathway and intact actin cytoskeleton, which play important roles in the recruitment of neutrophils into tissue through extracellular matrix remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10030563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999338PMC
March 2021

NS1-mediated upregulation of ZDHHC22 acyltransferase in influenza a virus infected cells.

Cell Microbiol 2021 06 9;23(6):e13322. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Virology, Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Influenza A viruses contain two S-acylated proteins, the ion channel M2 and the glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). Acylation of the latter is essential for virus replication. Here we analysed the expression of each of the 23 members of the family of ZDHHC acyltransferases in human airway cells, the site of virus replication. RT-PCR revealed that every ZDHHC acyltransferase (except ZDHHC19) is expressed in A549 and Calu cells. Interestingly, expression of one ZDHHC, ZDHHC22, is upregulated in virus-infected cells; this effect is more pronounced after infection with an avian compared to a human virus strain. The viral protein NS1 triggers ZDHHC22 expression in transfected cells, whereas recombinant viruses lacking a functional NS1 gene did not cause ZDHHC22 upregulation. CRISPR/Cas9 technology was then used to knock-out the ZDHHC22 gene in A549 cells. However, acylation of M2 and HA was not reduced, as analysed for intracellular HA and M2 and the stoichiometry of S-acylation of HA incorporated into virus particles did not change according to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Comparative mass spectrometry of palmitoylated proteins in wt and ΔZDHHC22 cells identified 25 potential substrates of ZDHHC22 which might be involved in virus replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.13322DOI Listing
June 2021

Unusually efficient CUG initiation of an overlapping reading frame in mRNA yields novel protein POLGARF.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 10 21;117(40):24936-24946. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia, 119992;

While near-cognate codons are frequently used for translation initiation in eukaryotes, their efficiencies are usually low (<10% compared to an AUG in optimal context). Here, we describe a rare case of highly efficient near-cognate initiation. A CUG triplet located in the 5' leader of messenger RNA (mRNA) initiates almost as efficiently (∼60 to 70%) as an AUG in optimal context. This CUG directs translation of a conserved 260-triplet-long overlapping open reading frame (ORF), which we call ( Alternative Reading Frame). Translation of a short upstream ORF 5' of this CUG governs the ratio between POLG (the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase) and POLGARF synthesized from a single mRNA. Functional investigation of POLGARF suggests a role in extracellular signaling. While unprocessed POLGARF localizes to the nucleoli together with its interacting partner C1QBP, serum stimulation results in rapid cleavage and secretion of a POLGARF C-terminal fragment. Phylogenetic analysis shows that evolved ∼160 million y ago due to a mammalian-wide interspersed repeat (MIR) transposition into the 5' leader sequence of the mammalian gene, which became fixed in placental mammals. This discovery of unveils a previously undescribed mechanism of de novo protein-coding gene evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2001433117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547235PMC
October 2020

Alterations in proteome of human sclera associated with primary open-angle glaucoma involve proteins participating in regulation of the extracellular matrix.

Mol Vis 2020 2;26:623-640. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Purpose: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a common ocular disease, associated with abnormalities in aqueous humor circulation and an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), leading to progressive optical neuropathy and loss of vision. POAG pathogenesis includes alterations of the structural properties of the sclera, especially in the optic nerve head area, contributing to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. Abnormal sclera biomechanics hinder adequate compensation of IOP fluctuations, thus aggravating POAG progression. The proteomic basis of biomechanical disorders in glaucomatous sclera remains poorly understood. This study is aimed at revealing alterations in major scleral proteins, associated with POAG, at different stages of the disease and with different IOP conditions.

Methods: Samples of sclera were collected from 67 patients with POAG during non-penetrating deep sclerectomy and from nine individuals without POAG. Scleral proteins were extracted with a strong lysis buffer, containing a combination of an ionic detergent, a chaotropic agent, and a disulfide reducing agent, and were separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The major scleral proteins were selected, subjected to in-gel digestion, and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)/TOF mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The specific POAG-associated alterations of the selected proteins were analyzed with SDS-PAGE and confirmed with western blotting of the scleral extracts, using the respective antibodies. The group of POAG-associated proteins was analyzed using Gene Ontology and genome-wide association study enrichment and protein-protein interaction network prediction.

Results: A total of 11 proteins were identified, among which six proteins, namely, vimentin, angiopoietin-related protein 7, annexin A2, serum amyloid P component, serum albumin, and thrombospondin-4, were found to be upregulated in the sclera of patients with advanced and terminal POAG. In the early stages of the disease, thrombospondin-4 level was, on the contrary, reduced when compared with the control, whereas the concentration of vimentin varied, depending on the IOP level. Moreover, angiopoietin-related protein 7 manifested as two forms, exhibiting opposite behavior: The common 45 kDa form grew with the progression of POAG, whereas the 35 kDa (apparently non-glycosylated) form was absent in the control samples, appeared in patients with early POAG, and decreased in concentration over the course of the disease. Functional bioinformatics analysis linked the POAG-associated proteins with IOP alterations and predicted their secretion into extracellular space and their association with extracellular vesicles and a collagen-containing extracellular matrix.

Conclusions: POAG is accompanied by alterations of the scleral proteome, which represent a novel hallmark of the disease and can reflect pathological changes in scleral biochemistry and biomechanics. The potential mechanisms underlying these changes relate mainly to the structure of the extracellular matrix, protein glycosylation, and calcium binding, and may involve fibroblast cytoskeleton regulation, as well as oxidative and inflammatory responses.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479071PMC
July 2021

The GAR domain integrates functions that are necessary for the proper localization of fibrillarin (FBL) inside eukaryotic cells.

PeerJ 2020 28;8:e9029. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Fibrillarin (FBL) is an essential nucleolar protein that participates in pre-rRNA methylation and processing. The methyltransferase domain of FBL is an example of an extremely well-conserved protein domain in which the amino acid sequence was not substantially modified during the evolution from to . An additional N-terminal glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) domain is present in the FBL of eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that the GAR domain is involved in FBL functioning and integrates the functions of the nuclear localization signal and the nucleolar localization signal (NoLS). The methylation of the arginine residues in the GAR domain is necessary for nuclear import but decreases the efficiency of nucleolar retention via the NoLS. The presented data indicate that the GAR domain can be considered an evolutionary innovation that integrates several functional activities and thereby adapts FBL to the highly compartmentalized content of the eukaryotic cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7194090PMC
April 2020

Filamentous versus Spherical Morphology: A Case Study of the Recombinant A/WSN/33 (H1N1) Virus.

Microsc Microanal 2020 04;26(2):297-309

N.F. Gamaleya National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health, 123098Moscow, Russia.

Influenza A virus is a serious human pathogen that assembles enveloped virions on the plasma membrane of the host cell. The pleiomorphic morphology of influenza A virus, represented by spherical, elongated, or filamentous particles, is important for the spread of the virus in nature. Using fixative protocols for sample preparation and negative staining electron microscopy, we found that the recombinant A/WSN/33 (H1N1) (rWSN) virus, a strain considered to be strictly spherical, may produce filamentous particles when amplified in the allantoic cavity of chicken embryos. In contrast, the laboratory WSN strain and the rWSN virus amplified in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells exhibited a spherical morphology. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) suggested a rare Ser126Cys substitution in the M1 protein of rWSN, which was confirmed by the mass spectrometric analysis. No structurally relevant substitutions were found by NGS in other proteins of rWSN. Bioinformatics algorithms predicted a neutral structural effect of the Ser126Cys mutation. The mrWSN_M1_126S virus generated after the introduction of the reverse Cys126Ser substitution exhibited a similar host-dependent partially filamentous phenotype. We hypothesize that a shortage of some as-yet-undefined cellular components involved in virion budding and membrane scission may result in the appearance of filamentous particles in the case of usually "nonfilamentous" virus strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927620000069DOI Listing
April 2020

Detection and in vitro studies of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 RNA-binding properties.

Biochimie 2020 Mar 11;170:118-127. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Virology, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119234, Russia; Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119992, Russia.

Apart from being a conduit for photoassimilate transport in plants, the phloem serves as a pathway for transport of proteins and RNAs from sites of their synthesis to distant plant parts. As demonstrated for mRNAs and small RNAs such as miRNA and siRNA, their phloem transport is largely involved in responses to environmental cues including stresses and pathogen attacks. RNA molecules are believed to be transported in the phloem in the form of complexes with RNA-binding proteins; however, proteins forming such complexes are generally poorly studied. Here, we demonstrate that the Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS1), which has been previously described as a functional protease inhibitor capable of long-distance transport via the phloem, is able to bind RNA in vitro. Among different RNAs tested, CmPS1 exhibits a preference for imperfect RNA duplexes and the highest affinity to tRNA. A characteristic complex formed by CmPS1 with tRNA is not observed upon CmPS1 binding to tRNA-like structures of plant viruses. Mutational analysis demonstrates that the CmPS1 N-terminal region is not involved in RNA binding. Since antithrombin-III, the human protease inhibitor of serpin family most closely sequence-related to CmPS1, is found to be unable to bind RNA, one can suggest that, in its evolution, CmPS1 has gained the RNA binding capability as an additional function likely relevant to its specific activities in the plant phloem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2020.01.006DOI Listing
March 2020

Mutational analysis of the flavinylation and binding motifs in two protein targets of the flavin transferase ApbE.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 11;366(22)

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobievy Gory 1/40, Moscow 119234, Russia.

Many flavoproteins belonging to three domain types contain an FMN residue linked through a phosphoester bond to a threonine or serine residue found in a conserved seven-residue motif. The flavinylation reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme, ApbE, which uses FAD as a substrate. To determine the structural requirements of the flavinylation reaction, we examined the effects of single substitutions in the flavinylation motif of Klebsiella pneumoniae cytoplasmic fumarate reductase on its modification by its own ApbE in recombinant Escherichia coli cells. The replacement of the flavin acceptor threonine with alanine completely abolished the modification reaction, whereas the replacements of conserved aspartate and serine had only minor effects. Effects of other substitutions, including replacing the acceptor threonine with serine, (a 10-55% decrease in the flavinylation degree) pinpointed important glycine and alanine residues and suggested an excessive capacity of the ApbE-based flavinylation system in vivo. Consistent with this deduction, drastic replacements of conserved leucine and threonine residues in the binding pocket that accommodates FMN residue still allowed appreciable flavinylation of the NqrC subunit of Vibrio harveyi Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, despite a profound weakening of the isoalloxazine ring binding and an increase in its exposure to solvent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz252DOI Listing
November 2019

Oligoglutamylation of E. coli ribosomal protein S6 is under growth phase control.

Biochimie 2019 Dec 11;167:61-67. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, A.N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow, 119992, Russia; Skolkovo Institute for Science and Technology, Moscow, 143025, Russia. Electronic address:

Ribosomal protein S6 in Escherichia coli is modified by ATP-dependent glutamate ligase RimK. Up to four glutamate residues are added to the C-terminus of S6 protein. In this work we demonstrated that unlike the majority of ribosome modifications in E. coli, oligoglutamylation of S6 protein is regulated and happens only in the stationary phase of bacterial culture. Only S6 protein incorporated into assembled small ribosomal subunits, but not newly made free S6 protein is a substrate for RimK protein. Overexpression of the rimK gene leads to the modification of S6 protein even in the exponential phase of bacterial culture. Thus, it is unlikely that any stationary phase specific factor is needed for the modification. We propose a model that S6 modification is regulated solely via the rate of ribosome biosynthesis at limiting concentration of RimK enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2019.09.008DOI Listing
December 2019

Novel applications of modification of thiol enzymes and redox-regulated proteins using S-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS).

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2019 11 31;1867(11):140259. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trubetskaya str., 8, bld. 2, Moscow 119991, Russia; Lomonosov Moscow State University, Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, 119992 Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

S-Methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) is used in experimental biochemistry for alkylating thiol groups of protein cysteines. Its applications include mainly trapping of natural thiol-disulfide states of redox-sensitive proteins and proteins which have undergone S-nitrosylation. The reagent can also be employed as an inhibitor of enzymatic activity, since nucleophilic cysteine thiolates are commonly present at active sites of various enzymes. The advantage of using MMTS for this purpose is the reversibility of the formation of methylthio mixed disulfides, compared to irreversible alkylation using conventional agents. Additional benefits include good accessibility of MMTS to buried protein cysteines due to its small size and the simplicity of the protection and deprotection procedures. In this study we report examples of MMTS application in experiments involving oxidoreductase (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH), redox-regulated protein (recoverin) and cysteine protease (triticain-α). We demonstrate that on the one hand MMTS can modify functional cysteines in the thiol enzyme GAPDH, thereby preventing thiol oxidation and reversibly inhibiting the enzyme, while on the other hand it can protect the redox-sensitive thiol group of recoverin from oxidation and such modification produces no impact on the activity of the protein. Furthermore, using the example of the papain-like enzyme triticain-α, we report a novel application of MMTS as a protector of the primary structure of active cysteine protease during long-term purification and refolding procedures. Based on the data, we propose new lines of MMTS employment in research, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology for reversible switching off of undesirable activity and antioxidant protection of proteins with functional thiol groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2019.07.012DOI Listing
November 2019

Scorpion toxins interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

FEBS Lett 2019 10 18;593(19):2779-2789. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Neurotoxins are among the main components of scorpion and snake venoms. Scorpion neurotoxins affect voltage-gated ion channels, while most snake neurotoxins target ligand-gated ion channels, mainly nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We report that scorpion venoms inhibit α-bungarotoxin binding to both muscle-type nAChR from Torpedo californica and neuronal human α7 nAChR. Toxins inhibiting nAChRs were identified as OSK-1 (α-KTx family) from Orthochirus scrobiculosus and HelaTx1 (κ-KTx family) from Heterometrus laoticus, both being blockers of voltage-gated potassium channels. With an IC of 1.6 μm, OSK1 inhibits acetylcholine-induced current through mouse muscle-type nAChR heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Other well-characterized scorpion toxins from these families also bind to Torpedo nAChR with micromolar affinities. Our results indicate that scorpion neurotoxins present target promiscuity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13530DOI Listing
October 2019

Characterization of the 20S proteasome of the lepidopteran, Spodoptera frugiperda.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2019 09 19;1867(9):840-853. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

N.K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Vavilova str., Moscow 119334, Russia. Electronic address:

Multiple complexes of 20S proteasomes with accessory factors play an essential role in proteolysis in eukaryotic cells. In this report, several forms of 20S proteasomes from extracts of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were separated using electrophoresis in a native polyacrylamide gel and examined for proteolytic activity in the gel and by Western blotting. Distinct proteasome bands isolated from the gel were subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and identified as free core particles (CP) and complexes of CP with one or two dimers of assembly chaperones PAC1-PAC2 and activators PA28γ or PA200. In contrast to the activators PA28γ and PA200 that regulate the access of protein substrates to the internal proteolytic chamber of CP in an ATP-independent manner, the 19S regulatory particle (RP) in 26S proteasomes performs stepwise substrate unfolding and opens the chamber gate in an ATP-dependent manner. Electron microscopic analysis suggested that spontaneous dissociation of RP in isolated 26S proteasomes leaves CPs with different gate sizes related presumably to different stages in the gate opening. The primary structure of 20S proteasome subunits in Sf9 cells was determined by a search of databases and by sequencing. The protein sequences were confirmed by mass spectrometry and verified by 2D gel electrophoresis. The relative rates of sequence divergence in the evolution of 20S proteasome subunits, the assembly chaperones and activators were determined by using bioinformatics. The data confirmed the conservation of regular CP subunits and PA28γ, a more accelerated evolution of PAC2 and PA200, and especially high divergence rates of PAC1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2019.06.010DOI Listing
September 2019

Differential S-Acylation of Enveloped Viruses.

Protein Pept Lett 2019 ;26(8):588-600

Institut für Virologie, Vet.-Med. Faculty, Free University Berlin, Berlin 14163, Germany.

Post-translational modifications often regulate protein functioning. Covalent attachment of long chain fatty acids to cysteine residues via a thioester linkage (known as protein palmitoylation or S-acylation) affects protein trafficking, protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. This post-translational modification is coupled to membrane fusion or virus assembly and may affect viral replication in vitro and thus also virus pathogenesis in vivo. In this review we outline modern methods to study S-acylation of viral proteins and to characterize palmitoylproteomes of virus infected cells. The palmitoylation site predictor CSS-palm is critically tested against the Class I enveloped virus proteins. We further focus on identifying the S-acylation sites directly within acyl-peptides and the specific fatty acid (e.g, palmitate, stearate) bound to them using MALDI-TOF MS-based approaches. The fatty acid heterogeneity/ selectivity issue attracts now more attention since the recently published 3D-structures of two DHHC-acyl-transferases gave a hint how this might be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866526666190603082521DOI Listing
October 2019

Surface characterization of the thermal remodeling helical plant virus.

PLoS One 2019 31;14(5):e0216905. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Virology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Previously, we have reported that spherical particles (SPs) are formed by the thermal remodeling of rigid helical virions of native tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) at 94°C. SPs have remarkable features: stability, unique adsorption properties and immunostimulation potential. Here we performed a comparative study of the amino acid composition of the SPs and virions surface to characterize their properties and take an important step to understanding the structure of SPs. The results of tritium planigraphy showed that thermal transformation of TMV leads to a significant increase in tritium label incorporation into the following sites of SPs protein: 41-71 а.a. and 93-122 a.a. At the same time, there was a decrease in tritium label incorporation into the N- and C- terminal region (1-15 a.a., 142-158 a.a). The use of complementary physico-chemical methods allowed us to carry out a detailed structural analysis of the surface and to determine the most likely surface areas of SPs. The obtained data make it possible to consider viral protein thermal rearrangements, and to open new opportunities for biologically active complex design using information about SPs surface amino acid composition and methods of non-specific adsorption and bioconjugation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0216905PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6544241PMC
January 2020

eIF4G2 balances its own mRNA translation via a PCBP2-based feedback loop.

RNA 2019 07 22;25(7):757-767. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992, Russia.

Poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2, hnRNP E2) is one of the most abundant RNA-binding proteins in mammalian cells. In humans, it exists in seven isoforms, which are assumed to play similar roles in cells. The protein is shown to bind 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of many mRNAs and regulate their translation and/or stability, but nothing is known about the functional consequences of PCBP2 binding to 5'-UTRs. Here we show that the PCBP2 isoform f interacts with the 5'-UTRs of mRNAs encoding eIF4G2 (a translation initiation factor with a yet unknown mechanism of action, also known as DAP5) and Cyclin I, and inhibits their translation in vitro and in cultured cells, while the PCBP2 isoform e only affects Cyclin I translation. Furthermore, eIF4G2 participates in a cap-dependent translation of the PCBP2 mRNA. Thus, PCBP2 and eIF4G2 seem to regulate one another's expression via a novel type of feedback loop formed by the translation initiation factor and the RNA-binding protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1261/rna.065623.118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6573783PMC
July 2019

Light-Induced Thiol Oxidation of Recoverin Affects Rhodopsin Desensitization.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 7;11:474. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Institute for Biological Instrumentation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia.

The excessive light illumination of mammalian retina is known to induce oxidative stress and photoreceptor cell death linked to progression of age-related macular degeneration. The photochemical damage of photoreceptors is suggested to occur via two apoptotic pathways that involve either excessive rhodopsin activation or constitutive phototransduction, depending on the light intensity. Both pathways are dramatically activated in the absence of rhodopsin desensitization by GRK1. Previously, we have shown that moderate illumination (halogen lamp, 1,500 lx, 1-5 h) of mammalian eyes provokes disulfide dimerization of recoverin, a calcium-dependent regulator of GRK1. Here, we demonstrate under conditions that both moderate long-term (metal halide lamp, 2,500 lx, 14 h, rat model) and intense short-term (halogen lamp, 30,000 lx for 3 h, rabbit model) illumination of the mammalian retina are accompanied by accumulation of disulfide dimer of recoverin. Furthermore, in the second case we reveal alternatively oxidized derivatives of the protein, apparently including its monomer with sulfinic group. Histological data indicate that thiol oxidation of recoverin precedes apoptosis of photoreceptors. Both disulfide dimer and oxidized monomer (or oxidation mimicking C39D mutant) of recoverin exhibit lowered α-helical content and thermal stability of their apo-forms, as well as increased Ca affinity. Meanwhile, the oxidized monomer and C39D mutant of recoverin demonstrate impaired ability to bind photoreceptor membranes and regulate GRK1, whereas disulfide dimer exhibits notably improved membrane binding and GRK1 inhibition in absence of Ca. The latter effect is expected to slow down rhodopsin desensitization in the light, thereby favoring support of the light-induced oxidative stress, ultimately leading to photoreceptor apoptosis. Overall, the intensity and duration of illumination of the retina affect thiol oxidation of recoverin likely contributing to propagation of the oxidative stress and photoreceptor damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330308PMC
January 2019

Direct detection of cysteine peptidases for MALDI-TOF MS analysis using fluorogenic substrates.

Anal Biochem 2019 02 5;567:45-50. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

A method is described for the direct detection of unstable cysteine peptidase activity in polyacrylamide gels after native electrophoresis using new selective fluorogenic peptide substrates, pyroglutamyl-phenylalanyl-alanyl-4-amino-7-methylcoumaride (Glp-Phe-Ala-AMC) and pyroglutamyl-phenylalanyl-alanyl-4-amino-7-trifluoromethyl-coumaride (Glp-Phe-Ala-AFC). The detection limit of the model enzyme papain was 17 pmol (0.29 μg) for Glp-Phe-Ala-AMC and 43 pmol (0.74 μg) for Glp-Phe-Ala-AFC, with increased sensitivity and selectivity compared to the traditional method of protein determination with Coomassie G-250 staining or detection of activity using chromogenic substrates. Using this method, we easily identified the target digestive peptidases of Tenebrio molitor larvae by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. The method offers simplicity, high sensitivity, and selectivity compared to traditional methods for improved identification of unstable cysteine peptidases in multi-component biological samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2018.12.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Erratum to "Mold Alkaloid Cytochalasin D Modifies the Morphology and Secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-Stimulated Neutrophils upon Adhesion to Fibronectin".

Mediators Inflamm 2018 5;2018:7202698. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119234, Russia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/4308684.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7202698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6079403PMC
July 2018

Neutrophils Release Metalloproteinases during Adhesion in the Presence of Insulin, but Cathepsin G in the Presence of Glucagon.

Mediators Inflamm 2018 14;2018:1574928. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia.

In patients with reperfusion after ischemia and early development of diabetes, neutrophils can attach to blood vessel walls and release their aggressive bactericide agents, which damage the vascular walls. Insulin and 17-estradiol (E2) relieve the vascular complications observed in metabolic disorders. In contrast, glucagon plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes. We studied the effect of hormones on neutrophil secretion during adhesion to fibronectin. Amino acid analysis revealed that proteins secreted by neutrophils are characterized by a stable amino acid profile enriched with glutamate, leucine, lysine, and arginine. The total amount of secreted proteins defined as the sum of detected amino acids was increased in the presence of insulin and reduced in the presence of glucagon. E2 did not affect the amount of protein secretion. Proteome analysis showed that in the presence of insulin and E2, neutrophils secreted metalloproteinases MMP-9 and MMP-8 playing a key role in modulation of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, glucagon induced the secretion of cathepsin G, a key bactericide protease of neutrophils. Cathepsin G can promote the development of vascular complications because of its proinflammatory activity and ability to stimulate neutrophil adhesion via the proteolysis of surface receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1574928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833473PMC
September 2018

Catalytically important flavin linked through a phosphoester bond in a eukaryotic fumarate reductase.

Biochimie 2018 Jun 3;149:34-40. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119234, Russia. Electronic address:

One of the three domains of kinetoplastid NADH:fumarate oxidoreductase (FRD) is homologous to bacterial flavin transferase that catalyzes transfer of FMN residue from FAD to threonine in flavoproteins. Leptomonas pyrrhocoris FRD produced in yeast cells, which lack flavin transferase gene in their proteome, reduces fumarate in the presence of NADH and contains an FMN residue covalently linked to a Ser9 residue. The conserved flavinylation motif of FRD, D(g/s)x(s/t)(s/g)AS, is similar to the Dxx(s/t)gAT motif recognized by flavin transferase in prokaryotic proteins. Ser9 replacement abolished the flavinylation and fumarate reductase activity of FRD. These findings suggest that the flavinylation is important for the activity of FRD and that this post-translational modification is carried out by the own flavin transferase domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2018.03.013DOI Listing
June 2018

Mold Alkaloid Cytochalasin D Modifies the Morphology and Secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-Stimulated Neutrophils upon Adhesion to Fibronectin.

Mediators Inflamm 2017 27;2017:4308684. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119234, Russia.

Neutrophils play an essential role in innate immunity due to their ability to migrate into infected tissues and kill microbes with bactericides located in their secretory granules. Neutrophil transmigration and degranulation are tightly regulated by actin cytoskeleton. Invading pathogens produce alkaloids that cause the depolymerization of actin, such as the mold alkaloid cytochalasin D. We studied the effect of cytochalasin D on the morphology and secretion of fMLP-, LPS-, or PMA-stimulated human neutrophils upon adhesion to fibronectin. Electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the neutrophils adherent to fibronectin in the presence of various stimuli differed. But in the presence of cytochalasin D, all stimulated neutrophils exhibited a uniform nonspread shape and developed thread-like membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) measuring 200 nm in diameter. Simultaneous detection of neutrophil secretory products by mass spectrometry showed that all tested stimuli caused the secretion of MMP-9, a key enzyme in the neutrophil migration. Cytochalasin D impaired the MMP-9 secretion but initiated the release of cathepsin G and other granular bactericides, proinflammatory agents. The release of bactericides apparently occurs through the formation, shedding, and lysis of cytonemes. The production of alkaloids which modify neutrophil responses to stimulation via actin depolymerization may be part of the strategy of pathogen invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/4308684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504967PMC
May 2018

Isolated Potato Virus A coat protein possesses unusual properties and forms different short virus-like particles.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2018 May 8;36(7):1728-1738. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

a Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University , Moscow 119234 , Russia.

In our previous study, we have observed that the isolated coat proteins (CP) of the Potyvirus Potato Virus A (PVA) virions exhibit an intrinsic tendency to self-associate into various multimeric forms containing some fractions of cross-β-structure. In this report, we studied the effect of solution conditions on the structure and dissociation of isolated PVA CP using a number of complementary physicochemical methods. Analysis of the structure of PVA CP in solution was performed by limited proteolysis with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Overall structural characteristics of PVA CP obtained by combination of these methods and ab initio shape reconstruction by SAXS show that PVA CP forms large multi-subunit particles. We demonstrate that a mixture of compact virus-like particles (VLP) longer than 30 nm is assembled on dialysis of isolated CP into neutral pH buffer (at low ionic strength). Under conditions of high ionic strength (0.5 M NaCl) and high pH (pH 10.5), PVA dissociates into low compactness oval-shaped particles of approximately 30 subunits (20-30 nm). The results of limited trypsinolysis of these particles (enzyme/substrate ratio 1:100, 30 min) showed the existence of non-cleavable core-fragment, consisting of 137 amino acid residues. Trypsin treatment removed only a short N-terminal fragment in the intact virions. These particles are readily reassembled into regular VLPs by changing pH back to neutral. It is possible that these particles may represent some kind of intermediate in PVA assembly in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2017.1333457DOI Listing
May 2018

Thrombin-Mediated Degradation of Human Cardiac Troponin T.

Clin Chem 2017 Jun 20;63(6):1094-1100. Epub 2017 Apr 20.

HyTest Ltd., Turku, Finland.

Background: Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is an acknowledged biomarker of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that is known to be prone to proteolytic degradation in serum. Such degradation is usually explained by the action of μ-calpain, although there could be other candidates for that role. In the current study, we explored the hypothesis that thrombin-mediated cTnT cleavage occurs as a result of the serum sample preparation.

Methods: cTnT degradation was studied by using immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis.

Results: The comparison of cTnT isolated from AMI heparin plasma and serum samples showed that cTnT in the plasma samples was mainly present as the full-sized molecule (approximately 35 kDa), while in serum samples it was present as a 29-kDa fragment. The incubation of recombinant cTnT, or native ternary cardiac troponin complex with thrombin or in normal human serum (NHS), resulted in the formation of a 29-kDa product that was similar to that detected in AMI serum samples. No cTnT degradation was observed when thrombin or NHS was pretreated with hirudin, a specific inhibitor of thrombin, or during incubation of troponin in normal heparin plasma. When the products of thrombin-mediated cTnT proteolysis were analyzed by MS, 2 fragments consisting of amino acid residues (aar) 2-68 and 69-288 were identified, which suggests that thrombin cleaves cTnT between R68 and S69.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the 29-kDa fragment of cTnT in AMI serum samples mainly appears due to the cleavage by thrombin during serum sample preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2016.266635DOI Listing
June 2017

Phytaspase-mediated precursor processing and maturation of the wound hormone systemin.

New Phytol 2018 05 13;218(3):1167-1178. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Peptide hormones are implicated in many important aspects of plant life and are usually synthesized as precursor proteins. In contrast to animals, data for plant peptide hormone maturation are scarce and the specificity of processing enzyme(s) is largely unknown. Here we tested a hypothesis that processing of prosystemin, a precursor of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) wound hormone systemin, is performed by phytaspases, aspartate-specific proteases of the subtilase family. Following the purification of phytaspase from tomato leaves, two tomato phytaspase genes were identified, the cDNAs were cloned and the recombinant enzymes were obtained after transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The newly identified tomato phytaspases hydrolyzed prosystemin at two aspartate residues flanking the systemin sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis of the phytaspase cleavage sites in prosystemin abrogated not only the phytaspase-mediated processing of the prohormone in vitro, but also the ability of prosystemin to trigger the systemic wound response in vivo. The data show that the prohormone prosystemin requires processing for signal biogenesis and biological activity. The identification of phytaspases as the proteases involved in prosystemin maturation provides insight into the mechanisms of wound signaling in tomato. Our data also suggest a novel role for cell death-related proteases in mediating defense signaling in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14568DOI Listing
May 2018

Oligomeric protein complexes of apolipoproteins stabilize the internal fluid environment of organism in redfins of the Tribolodon genus [Pisces; Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae].

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2017 06 1;22:90-97. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters, Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok, 152742, Nekouzskii raion, Yaroslavl oblast, Russia; A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia.

One of the most important functions of plasma proteins in vertebrates is their participation in osmotic homeostasis in the organism. Modern concepts about plasma proteins and their capillary filtration are based on a model of large monomeric proteins that are able to penetrate the interstitial space. At the same time, it was revealed that a considerable amount of oligomeric complexes are present in the low-molecular-weight (LM) protein fraction in the extracellular fluids of fishes. The functions of these complexes are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the LM-fraction proteins in the plasma and interstitial fluid (IF) of redfins of the genus Tribolodon. This fish alternatively spends parts of its life cycle in saline and fresh waters. We identified the protein Wap65, serpins and apolipoproteins in this fraction. By combining the methods of 2D-E under native and denaturing conditions with MALDI, we demonstrated that only apolipoproteins formed complexes. We showed that serum apolipoproteins (АроА-I, Аро-14) were present in the form of homooligomeric complexes that were dissociated with the release of monomeric forms of proteins in the course of capillary filtration to IF. Dissociation of homooligomers is not directly correlated with the change in salinity but is correlated with seasonal dynamics. We found that there was a significant decrease in the total protein concentration in IF relative to plasma. Therefore, we suggested that dissociation of homooligomeric complexes from various apolipoproteins supports the isoosmoticity of extracellular fluids relative to capillary wall stabilization through a fluid medium in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2017.02.007DOI Listing
June 2017

Sorting Out Antibiotics' Mechanisms of Action: a Double Fluorescent Protein Reporter for High-Throughput Screening of Ribosome and DNA Biosynthesis Inhibitors.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016 12 21;60(12):7481-7489. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry and A. N. Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Moscow, Russia.

In order to accelerate drug discovery, a simple, reliable, and cost-effective system for high-throughput identification of a potential antibiotic mechanism of action is required. To facilitate such screening of new antibiotics, we created a double-reporter system for not only antimicrobial activity detection but also simultaneous sorting of potential antimicrobials into those that cause ribosome stalling and those that induce the SOS response due to DNA damage. In this reporter system, the red fluorescent protein gene rfp was placed under the control of the SOS-inducible sulA promoter. The gene of the far-red fluorescent protein, katushka2S, was inserted downstream of the tryptophan attenuator in which two tryptophan codons were replaced by alanine codons, with simultaneous replacement of the complementary part of the attenuator to preserve the ability to form secondary structures that influence transcription termination. This genetically modified attenuator makes possible Katushka2S expression only upon exposure to ribosome-stalling compounds. The application of red and far-red fluorescent proteins provides a high signal-to-background ratio without any need of enzymatic substrates for detection of the reporter activity. This reporter was shown to be efficient in high-throughput screening of both synthetic and natural chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02117-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5119032PMC
December 2016

Peptides from puff adder Bitis arietans venom, novel inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

Toxicon 2016 Oct 26;121:70-76. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, Moscow, 117997, Russia. Electronic address:

Phospholipase A (named bitanarin) possessing capability to block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) was isolated earlier (Vulfius et al., 2011) from puff adder Bitis arietans venom. Further studies indicated that low molecular weight fractions of puff adder venom inhibit nAChRs as well. In this paper, we report on isolation from this venom and characterization of three novel peptides called baptides 1, 2 and 3 that reversibly block nAChRs. To isolate the peptides, the venom of B. arietans was fractionated by gel-filtration and reversed phase chromatography. The amino acid sequences of peptides were established by de novo sequencing using MALDI mass spectrometry. Baptide 1 comprised 7, baptides 2 and 3-10 amino acid residues, the latter being acetylated at the N-terminus. This is the first indication for the presence of such post-translational modification in snake venom proteins. None of the peptides contain cysteine residues. For biological activity studies the peptides were prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis. Baptide 3 and 2 blocked acetylcholine-elicited currents in isolated Lymnaea stagnalis neurons with IC of about 50 μM and 250 μM, respectively. In addition baptide 2 blocked acetylcholine-induced currents in muscle nAChR heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes with IC of about 3 μM. The peptides did not compete with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and α7 nAChRs at concentration up to 200 μM that suggests non-competitive mode of inhibition. Calcium imaging studies on α7 and muscle nAChRs heterologously expressed in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells showed that on α7 receptor baptide 2 inhibited acetylcholine-induced increasing intracellular calcium concentration with IC of 20.6 ± 3.93 μM. On both α7 and muscle nAChRs the suppression of maximal response to acetylcholine by about 50% was observed at baptide 2 concentration of 25 μM, the value being close to IC on α7 nAChR. These data are in accord with non-competitive inhibition as follows from α-bungarotoxin binding experiments. The described peptides are the shortest peptides without disulfide bridges isolated from animal venom and capable to inhibit nAChR by non-competitive way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.08.020DOI Listing
October 2016
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