Publications by authors named "Marina Fasolini"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery of Entrectinib: A New 3-Aminoindazole As a Potent Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK), c-ros Oncogene 1 Kinase (ROS1), and Pan-Tropomyosin Receptor Kinases (Pan-TRKs) inhibitor.

J Med Chem 2016 Apr 30;59(7):3392-408. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl , Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Milan, Italy.

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase responsible for the development of different tumor types. Despite the remarkable clinical activity of crizotinib (Xalkori), the first ALK inhibitor approved in 2011, the emergence of resistance mutations and of brain metastases frequently causes relapse in patients. Within our ALK drug discovery program, we identified compound 1, a novel 3-aminoindazole active on ALK in biochemical and in cellular assays. Its optimization led to compound 2 (entrectinib), a potent orally available ALK inhibitor active on ALK-dependent cell lines, efficiently penetrant the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in different animal species and highly efficacious in in vivo xenograft models. Moreover, entrectinib resulted to be strictly potent on the closely related tyrosine kinases ROS1 and TRKs recently found constitutively activated in several tumor types. Entrectinib is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trial for the treatment of patients affected by ALK-, ROS1-, and TRK-positive tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00064DOI Listing
April 2016

Discovery of 2-[1-(4,4-Difluorocyclohexyl)piperidin-4-yl]-6-fluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindole-4-carboxamide (NMS-P118): A Potent, Orally Available, and Highly Selective PARP-1 Inhibitor for Cancer Therapy.

J Med Chem 2015 Sep 26;58(17):6875-98. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl , Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Milan, Italy.

The nuclear protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) has a well-established role in the signaling and repair of DNA and is a prominent target in oncology, as testified by the number of candidates in clinical testing that unselectively target both PARP-1 and its closest isoform PARP-2. The goal of our program was to find a PARP-1 selective inhibitor that would potentially mitigate toxicities arising from cross-inhibition of PARP-2. Thus, an HTS campaign on the proprietary Nerviano Medical Sciences (NMS) chemical collection, followed by SAR optimization, allowed us to discover 2-[1-(4,4-difluorocyclohexyl)piperidin-4-yl]-6-fluoro-3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindole-4-carboxamide (NMS-P118, 20by). NMS-P118 proved to be a potent, orally available, and highly selective PARP-1 inhibitor endowed with excellent ADME and pharmacokinetic profiles and high efficacy in vivo both as a single agent and in combination with Temozolomide in MDA-MB-436 and Capan-1 xenograft models, respectively. Cocrystal structures of 20by with both PARP-1 and PARP-2 catalytic domain proteins allowed rationalization of the observed selectivity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00680DOI Listing
September 2015

Optimization of diarylthiazole B-raf inhibitors: identification of a compound endowed with high oral antitumor activity, mitigated hERG inhibition, and low paradoxical effect.

ChemMedChem 2015 Feb 27;10(2):276-95. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl, Business Unit Oncology, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano (MI) (Italy).

Aberrant activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated pathway components, RAF-MEK-ERK, is frequently observed in human cancers and clearly contributes to oncogenesis. As part of a project aimed at finding inhibitors of B-Raf, a key player in the MAPK cascade, we originally identified a thiazole derivative endowed with high potency and selectivity, optimal in vitro ADME properties, and good pharmacokinetic profiles in rodents, but that suffers from elevated hERG inhibitory activity. An optimization program was thus undertaken, focused mainly on the elaboration of the R(1) and R(2) groups of the scaffold. This effort ultimately led to N-(4-{2-(1-cyclopropylpiperidin-4-yl)-4-[3-(2,5-difluorobenzenesulfonylamino)-2-fluorophenyl]thiazol-5-yl}-pyridin-2-yl)acetamide (20), which maintains favorable in vitro and in vivo properties, but lacks hERG liability. Besides exhibiting potent antiproliferative activity against only cell lines bearing B-Raf V600E or V600D mutations, compound 20 also intriguingly shows a weaker "paradoxical" activation of MEK in non-mutant B-Raf cells than other known B-Raf inhibitors. It also demonstrates very good efficacy in vivo against the A375 xenograft melanoma model (tumor volume inhibition >90% at 10 mg kg(-1) ); it is therefore a suitable candidate for preclinical development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.201402424DOI Listing
February 2015

Pyrrole-3-carboxamides as potent and selective JAK2 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem 2014 Sep 21;22(17):4998-5012. Epub 2014 Jun 21.

Nerviano Medical Sciences S.r.l., Oncology, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano (MI), Italy.

We report herein the discovery, structure guided design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel class of JAK2 inhibitors. Optimization of the series led to the identification of the potent and orally bioavailable JAK2 inhibitor 28 (NMS-P953). Compound 28 displayed significant tumour growth inhibition in SET-2 xenograft tumour model, with a mechanism of action confirmed in vivo by typical modulation of known biomarkers, and with a favourable pharmacokinetic and safety profile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2014.06.025DOI Listing
September 2014

Tetramerization dynamics of C-terminal domain underlies isoform-specific cAMP gating in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels.

J Biol Chem 2011 Dec 17;286(52):44811-20. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

Department of Biology and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Biofisica, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are dually activated by hyperpolarization and binding of cAMP to their cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD). HCN isoforms respond differently to cAMP; binding of cAMP shifts activation of HCN2 and HCN4 by 17 mV but shifts that of HCN1 by only 2-4 mV. To explain the peculiarity of HCN1, we solved the crystal structures and performed a biochemical-biophysical characterization of the C-terminal domain (C-linker plus CNBD) of the three isoforms. Our main finding is that tetramerization of the C-terminal domain of HCN1 occurs at basal cAMP concentrations, whereas those of HCN2 and HCN4 require cAMP saturating levels. Therefore, HCN1 responds less markedly than HCN2 and HCN4 to cAMP increase because its CNBD is already partly tetrameric. This is confirmed by voltage clamp experiments showing that the right-shifted position of V(½) in HCN1 is correlated with its propensity to tetramerize in vitro. These data underscore that ligand-induced CNBD tetramerization removes tonic inhibition from the pore of HCN channels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.297606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3247997PMC
December 2011

NMS-P937, a 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivative as potent and selective Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2011 May 21;21(10):2969-74. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Nerviano Medical Sciences srl, Business Unit Oncology, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, MI, Italy.

As part of our drug discovery effort, we identified and developed 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-h]quinazoline derivatives as PLK1 inhibitors. We now report the optimization of this class that led to the identification of NMS-P937, a potent, selective and orally available PLK1 inhibitor. Also, in order to understand the source of PLK1 selectivity, we determined the crystal structure of PLK1 with NMS-P937. The compound was active in vivo in HCT116 xenograft model after oral administration and is presently in Phase I clinical trials evaluation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.03.054DOI Listing
May 2011

Structural basis for CARM1 inhibition by indole and pyrazole inhibitors.

Biochem J 2011 Jun;436(2):331-9

Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, P.O. Box 4000, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000, USA.

CARM1 (co-activator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1) is a PRMT (protein arginine N-methyltransferase) family member that catalyses the transfer of methyl groups from SAM (S-adenosylmethionine) to the side chain of specific arginine residues of substrate proteins. This post-translational modification of proteins regulates a variety of transcriptional events and other cellular processes. Moreover, CARM1 is a potential oncological target due to its multiple roles in transcription activation by nuclear hormone receptors and other transcription factors such as p53. Here, we present crystal structures of the CARM1 catalytic domain in complex with cofactors [SAH (S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine) or SNF (sinefungin)] and indole or pyazole inhibitors. Analysis of the structures reveals that the inhibitors bind in the arginine-binding cavity and the surrounding pocket that exists at the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains. In addition, we show using ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) that the inhibitors bind to the CARM1 catalytic domain only in the presence of the cofactor SAH. Furthermore, sequence differences for select residues that interact with the inhibitors may be responsible for the CARM1 selectivity against PRMT1 and PRMT3. Together, the structural and biophysical information should aid in the design of both potent and specific inhibitors of CARM1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20102161DOI Listing
June 2011

First Cdc7 kinase inhibitors: pyrrolopyridinones as potent and orally active antitumor agents. 2. Lead discovery.

J Med Chem 2009 Jan;52(2):293-307

Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Milano, Italy.

Cdc7 kinase is a key regulator of the S-phase of the cell cycle, known to promote the activation of DNA replication origins in eukaryotic organisms. Cdc7 inhibition can cause tumor-cell death in a p53-independent manner, supporting the rationale for developing Cdc7 inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. In this paper, we conclude the structure-activity relationships study of the 2-heteroaryl-pyrrolopyridinone class of compounds that display potent inhibitory activity against Cdc7 kinase. Furthermore, we also describe the discovery of 89S, [(S)-2-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)-7-(2-fluoro-ethyl)-1,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridin-4-one], as a potent ATP mimetic inhibitor of Cdc7. Compound 89S has a Ki value of 0.5 nM, inhibits cell proliferation of different tumor cell lines with an IC50 in the submicromolar range, and exhibits in vivo tumor growth inhibition of 68% in the A2780 xenograft model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm800977qDOI Listing
January 2009

Inhibition of protein-protein interactions: the discovery of druglike beta-catenin inhibitors by combining virtual and biophysical screening.

Proteins 2006 Jul;64(1):60-7

Department of Chemistry, Nerviano Medical Sciences, Nerviano, MI, Italy.

The interaction between beta-catenin and Tcf family members is crucial for the Wnt signal transduction pathway, which is commonly mutated in cancer. This interaction extends over a very large surface area (4800 A(2)), and inhibiting such interactions using low molecular weight inhibitors is a challenge. However, protein surfaces frequently contain "hot spots," small patches that are the main mediators of binding affinity. By making tight interactions with a hot spot, a small molecule can compete with a protein. The Tcf3/Tcf4-binding surface on beta-catenin contains a well-defined hot spot around residues K435 and R469. A 17,700 compounds subset of the Pharmacia corporate collection was docked to this hot spot with the QXP program; 22 of the best scoring compounds were put into a biophysical (NMR and ITC) screening funnel, where specific binding to beta-catenin, competition with Tcf4 and finally binding constants were determined. This process led to the discovery of three druglike, low molecular weight Tcf4-competitive compounds with the tightest binder having a K(D) of 450 nM. Our approach can be used in several situations (e.g., when selecting compounds from external collections, when no biochemical functional assay is available, or when no HTS is envisioned), and it may be generally applicable to the identification of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.20955DOI Listing
July 2006

Hot spots in Tcf4 for the interaction with beta-catenin.

J Biol Chem 2003 Jun 25;278(23):21092-8. Epub 2003 Mar 25.

Pharmacia Corporation Discovery Research Oncology, Department of Chemistry, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Italy.

The interaction of beta-catenin with T-cell factor (Tcf) 4 plays a central role in the Wnt signaling pathway and has been discussed as a possible site of intervention for the development of anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we performed Ala-scanning mutagenesis of all Tcf4 residues in the Tcf-beta-catenin interface and studied the binding energetics of these mutants using isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of Tcf4 was found to be highly cooperative. Single site mutations of most Tcf4 residues resulted in a significant reduction in binding enthalpies but in similar binding constants as compared with wild type Tcf4. Interestingly, this was also true for residues that are disordered in the reported crystal structures. The mutation D16A caused the largest reduction in binding constant (50-fold) accompanied by a large unfavorable enthalpy change (DeltaDeltaHobs) of +8 kcal/mol at 25 degrees C. In contrast, the mutation of the Tcf residues Glu24 and Glu28, which have been proposed as an interaction hot spot due to their location in a field of strong positive electrostatic potential on the beta-catenin surface (charge button), resulted only in a significant reduction of binding enthalpies, which were largely compensated for by unfavorable entropic contributions to the binding. Other mutations that significantly reduced Tcf binding constants were D11A and alanine mutations of the hydrophobic residues Leu41, Val44, and Leu48. The measured thermodynamic data are discussed with the available structural information of Tcf-beta-catenin crystal structures and allow us to propose possible sites for development of Tcf antagonists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M301781200DOI Listing
June 2003

NMR-Based screening with competition water-ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy experiments: detection of high-affinity ligands.

J Med Chem 2002 Jun;45(12):2610-4

Department of Chemistry, Pharmacia, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano (MI), Italy.

Water-ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (WaterLOGSY) represents a powerful method for primary NMR screening in the identification of compounds interacting with macromolecules, including proteins and DNA or RNA fragments. The method is useful for the detection of compounds binding to a receptor with binding affinity in the micromolar range. The Achille's heel of the method, as with all the techniques that detect the ligand resonances, is its inability to identify strong ligands with slow dissociation rates. We show here that the use of a reference compound with a known K(D) in the micromolar range together with properly designed competition binding experiments (c-WaterLOGSY) permits the detection of strong binders. A derived mathematical expression is used for the selection of the appropriate setup NMR experimental conditions and for an approximate determination of the binding constant. The experiment requires low ligand concentration, therefore allowing its application in the identification of potential strong inhibitors that are only marginally soluble. The technique is particularly suitable for rapid screening of chemical mixtures and plant or fungi extracts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm011122kDOI Listing
June 2002

Peripheral Nerve Dysmyelination Due to P Glycoprotein Overexpression Is Dose-Dependent.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999 Oct;883(1):294-301

Department of Neurology and DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, ItalyDepartment of Pathobiological Sciences, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA.

We have previously shown that increased dosage of the mouse protein zero gene (Mpz) causes a dysmyelinating neuropathy in transgenic (Tg80) mice. To ask whether the dysmyelination is dose dependent, we inbred one of the Tg80 lines and compared the resulting phenotype in homozygous and heterozygous mice. Whereas heterozygous mice (30% overexpression) have only transient peripheral nerve hypomyelination at two weeks after birth and normal myelin at four weeks after birth, homozygous mice demonstrated more severely hypomyelinated nerves. In the latter, many Schwann cells had achieved a one-to-one relationship with large axons but formed no myelin at four weeks after birth. Expression analysis confirmed a doubling of Mpz overexpression in the sciatic nerves of the homozygous mice. Thus, a threshold exists for Mpz overexpression, above which dysmyelination results. These data have important implications for replacement therapy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B neuropathies due to loss of P function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08591.xDOI Listing
October 1999

P-Cre Transgenic Mice for Inactivation of Adhesion Molecules in Schwann Cells.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999 Oct;883(1):116-123

Department of Neurology and DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, ItalyDepartment of Pathobiological Sciences, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA.

Normal peripheral nerve myelination depends on Schwann cell-basal lamina interactions. An important component of Schwann cell basal lamina is laminin-predominantly laminins 2 and 4. Mutations in the alpha 2 chain common to these two isoforms are associated with dysmyelination in mouse (dy) and man (congenital muscular dystrophy). Thus, laminin 2 and 4 receptors are also likely to be important for myelin formation. Several laminin 2/4 receptors are detected at the basal lamina surface of myelin-forming Schwann cells, namely, α6β4 and α6β1 integrins and dystroglycan. The evidence linking these receptors to myelination is suggestive, but not conclusive. Genetic studies have not yet confirmed a role for these molecules in myelin formation. Natural or targeted inactivation of α6, β4, and β1 integrins and of dystroglycan have profound effects on other tissues causing embryonic or perinatal death before myelination. Therefore, to conditionally inactivate these receptors specifically in myelin-forming Schwann cells, we have constructed and initially characterized a P-Cre transgene that activates Cre-mediated recombination of loxP-containing genes in peripheral nerve.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08574.xDOI Listing
October 1999