Publications by authors named "Marina Deuker"

59 Publications

Multiparametric MRI may Help to Identify Patients With Prostate Cancer in a Contemporary Cohort of Patients With Clinical Bladder Outlet Obstruction Scheduled for Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate (HoLEP).

Front Surg 2021 25;8:633196. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Urology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.

To investigate the value of standard [digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA] and advanced (mpMRI, prostate biopsy) clinical evaluation for prostate cancer (PCa) detection in contemporary patients with clinical bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) scheduled for Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). We retrospectively analyzed 397 patients, who were referred to our tertiary care laser center for HoLEP due to BOO between 11/2017 and 07/2020. Of those, 83 (20.7%) underwent further advanced clinical PCa evaluation with mpMRI and/or prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA and/or lowered PSA ratio and/or suspicious DRE. Logistic regression and binary regression tree models were applied to identify PCa in BOO patients. An mpMRI was conducted in 56 (66%) of 83 patients and revealed PIRADS 4/5 lesions in 14 (25%) patients. Subsequently, a combined systematic randomized and MRI-fusion biopsy was performed in 19 (23%) patients and revealed in PCa detection in four patients (5%). A randomized prostate biopsy was performed in 31 (37%) patients and revealed in PCa detection in three patients (4%). All seven patients (9%) with PCa detection underwent radical prostatectomy with 29% exhibiting non-organ confined disease. Incidental PCa after HoLEP ( = 76) was found in nine patients (12%) with advanced clinical PCa evaluation preoperatively. In univariable logistic regression analyses, PSA, fPSA ratio, and PSA density failed to identify patients with PCa detection. Conversely, patients with a lower International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and PIRADs 4/5 lesion in mpMRI were at higher risk for PCa detection. In multivariable adjusted analyses, PIRADS 4/5 lesions were confirmed as an independent risk factor (OR 9.91, = 0.04), while IPSS did not reach significance ( = 0.052). In advanced clinical PCa evaluation mpMRI should be considered in patients with elevated total PSA or low fPSA ratio scheduled for BOO treatment with HoLEP. Patients with low IPSS or PIRADS 4/5 lesions in mpMRI are at highest risk for PCa detection. In patients with a history of two or more sets of negative prostate biopsies, advanced clinical PCa evaluation might be omitted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2021.633196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947872PMC
February 2021

Higher Cancer Mortality in Rural Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Patients.

Urol Int 2021 Mar 12:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the stage at presentation and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) between rural area (RA) and urban area (UA) residence status in nonmetastatic upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients.

Methods: Newly diagnosed T1-3N0M0 UTUC patients with available residence status were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2016). Propensity score (PS) matching (1 RA vs. 3 UA) accounted for age (interval ≤2 years), T stage (exact matching: T1, T2, and T3), and tumor grade (exact matching: high grade, low grade/unknown). Cumulative incidence plots and multivariable competing risk regression models focused on CSM, after adjustment for other-cause mortality.

Results: Of 6,012 patients, 125 (2.1%) resided in RAs and 5,887 (97.9%) in UAs. RA patients were younger than UA patients (median age 72 vs. 75 years, p = 0.03). No differences were recorded in tumor location, T stage, tumor grade, or surgical treatment between RA and UA patients. After 1:3 PS matching, 125 RA patients and 375 UA patients were assessable. At 5 years of follow-up, CSM rates were 26.7 versus 15.7% according to RA versus UA, respectively. After additional multivariable adjustment for age, sex, tumor location, and surgical treatment, RA remained an independent predictor of higher CSM (hazard ratio 1.75, p = 0.02).

Conclusions: Despite no differences in cancer characteristics, UTUC patients in RA are at higher risk of CSM than their UA counterparts. This suggests suboptimal care delivery and compliance as possible causes. Complex and/or rare disease should be centralized to expert centers, which are often in UAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513361DOI Listing
March 2021

Prognostic value of the preoperative albumin-globulin ratio in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma treated with radical nephroureterectomy: results from a large multicenter international collaboration.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: To assess the value of preoperative albumin to globulin ratio for predicting pathologic and oncological outcomes in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma treated with radical nephroureterectomy in a large multi-institutional cohort.

Materials And Methods: Preoperative albumin to globulin ratio was assessed in a multi-institutional cohort of 2492 patients. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of the albumin to globulin ratio with pathologic features. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed for survival endpoints.

Results: The optimal cut-off value was determined to be 1.4 according to a receiver operating curve analysis. Lower albumin to globulin ratios were observed in 797 patients (33.6%) compared with other patients. In a preoperative model, low preoperative albumin to globulin ratio was independently associated with nonorgan-confined diseases (odds ratio 1.32, P = 0.002). Patients with low albumin to globulin ratios had worse recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001), cancer-specific survival (P = 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.020) in univariable and multivariable analyses after adjusting for the effect of standard preoperative prognostic factors (recurrence-free survival: hazard ratio (HR) 1.31, P = 0.001; cancer-specific survival: HR 1.31, P = 0.002 and overall survival: HR 1.18, P = 0.024).

Conclusions: Lower preoperative albumin to globulin ratio is associated with locally advanced disease and worse clinical outcomes in patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. As it is difficult to stage disease entity, low preoperative serum albumin to globulin ratio may help identify those most likely to benefit from intensified care, such as perioperative systemic therapy, and the extent and type of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab023DOI Listing
February 2021

A panel of systemic inflammatory response biomarkers for outcome prediction in patients treated with radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma.

BJU Int 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: To determine the predictive and prognostic value of a panel of systemic inflammatory response (SIR) biomarkers relative to established clinicopathological variables in order to improve patient selection and facilitate more efficient delivery of peri-operative systemic therapy.

Materials And Methods: The preoperative serum levels of a panel of SIR biomarkers, including albumin-globulin ratio, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, De Ritis ratio, monocyte-lymphocyte ratio and modified Glasgow prognostic score were assessed in 4199 patients treated with radical cystectomy for clinically non-metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Patients were randomly divided into a training and a testing cohort. A machine-learning-based variable selection approach (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression) was used for the fitting of several multivariable predictive and prognostic models. The outcomes of interest included prediction of upstaging to carcinoma invading bladder muscle (MIBC), lymph node involvement, pT3/4 disease, cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The discriminatory ability of each model was either quantified by area under the receiver-operating curves or by the C-index. After validation and calibration of each model, a nomogram was created and decision-curve analysis was used to evaluate the clinical net benefit.

Results: For all outcome variables, at least one SIR biomarker was selected by the machine-learning process to be of high discriminative power during the fitting of the models. In the testing cohort, model performance evaluation for preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis, ≥pT3 disease and upstaging to MIBC showed a 200-fold bootstrap-corrected area under the curve of 67.3%, 73% and 65.8%, respectively. For postoperative prognosis of CSS and RFS, a 200-fold bootstrap corrected C-index of 73.3% and 72.2%, respectively, was found. However, even the most predictive combinations of SIR biomarkers only marginally increased the discriminative ability of the respective model in comparison to established clinicopathological variables.

Conclusion: While our machine-learning approach for fitting of the models with the highest discriminative ability incorporated several previously validated SIR biomarkers, these failed to improve the discriminative ability of the models to a clinically meaningful degree. While the prognostic and predictive value of such cheap and readily available biomarkers warrants further evaluation in the age of immunotherapy, additional novel biomarkers are still needed to improve risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15379DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison between small renal masses 0-2 cm vs. 2.1-4 cm in size: A population-based study.

Urol Oncol 2021 Apr 16;39(4):239.e1-239.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Urology, University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The NCCN guidelines recommend active surveillance (AS) as an option for the initial management of cT1a 0-2 cm renal lesions. However, data about comparison between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) 0-2 cm vs. 2.1-4 cm are scarce.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2002-2016), 46,630 T1a NM stage patients treated with nephrectomy were identified. Data were tabulated according to histological subtype, tumor grade (low [LG] vs. high [HG]), as well as age category and gender. Additionally, rates of synchronous metastases were quantified.

Results: Overall, 69.3 vs. 74.1% clear cell, 21.4 vs. 17.6% papillary, 6.9 vs. 6.8% chromophobe, 2.0 vs. 1.1% sarcomatoid dedifferentiation, 0.2 vs. 0.2% collecting duct histological subtype were identified for respectively 0-2 cm and 2.1-4 cm RCCs. In both groups, advanced age was associated with higher rate of HG clear cell and HG papillary histological subtype. In 0-2 cm vs. 2.1-4 cm RCCs, 13.8% vs. 20.2% individuals operated on harbored HG tumors and were more prevalent in males. Lower synchronous metastases rates were recorded in 0-2 cm RCC and ranged from 0 in respectively multilocular cystic to 0.9% in HG papillary histological subtype. The highest synchronous metastases rates were recorded in sarcomatoid dedifferentiation histological subtype (13.8% and 9.7%) in both groups.

Conclusions: Relative to 2.1-4 cm RCCs, 0-2 cm RCCs harbored lower rates of HG tumors, lower rates of aggressive variant histology and lower rates of synchronous metastases. The indications and demographics of patients selected for AS may be expanded in the future to include younger and healthier patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.01.003DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparison Between Urothelial and Non-Urothelial Urethral Cancer.

Front Oncol 2020 29;10:629692. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Background: To test the effect of variant histology relative to urothelial histology on stage at presentation, cancer specific mortality (CSM), and overall mortality (OM) after chemotherapy use, in urethral cancer.

Materials And Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (2004-2016) database, we identified 1,907 primary variant histology urethral cancer patients. Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox regression analyses, cumulative incidence-plots, multivariable competing-risks regression models and propensity score matching for patient and tumor characteristics were used.

Results: Of 1,907 eligible urethral cancer patients, urothelial histology affected 1,009 (52.9%) vs. squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) 455 (23.6%) vs. adenocarcinoma 278 (14.6%) vs. other histology 165 (8.7%) patients. Urothelial histological patients exhibited lower stages at presentation than SCC, adenocarcinoma or other histology patients. In urothelial histology patients, five-year CSM was 23.5% vs. 34.4% in SCC [Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.57] vs. 40.7% in adenocarcinoma (HR 1.69) vs. 43.4% in other histology (HR 1.99, p < 0.001). After matching in multivariate competing-risks regression models, variant histology exhibited 1.35-fold higher CSM than urothelial. Finally, in metastatic urethral cancer, lower OM was recorded after chemotherapy in general, including metastatic adenocarcinoma and other variant histology subtypes, except metastatic SCC.

Conclusion: Adenocarcinoma, SCC and other histology subtypes affect fewer patients than urothelial histology. Presence of variant histology results in higher CSM. Finally, chemotherapy for metastatic urethral cancer improves survival in adenocarcinoma and other variant histology subtypes, but not in SCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.629692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880052PMC
January 2021

Sex- and Age-Related Differences in the Distribution of Metastases in Patients With Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Feb 11:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

1Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The distribution of metastatic sites in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is not well-known. Consequently, the effects of sex and age on the location of metastases is also unknown. This study sought to investigate age- and sex-related differences in the distribution of metastases in patients with UTUC.

Materials And Methods: Within the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2000-2015), we identified 1,340 patients with metastatic UTUC. Sites of metastasis were assessed according to age (≤63, 64-72, 73-79, and ≥80 years) and sex. Comparison was performed with trend and chi-square tests.

Results: Of 1,340 patients with metastatic UTUC, 790 (59.0%) were men (median age, 71 years) and 550 (41.0%) were women (median age, 74 years). The lung was the most common site of metastases in men and women (28.2% and 26.4%, respectively), followed by bone in men (22.3% vs 18.0% of women) and liver in women (24.4% vs 20.5% of men). Increasing age was associated with decreasing rates of brain metastasis in men (from 6.5% to 2.9%; P=.03) and women (from 5.9% to 0.7%; P=.01). Moreover, increasing age in women, but not in men, was associated with decreasing rates of lung (from 33.3% to 24.3%; P=.02), lymph node (from 28.9% to 15.8%; P=.01), and bone metastases (from 22.2% to 10.5%; P=.02). Finally, rates of metastases in multiple organs did not vary with age or sex (65.2% in men vs 66.5% in women).

Conclusions: Lung, bone, and liver metastases are the most common metastatic sites in both sexes. However, the distribution of metastases varies according to sex and age. These observations apply to everyday clinical practice and may be used, for example, to advocate for universal bone imaging in patients with UTUC. Moreover, our findings may also be used for design considerations of randomized trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7637DOI Listing
February 2021

Sex- and age-related differences in the distribution of bladder cancer metastases.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada.

Objective: Our objective was to investigate age- and sex-related differences in the distribution of metastases in patients with metastatic bladder cancer.

Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015), we identified 7040 patients with metastatic bladder cancer. Trend test and Chi-square test analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between age and site of metastases, according to sex.

Results: Of 7040 patients with metastatic bladder cancer, 5226 (74.2%) were men and 1814 (25.8%) were women. Thoracic, abdominal, bone and brain metastases were present in 19.5 vs. 23.0%, 43.6 vs. 46.9%, 23.9 vs. 18.7% and 2.4 vs. 2.9% of men vs. women, respectively. Bone was the most common metastatic site in men (23.9%) vs. lung in women (22.4%). Increasing age was associated with decreasing rates of abdominal (from 44.9 to 40.2%) and brain (from 3.2 to 1.4%) metastases in men vs. decreasing rates of bone (from 21.0 to 13.3%) and brain (from 5.1 to 2.0%) metastases in women (all P < 0.05). Finally, rates of metastases in multiple organs also decreased with age, in both men and women.

Conclusions: The distribution of metastases in bladder cancer varies according to sex. Moreover, differences exist according to patient age and these differences are also sex-specific. In consequence, patient age and sex should be considered in the interpretation of imaging, especially when findings are indeterminate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa273DOI Listing
February 2021

Racial differences in the distribution of bladder cancer metastases: a population-based analysis.

Cent European J Urol 2020 31;73(4):407-415. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Division of Urology, Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Introduction: Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary malignancy in the United States. The incidence of bladder cancer rises with age, and it is two times more common in Caucasians than in African-Americans (23.1 vs. 12.6 cases/100,000 persons). We aimed to investigate the racial and age-related differences in the distribution of metastasis in a large, contemporary cohort of metastatic bladder cancer patients.

Material And Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified 5,767 patients with metastatic bladder cancer. Trend test, Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between ethnicity, age, and site of metastasis.

Results: Of 5,767 patients with metastatic bladder cancer, 598 (10.4%) were African-American. Lung was the most common metastatic site in African-Americans (28.6%) vs. bone in Caucasians (21.7%). Overall, African-Americans showed higher rates of lung (+10.2%), liver (+7.5%) and bone (+5.2%) metastases, compared to Caucasians (all p <0.01). Brain metastases were rare in both ethnicities (3.3 vs. 2.4%; p = 0.2). Rates of exclusive bone, lung or liver metastases increased with age, but were higher in African-Americans, regardless of age strata. In the multivariable logistic regression models, African-American ethnicity independently predicted higher risk of lung (Odds ratio: 1.69), liver (odds ratio: 1.50) and bone (odds ratio: 1.27) metastases, relative to Caucasians. Moreover, a dose-response effect was found after combining the three main risk factors for developing bone metastases, namely African-American ethnicity, younger age and male gender.

Conclusions: Racial differences exist in the distribution of metastatic bladder cancer metastasis. Moreover, based on higher risk of bone metastases in African-American patients, bone imaging may be warranted in this patient population, especially in the presence of other risk factors for bone metastases, namely male gender or younger age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2020.0269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7848828PMC
October 2020

The impact of sex and age on distribution of metastases in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Jan 30. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Our objective was to investigate age and sex-related discrepancies on distribution of metastases in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified 9607 patients with metastatic RCC. Trend test and Chi-square test analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between age and site of metastases, according to sex.

Results: Of 9607 patients with metastatic RCC, 6344 (65.9%) were men and 3263 (34.1%) were women. Thoracic, abdominal, bone and brain metastases were present in 51.1 vs. 52.8%, 42.6 vs. 44.3%, 29.9 vs. 29.2% and 8.6 vs. 8.8% of men vs. women, respectively. Increasing age was associated with decreasing rates of thoracic (from 55.5 to 48.5%) and brain (from 8.6 to 5.8%) metastases in men and with decreasing rates of abdominal (from 48.3 to 39.6%), bone (from 32.6 to 24.9%) and brain (from 8.8 to 5.4%) metastases in women. (all p < 0.05). Rates of concomitant metastatic sites also decreased with increasing age, from 57.1 to 50.8% in men and from 54.1 to 50.2% in women.

Conclusions: Important age and sex-related differences exist in the distribution of RCC metastases. The distribution of metastases is marginally different between sexes. Specifically, more advanced age is associated with lower rates of thoracic and brain metastases in men and with lower rates of abdominal, bone and brain metastases in women. Age and sex should be take into consideration into the staging management strategy, as well as into the follow-up strategy of patients with metastatic RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-021-01874-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Metabolic syndrome predicts worse perioperative outcomes in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for non-metastatic prostate cancer.

Surg Oncol 2021 Jan 3;37:101519. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components (high blood pressure, BMI≥30, altered fasting glucose, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides) may undermine early perioperative outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP). We tested this hypothesis.

Materials & Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified RP patients. The effect of MetS was tested in four separate univariable analyses, as well as in multivariable regression models predicting: 1) overall complications, 2) length of stay, 3) total hospital charges and 4) non-home based discharge. All models were weighted and adjusted for clustering, as well as all available patient and hospital characteristics.

Results: Of 91,618 patients: 1) 50.2% had high blood pressure, 2) 8.0% had BMI≥30, 3) 13.0% had altered fasting glucose, 4) 22.8% had high triglycerides and 5) 0.03% had low HDL cholesterol. Respectively, one vs. two vs. three vs. four MetS components were recorded in 36.2% vs. 19.0% vs. 5.5% vs. 0.8% patients. Of all patients, 6.3% exhibited ≥3 components and qualified for MetS diagnosis. The rates of MetS increased over time (EAPC:+9.8%; p < 0.001). All four tested MetS components (high blood pressure, BMI≥30, altered fasting glucose and high triglycerides) achieved independent predictor status in all four examined endpoints. Moreover, a highly statistically significant dose-response was also confirmed for all four tested endpoints.

Conclusion: MetS and its components consistently and strongly predict early adverse outcomes after RP. Moreover, the strength of the effect was directly proportional to the number of MetS components exhibited by each individual patient, even if formal MetS diagnosis of ≥3 components has not been met.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.12.013DOI Listing
January 2021

Contemporary rates and predictors of open conversion during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer.

Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 11;36:131-137. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: To test contemporary rates and predictors of open conversion at minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN: laparoscopic or robotic partial nephrectomy).

Materials And Methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015) we identified all MIPN patients and patients that underwent open conversion at MIPN. First, estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) tested temporal trends of open conversion. Second, univariable and multivariable logistic regression models predicted open conversion at MIPN. All models were weighted and adjusted for clustering, as well as all available patient and hospital characteristics.

Results: Of 7649 MIPN patients, 287 (3.8%) underwent open conversion. The rates of open conversion decreased over time (from 12 to 2.4%; EAPC: 24.8%; p = 0.004). In multivariable logistic regression models predicting open conversion, patient obesity achieved independent predictor status (OR:1.80; p < 0.001). Moreover, compared to high volume hospitals, medium volume (OR:1.48; p = 0.02) and low volume hospitals (OR:2.11; p < 0.001) were associated with higher rates of open conversion. Last but not least, when the effect of obesity was tested according to hospital volume, the rates of open conversion ranged from 2.2 (non obese patients treated at high volume hospitals) to 9.8% (obese patients treated at low volume hospitals).

Conclusion: Overall contemporary (2008-2015) rate of open conversion at MIPN was 3.8% and it was strongly associated with patient obesity and hospital surgical volume. In consequence, these two parameters should be taken into account during preoperative patients counselling, as well as in clinical and administrative decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.12.004DOI Listing
March 2021

Upper Urinary Tract Tumors: Variant Histology Versus Urothelial Carcinoma.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Purpose: To evaluate stage at presentation and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in upper urinary tract tumors according to histologic subtype.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (SEER, 2004-2016), we identified patients with upper urinary tract tumors with pure variant histology (UTVH) and pure upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Cumulative incidence plots, after propensity score matching for tumor and patient characteristics, addressed CSM. Subgroup analyses addressed efficacy of radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in stage T1-2 and of chemotherapy in metastatic UTVH patients.

Results: Of all 11,809 upper urinary tract tumor patients, 154 (1.3%) harbored squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 86 (0.7%) adenocarcinoma, 39 (0.3%) neuroendocrine carcinoma, 38 (0.3%) other UTVH, and 11,492 (97.3%) UTUC. UTVH patients were more likely to exhibit metastatic stage disease at diagnosis than UTUC (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.8; P < .01). After detailed matching for performance status, only SCC showed significantly higher CSM than UTUC (multivariate HR = 1.71; P < .01). Subgroup analyses in stage T1-2 RNU patients showed, relative to UTUC patients, no CSM differences for SCC or adenocarcinoma patients. No significant survival benefit for chemotherapy administration was identified in patients with metastatic SCC or metastatic adenocarcinoma. This study is limited by its sample size and the missing centralized pathologic review.

Conclusions: Disease stage at diagnosis is more advanced in UTVH patients than UTUC. Across all stages, CSM is higher for SCC than for UTUC. However, in T1-2 stage disease, RNU results in similar survival in SCC or adenocarcinoma versus UTUC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.11.004DOI Listing
December 2020

Catheter Management and Risk Stratification of Patients With in Inpatient Treatment Due to Acute Epididymitis.

Front Surg 2020 3;7:609661. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Urology, University Hospital, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany.

This study aims to evaluate catheter management in acute epididymitis (AE) patients requiring inpatient treatment and risk factors predicting severity of disease. Patients with diagnosed AE and inpatient treatment between 2004 and 2019 at the University Hospital Frankfurt were analyzed. A risk score, rating severity of AE, including residual urine > 100 ml, fever > 38.0°C, C-reactive protein (CRP) > 5 mg/dl, and white blood count (WBC) > 10/nl was introduced. Of 334 patients, 107 (32%) received a catheter (transurethral (TC): = 53, 16%, suprapubic (SPC): = 54, 16%). Catheter patients were older, exhibited more comorbidities, and had higher CRP and WBC compared with the non-catheter group (NC). Median length of stay (LOS) was longer in the catheter group (7 vs. 6 days, < 0.001), whereas necessity of abscess surgery and recurrent epididymitis did not differ. No differences in those parameters were recorded between TC and SPC. According to our established risk score, 147 (44%) patients exhibited 0-1 () and 187 (56%) 2-4 risk factors (). In the high-risk group, patients received a catheter significantly more often than with low-risk (TC: 22 vs. 9%; SPC: 19 vs. 12%, both ≤ 0.01). Catheter or high-risk patients exhibited positive urine cultures more frequently than NC or low-risk patients. LOS was comparable between high-risk patients with catheter and low-risk NC patients. Patients with AE who received a catheter at admission were older, multimorbid, and exhibited more severe symptoms of disease compared with the NC patients. A protective effect of catheters might be attributable to patients with adverse risk constellations or high burden of comorbidities. The introduced risk score indicates a possibility for risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2020.609661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744346PMC
December 2020

The effect of race/ethnicity on histological subtype distribution, stage at presentation and cancer specific survival in urethral cancer.

Urol Oncol 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Objective: To test the effect of race/ethnicity on histological subtype, stage at presentation, and cancer specific mortality (CSM) in urethral cancer patients.

Material And Methods: Stratified analyses (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results [2004-2016]) tested the effect of race/ethnicity on histology and stage. Cumulative incidence-plots and multivariable competing-risks regression models (CRR), addressed CSM, after matching for TNM-stage, histology, age, and gender.

Results: Of 1,904 urethral cancer patients, 71% were Caucasian, 16% African American, 7% Hispanic and 5% other. African Americans were younger (66 years) than Caucasians (73 years) and Hispanics (74 years). In African Americans, adenocarcinoma (25%) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 29%) were more frequent than in Caucasians (12% and 23%) or Hispanics (15% and 20%). African Americans with adenocarcinoma exhibited higher stage than other adenocarcinoma patients. In CRR, African Americans (35%) and Hispanics (29%) exhibited highest and second highest 3-year CSM, even after matching. After further multivariable adjustment of matched CRRs, CSM was higher in Hispanics (HR: 1.93, P= 0.03) and in African Americans (Hazard ratio 1.35, P= 0.07), relative to Caucasians.

Conclusion: Race/ethnicity impacts important differences on urethral cancer patients. African American race/ethnicity predisposes to higher rate of SCC and adenocarcinoma. Moreover, African Americans are younger and present with higher stage at diagnoses. Finally, even after most detailed matching for stage, age, gender, and adjustment for treatment and systemic therapy and socioeconomic status, African Americans and Hispanics exhibit higher CSM than Caucasians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.11.031DOI Listing
December 2020

Bladder cancer stage and mortality: urban vs. rural residency.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Feb 23;32(2):139-145. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Objective: Relative to urban populations, rural patients may have more limited access to care, which may undermine timely bladder cancer (BCa) diagnosis and even survival.

Methods: We tested the effect of residency status (rural areas [RA < 2500 inhabitants] vs. urban clusters [UC ≥ 2500 inhabitants] vs. urbanized areas [UA, ≥50,000 inhabitants]) on BCa stage at presentation, as well as on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other cause mortality (OCM), according to the US Census Bureau definition. Multivariate competing risks regression (CRR) models were fitted after matching of RA or UC with UA in stage-stratified analyses.

Results: Of 222,330 patients, 3496 (1.6%) resided in RA, 25,462 (11.5%) in UC and 193,372 (87%) in UA. Age, tumor stage, radical cystectomy rates or chemotherapy use were comparable between RA, UC and UA (all p > 0.05). At 10 years, RA was associated with highest OCM followed by UC and UA (30.9% vs. 27.7% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.01). Similarly, CSM was also marginally higher in RA or UC vs. UA (20.0% vs. 20.1% vs. 18.8%, p = 0.01). In stage-stratified, fully matched CRR analyses, increased OCM and CSM only applied to stage T1 BCa patients.

Conclusion: We did not observe meaningful differences in access to treatment or stage distribution, according to residency status. However, RA and to a lesser extent UC residency status, were associated with higher OCM and marginally higher CSM in T1N0M0 patients. This observation should be further validated or refuted in additional epidemiological investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01366-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810614PMC
February 2021

External beam radiation therapy improves survival in elderly metastatic prostate cancer patients with low PSA.

Urol Oncol 2021 02 11;39(2):131.e1-131.e7. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: It is unknown, whether metastatic prostate cancer (CaP) patients with intermediate life expectancy (5-10 years) should be considered for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to the prostate. We addressed this void.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2016), we identified 835 M1a or M1b CaP substaged patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 20 ng/ml and with intermediate life expectancy (LE) 5 to 10 years, treated with EBRT or no EBRT. Inverse probability of treatment-weighting (IPTW), Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox-regression models (CRMs) were used.

Results: Overall, 179 (21.4%) patients received EBRT and 656 (78.6%) did not. EBRT rates increased from 13.9 to 23.8% (2004-2016; P= 0.04). After IPTW-adjustment, median OS was 45 vs. 35 months, in EBRT vs. no EBRT patients (P < 0.001). In IPTW-adjusted Cox-regression models, EBRT independently predicted lower overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.7, CI 0.61-0.89; P= 0.001). After stratification according to M1 substages, EBRT was associated with lower overall mortality in M1a (HR: 0.2, CI 0.05-0.91; P= 0.03) and M1b (HR: 0.7, CI 0.55-0.88; P = 0.003) substages.

Conclusion: EBRT was associated with lower mortality in metastatic CaP patients with low PSA and intermediate LE (5-10 years). In consequence, greater consideration for EBRT should be given in those patients. However, it is important to consider study limitations until clinical trials confirm the proposed benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.10.011DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of preoperative serum albumin-globulin ratio on disease outcome after radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

Urol Oncol 2021 Apr 11;39(4):235.e5-235.e14. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, University Hospital of Tours, Tours, France.

Introduction: The Albumin-Globulin Ratio (AGR; albumin/total protein - albumin) has been associated with oncological outcome in various malignancies. However, its role in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) has not been clearly established. In this study, we assessed the association of preoperative AGR (pAGR) with survival in patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) for UCB.

Material And Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of an established multicenter database of 4.335 patients who were treated with RC for UCB. The cohort was divided into 2 groups according to the pAGR status. Binominal logistic regression as well as uni- and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used. The predictive value of the models was assessed by calculating receiver operating characteristics curves and concordance-indices (C-Index). The additional clinical value was assessed using the decision curve analysis (DCA).

Results: Overall, 1.670 patients (38.5%) had a low pAGR. On multivariable logistic regression analyses, low pAGR was associated with an increased risk of ≥pT3 disease at RC (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.31, P= 0.04). On multivariable Cox regression analyses, low pAGR remained associated with worse recurrence-free survival (RFS, HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.1-1.37, P< 0.001), cancer-specific survival (CSS, HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.1-1.38, P< 0.001) and overall survival (OS, HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28, P< 0.001). The addition of pAGR to multiple prognostic models that were respectively fitted for clinical and postoperative variables did not improve the predictive accuracy.

Conclusion: pAGR status is an independent predictor of ≥pT3 disease, therefore it could help identify patients who have a higher likelihood to benefit from neoadjuvant systemic therapy. While pAGR was independently associated with RFS, CSS, and OS, it did not improve the predictive accuracy and clinical value beyond obtained by information already available. The predictive value of this biomarker in the age of immunotherapy needs further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.11.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognostic factors in patients with small renal masses: a comparison between <2 vs. 2.1-4 cm renal cell carcinomas.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 Feb 9;32(2):119-126. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Few data factually support the prognostic distinction between renal cell carcinomas (RCC) < 2 vs. 2.1-4 cm, in terms of cancer-specific mortality (CSM). We investigated CSM rates over time in <2 vs. 2.1-4 cm RCC, according to patient and tumor characteristics.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, we focused on patients with TNM RCC who underwent either radical or partial nephrectomy between 2000 and 2015. Temporal trends, Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox-regression analyses assessed CSM.

Results: Of 43,147 TNM patients, 12,238 (28.4%) harbored RCC < 2 cm and 30,909 (71.6%) 2.1-4 cm RCC. The distribution of histological subtypes according to 2 cm cut-off was as follows: a). clear-cell G1/G2: 64.5 vs. 61.8%; b). papillary G1/G2 15.9 vs. 11.1%; c). clear-cell G3/G4: 9.9 vs. 16.1%; d). papillary G3/G4 4.9 vs. 5.4%; and e). chromophobe 4.9 vs. 5.2%. Five-year CSM rates were invariably lower in RCC < 2 cm than in 2.1-4 cm, for all histological subtypes and grade groups (a-e), even after additional multivariable adjustment for age and residual tumor size differences. 5-year CSM rates improved in more contemporary years, in both tumor size groups (< 2 vs. 2.1-4 cm), but to a greater extent in 2.1-4 cm renal masses.

Conclusion: Our results validate the presence of prognostically more favorable CSM outcomes in RCC < 2 cm vs. 2.1-4 cm, across all histological subtypes and grades. Moreover, temporal improvements were also recorded in both <2 and 2.1-4 cm RCC groups, with more pronounced improvements in patients with 2.1-4 cm renal masses. However, prospective randomized trials are needed to further confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-020-01364-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Differences between rural and urban prostate cancer patients.

World J Urol 2020 Nov 5. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: We hypothesized that the residency status (rural area [RA] vs urban clusters [UC] vs urban areas [UA]) affects stage and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in contemporary newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) patients of all stages, regardless of treatment.

Methods: Newly diagnosed PCa patients with available residency status were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2016). Propensity-score (PS) matching, cumulative incidence plots, multivariate competing-risks regression (CRR) models were used.

Results: Of 531,468 PCa patients of all stages, 6653 (1.3%) resided in RA, 50,932 (9.6%) in UC and 473,883 (89.2%) in UA. No statistically significant or clinically meaningful differences in stage at presentation or CSM were recorded. Conversely, 10-year other cause-mortality (OCM) rates were 27.2% vs 23.7% vs 18.9% (p < 0.001) in RA vs UC vs UA patients, respectively. In CRR models, RA (subhazard ratio [SHR] 1.38; p < 0.001) and UC (SHR 1.18; p < 0.001) were independent predictors for higher OCM relative to UA. These differences remained statistically significant in fully PS-adjusted multivariate CRR models.

Conclusion: RA, and to a lesser extent UC, PCa patients are at higher risk of OCM than UA patients. Higher OCM may indicate shorter life expectancy and should be considered in treatment decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03483-7DOI Listing
November 2020

Prostate Cancer Grade and Stage Misclassification in Active Surveillance Candidates: Black Versus White Patients.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 11 2;18(11):1492-1499. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

1Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Misclassification rates defined as upgrading, upstaging, and upgrading and/or upstaging have not been tested in contemporary Black patients relative to White patients who fulfilled criteria for very-low-risk, low-risk, or favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer. This study aimed to address this void.

Methods: Within the SEER database (2010-2015), we focused on patients with very low, low, and favorable intermediate risk for prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy and had available stage and grade information. Descriptive analyses, temporal trend analyses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used.

Results: Overall, 4,704 patients with very low risk (701 Black vs 4,003 White), 17,785 with low risk (2,696 Black vs 15,089 White), and 11,040 with favorable intermediate risk (1,693 Black vs 9,347 White) were identified. Rates of upgrading and/or upstaging in Black versus White patients were respectively 42.1% versus 37.7% (absolute Δ = +4.4%; P<.001) in those with very low risk, 48.6% versus 46.0% (absolute Δ = +2.6%; P<.001) in those with low risk, and 33.8% versus 35.3% (absolute Δ = -1.5%; P=.05) in those with favorable intermediate risk.

Conclusions: Rates of misclassification were particularly elevated in patients with very low risk and low risk, regardless of race, and ranged from 33.8% to 48.6%. Recalibration of very-low-, low-, and, to a lesser extent, favorable intermediate-risk active surveillance criteria may be required. Finally, our data indicate that Black patients may be given the same consideration as White patients when active surveillance is an option. However, further validations should ideally follow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7580DOI Listing
November 2020

Impact of "Time-From-Biopsy-to-Prostatectomy" on Adverse Oncological Results in Patients With Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer.

Front Surg 2020 25;7:561853. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Urology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Many patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) do not immediately undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) after biopsy confirmation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of "time-from-biopsy-to- prostatectomy" on adverse pathological outcomes. Between January 2014 and December 2019, 437 patients with intermediate- and high risk PCa who underwent RP were retrospectively identified within our prospective institutional database. For the aim of our study, we focused on patients with intermediate- ( = 285) and high-risk ( = 151) PCa using D'Amico risk stratification. Endpoints were adverse pathological outcomes and proportion of nerve-sparing procedures after RP stratified by "time-from-biopsy-to-prostatectomy": ≤3 months vs. >3 and < 6 months. Medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) were reported for continuously coded variables. The chi-square test examined the statistical significance of the differences in proportions while the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine differences in medians. Multivariable (ordered) logistic regressions, analyzing the impact of time between diagnosis and prostatectomy, were separately run for all relevant outcome variables (ISUP specimen, margin status, pathological stage, pathological nodal status, LVI, perineural invasion, nerve-sparing). We observed no difference between patients undergoing RP ≤3 months vs. >3 and <6 months after diagnosis for the following oncological endpoints: pT-stage, ISUP grading, probability of a positive surgical margin, probability of lymph node invasion (LNI), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and perineural invasion (pn) in patients with intermediate- and high-risk PCa. Likewise, the rates of nerve sparing procedures were 84.3 vs. 87.4% ( = 0.778) and 61.0% vs. 78.8% ( = 0.211), for intermediate- and high-risk PCa patients undergoing surgery after ≤3 months vs. >3 and <6 months, respectively. In multivariable adjusted analyses, a time to surgery >3 months did not significantly worsen any of the outcome variables in patients with intermediate- or high-risk PCa (all > 0.05). A "time-from-biopsy-to-prostatectomy" of >3 and <6 months is neither associated with adverse pathological outcomes nor poorer chances of nerve sparing RP in intermediate- and high-risk PCa patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2020.561853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545071PMC
September 2020

Oncological outcomes of pathologically organ-confined, lymph node-positive prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy.

Urol Oncol 2021 Apr 20;39(4):234.e1-234.e7. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Urology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of lymph-node involvement on oncological outcomes in patients with pathologically organ-confined prostate cancer (pT2 CaP) after radical prostatectomy (RP).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 9,631 pT2 CaP patients who underwent RP at a single institution between 1998 and 2018. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression models (CRMs) assessed biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival and metastasis-free survival (MFS) according to N-stage. In subgroup analyses of N1 patients, Kaplan-Meier plots and CRMs were stratified according to adjuvant treatment.

Results: Of 9,631 pT2 staged patients, 241 (2.5%) harbored lymph-node metastases after RP (pN1). The median follow-up was 60.8 months. No pT2 N1-staged patient died due to CaP. The 5-year BCR-free survival rates were 54.7 vs. 88.4% in pT2 N1 vs. pT2 N0 patients, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year MFS rates were 92.5 vs. 98.9% in pT2 N1 vs. pT2 N0 patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Within pT2 N1 patients, presence of ≥3 positive lymph nodes was an independent risk factor for BCR (hazard ratio [HR] 3.4, P < 0.001) and for metastatic progression (HR 1.7, P = 0.04). Finally, 3-year BCR-free survival was improved in pT2 N1 patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (87.1% vs. 63.7% for patients who received other treatment options [P < 0.001]).

Conclusion: Patients with pathologically organ-confined but lymph node-positive CaP exhibited favorable oncological outcomes after RP. Presence of ≥3 positive LNs predicted higher rates of BCR and metastatic progression. In consequence, in pT2 N1 patients treated with RP with ≥3 positive LNs, adjuvant treatment may be considered.9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.10.010DOI Listing
April 2021

The effect of sex on disease stage and survival after radical cystectomy: a population-based analysis.

Urol Oncol 2021 Apr 6;39(4):236.e1-236.e7. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Division of Urology, Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The increased awareness regarding the sex gap in bladder cancer (BCa) care over the last decade may have resulted in more timely-wise referral patterns and treatment of female patients with BCa. Thus, we tested the association of sex with disease stage at presentation, as well as with cancer-specific mortality (CSM) after radical cystectomy (RC) in a contemporary cohort of patients with nonmetastatic urothelial bladder cancer (UCUB).

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2016), we identified 14,086 patients (10,879 men and 3,207 women) treated with RC for non-metastatic UCUB. Temporal trend, interaction analyses, logistic regression, cumulative incidence, and competing-risks regression analyses were used.

Results: Overall, 10,879 (77.2%) men and 3,207 (22.8%) women underwent RC between 2004 and 2016. Female gender was an independent predictor of non-organ-confined (NOC) UCUB at RC in multivariable analyses (odds ratio: 1.23; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.10-1.38; P < 0.001). While NOC rates in men decreased over time (from 54.8% to 45.7%; P < 0.01), NOC rates in women remained stationary (from 60.6% to 57.3%; P = 0.15) and the excess NOC rate between men and women increased from + 5.8% in 2004 to +11.6% in 2016. Moreover, in multivariable analyses adjusted for other covariates, female gender was an independent predictor of higher CSM after RC in NOC UCUB (HR: 1.14; 95%CI 1.04-1.24; P < 0.01), but not in localized UCUB (P = 0.06).

Conclusion: It is worrisome that, while in men the rate of NOC is decreasing, NOC rates in females have not improved over time. Moreover, it is also worrisome that, despite adjustment for both pathological tumor and patient characteristics, female sex remains an adverse prognostic factor for CSM. Reassessment of referral, diagnostic, and treatment patterns aimed at eliminating these sex discrepancies appears warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.09.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Small Renal Masses With Tumor Size 0 to 2 cm: A SEER-Based Study and Validation of NCCN Guidelines.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 10 1;18(10):1340-1347. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

1Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Kidney Cancer recommend active surveillance as an option for initial management of T1a 0- to 2-cm renal lesions, in addition to partial nephrectomy, radical nephrectomy, and focal ablation. However, contemporary data regarding the distribution of patient and renal cell carcinoma characteristics within this special patient group are scarce.

Methods: Within the SEER database (2002-2016), 13,364 patients with T1aNanyMany 0- to 2-cm renal lesions treated with nephrectomy were identified. Data were tabulated according to histologic subtype, Fuhrman grade (FG1-2 vs FG3-4), age category, and sex. In addition, rates of synchronous metastases were quantified.

Results: Overall, clear-cell (69.3%), papillary (21.4%), chromophobe (6.9%), multilocular cystic (2.0%), sarcomatoid dedifferentiation (0.2%), and collecting-duct histologic subtypes (0.2%) were identified. Advanced age was associated with a lower rate of FG1-2 clear cell histologic subtype (70.8%-50.3%) but higher rates of FG1-2 papillary (11.1%-23.9%) and chromophobe histologic subtypes (6.2%-8.5%). Overall, 14.5% individuals harbored FG3-4 clear cell (9.8%) or FG3-4 papillary histologic subtypes (4.8%), and both were more prevalent in men. FG3-4 clear-cell and FG3-4 papillary histologic subtypes increased with age, more so in women than in men. The overall rate of synchronous metastases was 0.4% and ranged from 0 in the multilocular cystic subtype to 0.9% in the FG3-4 papillary histologic subtype, respectively, except for 13.8% in the sarcomatoid dedifferentiation histologic subtype.

Conclusions: Most T1a 0- to 2-cm renal cell carcinoma represents the low-grade clear-cell or low-grade papillary histologic subtype, with an FG3-4 minority. Even in patients with the FG3-4 histologic subtype, rates of synchronous metastases are virtually zero.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7577DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of Age on Cancer-specific Mortality in Patients With Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Population-based Competing-risks Analysis Across Disease Stages.

Am J Clin Oncol 2020 12;43(12):880-888

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objective: The objective of the study is to test the effect of age on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB), across all disease stages.

Materials And Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry (2004-2016), we identified 207,714 patients. Age was categorized as: below 60 versus 60 to 69 versus 70 to 79 versus 80 years and above. Multivariable competing-risks regression (CRR) models were used according to disease stage (low-risk nonmuscle invasive: TaN0M0 low grade, high-risk nonmuscle invasive: Ta high grade or Tis-1N0M0, muscle invasive: T2-3N0M0, regional: T4N0M0/TanyN1-3M0, and metastatic: TanyNanyM1).

Results: Overall, 33,970 (16.4%) versus 52,173 (25.1%) versus 64,537 (31.1%) versus 57,034 (27.4%) patients were below 60 versus 60 to 69 versus 70 to 79 versus 80 years and above, respectively. In multivariable CRR models that focused on low-risk nonmuscle invasive UCUB, advanced age was associated with higher CSM rates (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.04 in patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P<0.001). Moreover, advanced age was also associated with higher CSM rates in high-risk nonmuscle invasive UCUB (HR: 2.77 in patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P<0.001) and in muscle invasive UCUB patients (HR: 1.38 in patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P<0.001). Conversely, lower CSM rates with advanced age were observed in multivariable CRR that focused on regional (HR: 0.91 for patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P=0.02) or metastatic UCUB (HR: 0.75 for patients aged 80 y and above, relative to below 60 y; P<0.001).

Conclusions: The direction and the magnitude of the association between advanced age and CSM in UCUB patients changes according to tumor stage. In low-risk nonmuscle invasive, high-risk nonmuscle invasive, and muscle invasive UCUB, more advanced age is associated with higher CSM rates. Conversely, in regional and metastatic UCUB patients, more advanced age is associated with lower CSM rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000766DOI Listing
December 2020

Micropapillary Versus Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: Stage at Presentation and Efficacy of Chemotherapy Across All Stages-A SEER-based Study.

Eur Urol Focus 2020 Sep 19. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Stage-specific guideline recommendations are lacking for chemotherapy in micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder (MCUB).

Objective: To test the efficacy of stage-specific chemotherapy for MCUB.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry (2001-2016), we identified patients with MCUB and pure urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB) of all stages.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and multivariate Cox regression models were used to determine cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in addition to power analyses.

Results And Limitations: Of 210 491 patients of all stages, 518 (0.2%) harboured MCUB versus 209 973 (99.8%) UCUB. Stage at presentation was invariably higher in MCUB than in UCUB patients. Of the MCUB patients, 223 (43.1%) received chemotherapy versus 42 921 (20.4%) of the UCUB patients. In MCUB patients, chemotherapy improved CSM-free survival significantly in metastatic stage (hazard ratio [HR] 0.36, p = 0.04). Longer median CSM-free survival was also associated with chemotherapy use in addition to radical cystectomy (RC) versus RC alone in non-organ-confined MCUB (HR 0.69, p = 0.2). Additional power analyses revealed an underpowered comparison. Finally, no CSM difference was recorded in organ-confined MCUB according to the use of chemotherapy in addition to RC versus RC alone (HR 0.98, p = 1).

Conclusions: Stage at presentation was invariably higher in MCUB than in UCUB patients. Very important CSM reduction was associated with chemotherapy use in metastatic MCUB. A promising protective effect of perioperative chemotherapy might also be applicable to non-organ-confined MCUB, but without sufficient statistical power. Conversely, no association was recorded in organ-confined MCUB.

Patient Summary: Patients with micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder (MCUB) present in higher tumour stages than those with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Chemotherapy for MCUB is effective in metastatic stages, but of no beneficial effect in organ-confined stage. In not-yet-metastatic but already non-organ-confined stages, we did not have enough observations to show a statistically significant protective effect of chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2020.08.010DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of Mexican-American vs Caucasian prostate cancer active surveillance candidates.

Urol Oncol 2021 01 17;39(1):74.e1-74.e7. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: We compared upgrading and upstaging rates in low risk and favorable intermediate risk prostate cancer (CaP) patients according to racial and/or ethnic group: Mexican-Americans and Caucasians.

Methods: Within Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2010-2015), we identified low risk and favorable intermediate risk CaP patients according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Descriptives and logistic regression models were used. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis was performed to test the association between Mexican-American vs. Caucasian racial and/or ethnic groups and upgrading either to Gleason-Grade Group (GGG II) or to GGG III, IV or V, in low risk or favorable intermediate risk CaP patients, respectively.

Results: We identified 673 (2.6%) Mexican-American and 24,959 (97.4%) Caucasian CaP patients. Of those, 14,789 were low risk (434 [2.9%] Mexican-Americans vs. 14,355 [97.1%] Caucasians) and 10,834 were favorable intermediate risk (239 [2.2%] Mexican-Americans vs. 10,604 [97.8%] Caucasians). In low risk CaP patients, Mexican-American vs. Caucasian racial and/or ethnic group did not result in either upgrading or upstaging differences. However, in favorable intermediate risk CaP patients, upgrading rate was higher in Mexican-Americans than in Caucasians (31.4 vs. 25.5%, OR 1.33, P = 0.044), but no difference was recorded for upstaging. When comparisons focused on upgrading to GGG III, IV or V, higher rate was recorded in Mexican-American relative to Caucasian favorable intermediate risk CaP patients (20.4 vs. 15.4%, OR 1.41, P = 0.034).

Conclusion: Low risk Mexican-American CaP patients do not differ from low risk Caucasian CaP patients. However, favorable intermediate risk Mexican-American CaP patients exhibit higher rates of upgrading than their Caucasian counterparts. This information should be considered at treatment decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.08.012DOI Listing
January 2021

External beam radiation therapy improves survival in low-volume metastatic prostate cancer patients: a North American population-based study.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Mar 1;24(1):253-260. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: We hypothesized that the survival benefit of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) recorded in European low-volume metastatic prostate cancer (mPCA) patients, will apply to similar North American patients.

Methods: Newly diagnosed mPCa patients with M1a/b substages, treated with EBRT or no EBRT were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2016). Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox-regression models targeted overall mortality (OM) and cancer specific-mortality (CSM) according to EBRT administration. M1 substages and PSA stratified analyses were performed. Internal validation relied on 2000 bootstrap resamples.

Results: Of 15,494 patients, 1156 (7.5%) were M1a vs 14,338 (92.5%) were M1b. PSA at diagnosis ≤10.0 ng/ml was recorded in 1463 (9.4%) patients. In all 15,494 patients, EBRT did not affect OM (hazard ratio [HR] 1.0; p = 0.5). However, in M1a patients and M1b patients with PSA ≤ 10.0 ng/ml EBRT was associated with lower OM (HR 0.73, CI 0.62-0.86; p < 0.001) but not in M1b patients with PSA > 10.0 ng/ml. The PSA cut-off of ≤ 10.0 ng/ml represented the most statistically significant cut-off for OM prediction in M1b patients. Moreover, internal validation with 2000 bootstrap resamples confirmed these findings. Finally, all results were virtually the same, when CSM represented the endpoint of interest.

Conclusions: We validated the OM reduction associated with EBRT in M1a and M1b patients with PSA ≤ 10.0 ng/ml but not in M1b patients with PSA > 10.0 ng/ml. In consequence, it appears that a smaller subset of North American mPCa patients benefit of EBRT than originally reported in European patients. Further North American validation studies are essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-020-00276-2DOI Listing
March 2021

The Risk of New Onset Dementia and/or Alzheimer Disease among Patients with Prostate Cancer Treated with Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Urol 2021 Jan 28;205(1):60-67. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy is a standard therapy for some patients with localized and almost all patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Although several clinical cohort studies have identified an impact of androgen deprivation therapy on cognitive function, the previous reviews were not able to perform a well designed quantitative synthesis to summarize the risk of dementia and/or Alzheimer disease. Consequently there is still a lack of systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the impact of this risk including more recent studies.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature assessing the differential incidence of dementia and/or Alzheimer disease as outcomes in patients with prostate cancer who did vs did not receive androgen deprivation therapy. We queried PubMed® and Web of Science™ databases from January 1 to 3, 2020. We used random or fixed effects meta-analytic models in the presence or absence of heterogeneity per the I statistic. We performed 6 meta-analyses for all cause dementia, Alzheimer disease and all cause dementia or Alzheimer disease according to the duration of androgen deprivation therapy (up to 12 or more than 12 months).

Results: A total of 14 studies were selected after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Nine of them reported all cause dementia (ie all types of dementia including Alzheimer disease), with 8 reporting Alzheimer disease. Five studies assessed these outcomes according to the duration of androgen deprivation therapy. The risk of new onset dementia (all cause) and Alzheimer disease was higher in patients with prostate cancer who received androgen deprivation therapy compared to those who did not (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11-1.33 and HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.24). The risk of dementia (all cause) was higher in patients with prostate cancer who received androgen deprivation therapy for more than 12 months (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.72); however, for those who had less than 12 months of androgen deprivation therapy exposure the difference was not statistically significant 1.06 (95% CI 0.77-1.28). There was no association between the androgen deprivation therapy duration and the risk of Alzheimer disease (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.97-1.51 for exposure up to 12 months and HR 1.39, 95% CI 0.69-2.79 for exposure greater than 12 months).

Conclusions: Men who receive androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer have an increased risk of dementia and/or Alzheimer disease compared to men who do not receive androgen deprivation therapy; this was more pronounced when androgen deprivation therapy was given longer than 12 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001341DOI Listing
January 2021