Publications by authors named "Marilee P Horan"

76 Publications

The recovery curve of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis: midterm results at a minimum of 5 years.

JSES Int 2022 Jul 13;6(4):587-595. Epub 2022 May 13.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO, USA.

Background: Excellent results have been reported for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) for the treatment of primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA). We aim to assess the recovery curve and longitudinal effects of time, age, sex, and glenoid morphology on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after primary anatomic TSA for primary GHOA.

Methods: Patients who underwent primary anatomic TSA over 5 years ago were included: Short-Form 12 Physical Component Summary, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, Quick Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand Score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and patient satisfaction were assessed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to model progression in PROs longitudinally. Unadjusted models and models controlling for sex and age were constructed.

Results: Eighty-one patients (91 shoulders) were included. Significant improvements from the preoperative period to 1 year postoperatively in the median American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (48 to 93;  < .001), Quick Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand Score (42 to 11;  < .001), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (50 to 91;  < .001), and Short-Form 12 Physical Component Summary (35 to 53;  = .004) scores were noted. No significant decrease was observed for any of the outcome scores. Median satisfaction at the final follow-up was 10 out of 10. At 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 years postoperatively, 77%, 64%, 79%, 57%, 86%, 56%, and 78% of patients, respectively, reported sports participation equal to or slightly below preinjury level. There was no association between the glenoid morphology and functional outcomes.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing anatomic TSA for primary GHOA showed excellent improvement in PROs and satisfaction in the first year, and these results were maintained postoperatively for a minimum of 5 years. Age- and sex-adjusted models or glenoid morphology did not substantially alter any trends in PROs postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2022.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9264145PMC
July 2022

Glenoid retroversion does not impact clinical outcomes or implant survivorship after total shoulder arthroplasty with minimal, noncorrective reaming.

JSES Int 2022 Jul 18;6(4):596-603. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA.

Hypothesis: Both clinical outcomes and early rates of failure will not be associated with glenoid retroversion.

Methods: All patients who underwent an anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with minimal, noncorrective reaming between 2006 and 2016 with minimum 2-year follow-up were reviewed. Measurements for retroversion, inclination, and posterior subluxation were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. A regression analysis was performed to assess the association between retroversion, inclination and subluxation, and their effect on patient reported outcomes (PROs). Clinical failures and complications were reported.

Results: One hundred fifty-one anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties (90% follow-up) with a mean follow-up of 4.6 years (range, 2-12 years) were assessed. The mean preoperative retroversion was 15.6° (range, 0.2-42.1), the mean posterior subluxation was 15.1% (range, -3.6 to 44.1%), and the mean glenoid inclination was 13.9° (range, -11.3 to 44.3). All median outcome scores improved significantly from pre- to post-operatively ( < .001). The median satisfaction was 10/10 (1st quartile = 7 and 3rd quartile = 10). Linear regression analysis found no significant association between retroversion and any postoperative PRO. A total of 5 (3.3%) failures occurred due to glenoid implant loosening (3 patients) and Cutibacterium acnes infection (2 patients) with no association between failure causation and increased retroversion or inclination. No correlation could be found between the Walch classification and postoperative PROs.

Conclusion: Anatomic total shoulder replacement with minimal and noncorrective glenoid reaming demonstrates reliable increases in patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes at a mean of 4.6-year follow-up in patients with up to 40° of native retroversion. Higher values of retroversion were not associated with early deterioration of clinical outcomes, revisions, or failures. Long-term studies are needed to see if survivorship and outcomes hold up over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2022.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9264025PMC
July 2022

SLAP Repair Versus Subpectoral Biceps Tenodesis for Isolated SLAP Type 2 Lesions in Overhead Athletes Younger Than 35 Years: Comparison of Minimum 2-Year Outcomes.

Orthop J Sports Med 2022 Jun 21;10(6):23259671221105239. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: It remains unclear if young overhead athletes with isolated superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) type 2 lesions benefit more from SLAP repair or subpectoral biceps tenodesis.

Purpose: To evaluate clinical outcomes and return to sport in overhead athletes with symptomatic SLAP type 2 lesions who underwent either biceps tenodesis or SLAP repair.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed in patients who underwent subpectoral biceps tenodesis (n = 14) or SLAP repair (n = 24) for the treatment of isolated type 2 SLAP lesions. All patients were aged <35 years at time of surgery, participated in overhead sports, and were at least 2 years out from surgery. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score; Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) score; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score; and the 12-Item Short Form (SF-12) physical component score. Return to sport and patient satisfaction were documented. Clinical failures requiring revision surgery and complications were reported.

Results: Preoperative baseline scores in both the tenodesis and SLAP repair groups were similar. There were no significant differences between the groups on any postoperative outcome measure: For biceps tenodesis versus SLAP repair, the ASES score was 92.7 ± 10.4 versus 89.1 ± 16.7, the SANE score was 86.2 ± 13.7 versus 83.0 ± 24.1, the QuickDASH score was 10.0 ± 12.7 versus 9.0 ± 14.3, and SF-12 was 51.2 ± 7.5 versus 52.8 ± 7.7. No group difference in return-to-sports rate (85% vs 79%; = .640) was noted. More patients in the tenodesis group (80%) reported modifying their sporting/recreational activity postoperatively because of weakness compared with patients in the SLAP repair group (15%; = .022). One patient in each group progressed to surgery for persistent postoperative stiffness, and 1 patient in the tenodesis group had a postoperative complication related to the index surgery.

Conclusion: Both subpectoral biceps tenodesis and SLAP repair provided excellent clinical results for the treatment of isolated SLAP type 2 lesions, with a high rate of return to overhead sports and a low failure rate, in a young and high-demanding patient cohort. More patients reported modifying their sporting/recreational activity because of weakness after subpectoral tenodesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671221105239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218463PMC
June 2022

Concomitant Glenolabral Articular Disruption (GLAD) Lesion is Not Associated With Inferior Clinical Outcomes After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair for Shoulder Instability: A Retrospective Comparative Study.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2022 Jun 31;4(3):e1015-e1022. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between anterior shoulder instability patients with and without glenolabral articular disruption (GLAD) lesions after undergoing arthroscopic Bankart repair and to evaluate potential risk factors for inferior outcomes and recurrent instability.

Methods: Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair with and without GLAD lesions at a minimum of 2 years follow-up. Consecutive patients were matched by age, sex, and number of anchors. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were evaluated before and after surgery, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, Short Form-12 score, and satisfaction. Recurrent dislocation, subjective instability, and reoperation were analyzed. Additionally, PROs were assessed on the basis of GLAD lesion characteristics.

Results: A total of 54 patients (27 GLAD, 27 control) with a mean age of 28.9 ± 11.6 years were analyzed at mean 4.5 ± 1.9 years (range, 2-9 years) follow-up. Thirty-eight (70.3%) of the participants were male. Patients in both groups experienced significant improvements in all PROs ( ≤ .006 for all measures) and reported high median satisfaction (scale 1-10: 10 vs 10,  = .290) at final follow-up. Two patients in the GLAD cohort and 1 in the control cohort underwent reoperation ( = .588). Four (14.8%) patients in each group reported recurrent dislocation ( = 1.0). Additionally, 2 (7.4%) GLAD patients and 1 (3.7%) control patient reported subjective shoulder instability after surgery ( = 1.0). No significant differences in PROs were observed based on anchor/labral advancement or treatment with microfracture, nor were significant correlations observed between GLAD lesion size and PROs ( > .05 for all).

Conclusion: Arthroscopic Bankart repair in patients with GLAD lesions resulted in significantly improved outcomes with high satisfaction, which was no different when compared with those without GLAD lesions.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2022.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9210388PMC
June 2022

Open Fixation of Displaced Greater Tuberosity Fractures Yields Similar Patient-Reported Outcomes to Acute Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair at 2 Years: A Matched Cohort Analysis.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2022 Apr 23;4(2):e687-e694. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Purpose: To evaluate and compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after isolated greater tuberosity (GT) fracture fixation versus acute rotator cuff repair (RCR) at a minimum of 2 years.

Methods: Patients who underwent isolated GT fracture fixation were compared in a 1-to-3 fashion with patients who underwent arthroscopic RCR for an acute rotator cuff tear by a single surgeon from January 2006 and to July 2018. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. PROs were compared pre- and postoperatively as well as between groups (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES], General Health Short Form-12 Physical Component [SF-12 PCS], Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation [SANE], Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [QuickDASH], and satisfaction). Reoperation rates were analyzed.

Results: A total of 57 patients (14 with isolated GT fracture fixation, mean age 45.7 years; and 43 who underwent ARCR for acute tears, mean age 56.6 years) were evaluated ( = .050). ASES scores significantly improved from 39.7 to 94.1 ( = .018) in the isolated GT fracture fixation group and from 51.0 to 95.2 ( < .001) in acute RCR group. At final follow-up, mean QuickDASH scores were 8.9 and 7.9 ( = .677) and SANE scores were 91.1 and 87.3 ( = .616) for the GT and acute RCR groups, respectively. The median satisfaction was 10/10 for the GT group and 10/10 for the RCR group. Additional comparison of patients who underwent double-row repair for an acute rotator cuff tear or isolated GT fracture revealed no significant difference in outcomes ( > .404).

Conclusion: Minimum 2-year PROs after fixation of isolated GT fractures show relatively high outcome scores whether treated by open reduction and internal fixation or arthroscopic fixation using a double-row bridging technique. The improvements in PROs are similar to those achieved with acute rotator cuff tears that were fixed arthroscopically with RCR. Further analysis of these results suggest that the functional outcomes of tendon-to-bone healing with linked, double-row rotator cuff repairs are similar to those of bone-to-bone healing as seen with GT fractures.

Level Of Evidence: III, retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9042898PMC
April 2022

Outcomes of Arthroscopic Anterior Labroligamentous Periosteal Sleeve Avulsion Lesions: A Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Am J Sports Med 2022 05 13;50(6):1512-1519. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesions can occur in recurrent anterior shoulder instability, which may lead to the labrum scarring medially to the glenoid. ALPSA lesions have also been associated with greater preoperative dislocations, larger Hill-Sachs lesions, and greater degrees of glenoid bone loss. Therefore, patients with these lesions have historically had a higher failure rate after repair, with nearly double the recurrent instability rate compared with those undergoing standard arthroscopic Bankart repair.

Purpose: To compare minimum 2-year outcomes of arthroscopic mobilization and anatomic repair of ALPSA lesions with those after standard arthroscopic Bankart repair.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of ALPSA lesions were matched in a 1-to-3 fashion to patients who underwent standard Bankart repair by age, sex, number of previous ipsilateral shoulder instability surgical procedures, and number of anchors used. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores were compared preoperatively and postoperatively (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons [ASES]; 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12] Physical Component Summary [PCS]; Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation [SANE]; shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; and satisfaction). Recurrent instability, on- versus off-track Hill-Sachs lesion, and reoperation rates were analyzed.

Results: A total of 100 shoulders (25 ALPSA and 75 Bankart) with an overall mean age of 25.7 years were evaluated. Patients in the ALPSA group demonstrated significant improvements in the ASES (preoperative, 74.8; postoperative, 89.7; = .041) and SF-12 PCS (preoperative, 46.9; postoperative, 53.4; = .021) scores but not the SANE score (preoperative, 65.2; postoperative, 75.3; = .311). Patients in the Bankart group had significant improvements in all outcome scores at final follow-up: ASES (preoperative, 67.1; postoperative, 90.3), SANE (preoperative, 58.0; postoperative, 85.7), and SF-12 PCS (preoperative, 45.3; postoperative, 52.9) (all < .001). There were no significant differences in PRO scores between the groups preoperatively or postoperatively ( > .05). The median satisfaction for the ALPSA group was 10 of 10 and for the Bankart group it was 9 of 10 ( = .094). There was a significantly higher rate of recurrent dislocation in the ALPSA group (8/25 [32.0%]) compared with the Bankart group (10/75 [13.3%]) ( = .040). Additionally, 5 patients (20.0%) in the ALPSA group underwent revision surgery at a mean of 5.6 years, and 8 patients (10.7%) in the Bankart group underwent revision surgery at a mean of 4.4 years ( = .311).

Conclusion: Despite improvements in the recognition of and surgical techniques for ALPSA lesions, they still lead to significantly higher postoperative dislocation rates; however, no differences in PRO scores were found. These findings highlight the importance of early surgical interventions in anterior shoulder instability with the hope of lessening recurrent instability and the risk of developing an ALPSA lesion, as well as careful assessment of the quality of soft tissues and other risk factors for recurrence when considering what type of shoulder stabilization procedure to perform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221090902DOI Listing
May 2022

Arthroscopic Characterization, Treatment, and Outcomes of Glenoid Labral Articular Disruption Lesions.

Am J Sports Med 2022 04 2;50(5):1328-1335. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: The pathoanatomy of glenoid labral articular disruption (GLAD) lesions has been inconsistently and poorly defined in the literature.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to characterize GLAD lesions as they pertain to the pathoanatomy of labrum, cartilage, and bony structures, and to correlate findings with patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We hypothesized that greater degrees of bony and cartilaginous involvement would correlate with worse outcomes.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: All patients with a diagnosis of a GLAD lesion or a reverse GLAD (RGLAD) lesion at the time of diagnostic arthroscopy (January 2006-February 2019) were included in this study. Patients with ≥13.5% bone loss or previous ipsilateral shoulder surgery were excluded. Patient charts and operative reports/photos were used to identify the location of injury, extent of injury (labral, chondral, and bony), associated injuries, demographic factors, and treatment performed. Three injury patterns were identified: (type 1), with no chondral defect after labral repair; (type 2), with residual chondral defect after labral repair; and (type 3), with associated glenoid bone loss amenable to labral repair. Characterizations were cross-referenced to PROs at a mean follow-up of 5.5 years (range, 2.6-10.5 years): American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, and patient satisfaction.

Results: In total, 50 patients were included, with 40 having GLAD and 10 having RGLAD lesions (mean age, 34.7 and 33.2 years, respectively). There were 14 (35%) type 1, 22 (55%) type 2, and 4 (10%) type 3 GLAD injuries. All PROs improved without any differences in the 3 subgroups postoperatively (ASES, 95.1 vs 91.3 vs 98.8, type 1, 2, and 3, respectively). RGLAD injuries were majority type 2 (7/10; 70%) with the remainder being type 1 (3/10; 30%).

Conclusion: With GLAD and RGLAD injuries, 3 distinct injury patterns can be observed correlating with the presence/absence of chondral loss after labral repair or the presence of associated bone loss. This descriptive characterization can facilitate arthroscopic treatment decisions. Future large studies are needed to determine if this is prognostic in nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465221076854DOI Listing
April 2022

High rate of return to sport and excellent patient-reported outcomes after an open Latarjet procedure.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2022 Aug 18;31(8):1704-1712. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO, USA; The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to report return to sport, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), subjective outcomes, and complications or failures in patients who underwent open Latarjet surgery.

Methods: Patients who underwent open Latarjet surgery performed by 2 fellowship-trained surgeons between August 2006 and November 2018 were included. Prospectively collected data were reviewed. Recurrent instability and revision surgical procedures were recorded. Subjective outcomes included return to sport and fear of reinjury or activity modification as a result of patients' instability history. PROs included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Short Form 12 Physical Component Summary score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, and satisfaction. Age, sex, sports participation, pain, primary vs. revision surgery (prior failed arthroscopic or open Bankart repair), dislocation number, glenoid bone loss, glenoid track concept, and projected glenoid track were evaluated. Failure was defined as an ASES score <70, recurrent dislocation, or revision instability surgery.

Results: A total of 126 shoulders (125 patients) met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 28.1 years (range, 15-57 years). Of 126 shoulders, 7 (5.5%) underwent additional procedures prior to final follow-up and were excluded from outcome analyses; failure occurred in 6 of these shoulders. Mean follow-up data at 3.7 years (range, 2-9.3 years) were attained in 86.6% of patients (103 of 119). All PROs significantly improved from preoperative baseline (ASES score, from 69.7 to 90.2; Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, from 55.8 to 85.9; and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score, from 28.4 to 10.5). PROs did not differ based on sex, sports participation type, dislocation with or without sports, primary vs. revision procedure, and preoperative dislocation number. No correlations existed between PROs and age, glenoid bone loss, or number of previous surgical procedures. On-track lesions (50 of 105, 47.6%) and projected on-track lesions (90 of 105, 85.7%) correlated with better patient satisfaction but not PROs. Despite not having recurrences, 63 of 99 patients (63.6%) reported activity modifications and 44 of 99 patients (44.4%) feared reinjury. These groups had statistically worse PROs, although the minimal clinically important difference was not met. Return to sport was reported by 97% of patients (86 of 89), with 74% (66 of 89) returning at the same level or slightly below the preinjury level. Revision stabilization surgery was required 6 of 126 cases (4.8%), and 6 of 103 shoulders (5.8%) had ASES scores <70.

Conclusion: The open Latarjet procedure led to significant improvements in all PROs, and overall, 97% of patients returned to sport. Fear of reinjury and activity modifications were common after open Latarjet procedures but did not appear to affect clinical outcomes. On-track and projected on-track measurements correlated with better patient satisfaction but not improved PROs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2022.01.139DOI Listing
August 2022

Concomitant Biceps Tenodesis Improves Outcomes for SLAP Repair: Minimum 2-Year Clinical Outcomes after SLAP II-IV Repair Versus Tenodesis Versus Both.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Dec 23;3(6):e2007-e2014. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.

Purpose: To investigate clinical outcomes, return to sport, and complication rate in patients with an isolated SLAP II-IV tear treated with biceps tenodesis (BT), SLAP-repair (SLAP-R), or both (SLAP-R+BT).

Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed in patients who underwent surgery between February 2006 and February 2018 for isolated SLAP II-IV lesions with either BT, SLAP-R, or SLAP-R+BT and had minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were excluded if they were older than 45 years of age, had anterior shoulder instability, rotator cuff tears, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, or concomitant fractures about the shoulder. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the use of the American Shoulder and Elbow Society Score, Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation Score, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, and Shoulder and Hand Score, the General Health Short Form-12 Physical Component, and patient satisfaction.

Results: There were 38 shoulders in the isolated BT group with 1 (2.6%) shoulder requiring revision, 13 in the SLAP-R group with no patient requiring revision, and 21 in the SLAP-R+BT group with 2 (9.5%) shoulders requiring revision. Minimum 2-year follow-up was obtained in >85% of each group. Mean age at time of surgery was significantly different between the groups (36.5 years BT vs 27.7 years SLAP-R vs 36.5 years SLAP-R+BT;  = .003). While patient-reported outcomes improved significantly from pre- to postoperatively for the BT ( < .001) and SLAP-R+BT groups ( < .001), they did not significantly improve for the isolated SLAP-R group ( values ranging .635 to .123). The BT and SLAP-R+BT groups showed significant improvement in return to sport pre- to postoperatively whereas the SLAP-R group did not. The SLAP-R+BT group had the most patients reaching minimal clinical important difference, substantial clinical benefit, and patient acceptable symptom state American Shoulder and Elbow Society Score scores; however, this was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: SLAP II-IV lesions treated with BT or both SLAP-R+BT demonstrated improved outcomes compared with isolated SLAP-R at minimum 2-year follow-up. Concomitant biceps tenodesis should be considered when performing repair of SLAP II-IV tears.

Level Of Evidence: III; Retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8689264PMC
December 2021

Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Using Margin Convergence Versus Superior Capsular Reconstruction: Should Candidates for Margin Convergence Be Treated With Superior Capsular Reconstruction?

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Nov 3;9(11):23259671211050624. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Both margin convergence rotator cuff repair (MC-RCR) and superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) result in improved clinical outcomes in the treatment of massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs). The question remains whether it is better to perform MC-RCR using native, albeit occasionally deficient, tissues or to perform primary SCR.

Purpose/hypothesis: To compare the clinical results of MC-RCR versus SCR for the treatment of massive RCTs. It was hypothesized that SCR would yield better outcomes.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Included were patients who underwent arthroscopic MC-RCR or SCR for massive RCTs performed by a single surgeon between 2014 and 2019. MC-RCR was performed if it was technically possible to close the defect; otherwise, SCR was performed. Outcomes were assessed at 6 months and then annually using American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons; Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation; shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; 12-Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary; and patient satisfaction scores. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID), substantial clinical benefit (SCB), and Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) were compared between groups. Revision surgeries and complications were reported.

Results: Included were 46 patients in the MC-RCR group (mean age, 59 ± 8 years) and 46 patients in the SCR group (mean age, 57 ± 7 years); 29 patients in each group were available at 2-year follow-up. Preoperative outcome scores were not significantly different between groups. Within groups, all outcome scores improved from pre- to postoperatively ( < .05), with no significant differences in postoperative scores or patient satisfaction between groups. No significant between-group differences were noted in the percentage of patients who reached the MCID, SCB, and PASS (MCID, 92.3% vs 84.6%; SCB, 80.8% vs 80.8%; and PASS, 66.7% vs 66.7%). SCR had a significantly lower survivorship rate compared with MC-RCR (84.7% vs 100%) ( = .026).

Conclusion: Both MC-RCR and SCR provided similar improvement in outcomes; however, SCR resulted in a significantly lower survivorship rate at 2 years postoperatively. If an RCT is technically repairable, we recommend that it be repaired primarily, even if MC techniques are needed to close the defect. SCR remains a good option for massive RCTs that are not technically repairable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211050624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573497PMC
November 2021

Results of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for calcific tendonitis: a comparative analysis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2022 Mar 1;31(3):616-622. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO, USA; The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Outcomes following arthroscopic excision of calcific tendonitis and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (CT-ARCR) are relatively limited without comparison analysis to standard arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after CT-ARCR compared against a matched cohort who received standard ARCR.

Methods: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review was performed for patients aged 18-80 years receiving CT-ARCR by a single surgeon from 2006-2018. These were matched 1:3 with patients receiving ARCR. Patients with concurrent labral repair, subscapularis repair, or glenohumeral joint arthritis procedures; refusal to participate; deceased; inadequate contact information; or those with inadequate records were excluded. PROs included Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS) score; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES); Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE); Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH); patient satisfaction; activity level/symptoms; and sport participation scores.

Results: 21 CT-ARCR patients (mean age 50 years, range 36-62) and 54 ARCR patients (mean age 52 years, range 19-77) were included. Minimum 2-year follow-up was obtained in 18 of 21 (86%) CT-ARCR (mean 5.9 years) and 45 of 54 (83%) ARCR patients (mean 5.6 years). CT-ARCR patients improved pre- to postoperation in mean SF-12 PCS (41.1 to 50.0), ASES (54.2 to 94.0), and QuickDASH (54.2 to 94.0). SANE score improvements (57.6 to 82.8) were not significant. ARCR controls improved pre- to postoperation in mean SF-12 PCS (41.4 to 49.0), ASES (59.4 to 88.0), QuickDASH (35.1 to 13.8), and SANE scores (52.6 to 80.8). Pre- to postoperative pain during recreation and sport participation similarly improved in both groups. The only postoperative difference observed between CT-ARCR and ARCR was better patient satisfaction with CT-ARCR (9.7 vs. 8.3).

Conclusion: CT-ARCR results in excellent PROs, activity symptoms, and sports participation at final follow-up. CT-ARCR results were comparable to patients who received conventional ARCR for similar-sized rotator cuff tears that did not have calcific tendonitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.08.007DOI Listing
March 2022

Minimum 10-Year Outcomes of Primary Arthroscopic Transosseous-Equivalent Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair.

Am J Sports Med 2021 07 8;49(8):2035-2041. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Modern rotator cuff repair techniques demonstrate favorable early and midterm outcomes, but long-term results have yet to be reported.

Purpose: To determine 10-year outcomes and survivorship after arthroscopic double-row transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence 4.

Methods: The primary TOE rotator cuff repair procedure was performed using either a knotted suture bridge or knotless tape bridge technique on a series of patients with 1 to 3 tendon full-thickness rotator cuff tears involving the supraspinatus. Only patients who were 10 years postsurgery were included. Patient-reported outcomes were collected pre- and postoperatively, including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and satisfaction. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed. Failure was defined as progression to revision surgery.

Results: A total of 91 shoulders (56 men, 31 women) were included between October 2005 and December 2009. Mean follow-up was 11.5 years (range, 10.0-14.1 years). Of 91 shoulders, 5 (5.5%) failed and required revision surgery. Patient-reported outcomes for patients who survived were known for 80% (69/86). Outcomes scores at final follow-up were as follows: ASES, 93.1 ± 10.8; SANE, 87.5 ± 14.2; QuickDASH, 11.1 ± 13.5; and SF-12 physical component summary (PCS), 49.2 ± 10.1. There were statistically significant declines in ASES, SANE, and SF-12 PCS from the 5-year to 10-year follow-up, but none of these changes met the minimally clinically important difference threshold. Median satisfaction at final follow-up was 10 (range, 3-10). From this cohort, Kaplan-Meier survivorship demonstrated a 94.4% survival rate at a minimum of 10 years.

Conclusion: Arthroscopic TOE rotator cuff repair demonstrates high patient satisfaction and low revision rates at a mean follow-up of 11.5 years. This information may be directly utilized in surgical decision making and preoperative patient counseling regarding the longevity of modern double-row rotator cuff repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211015419DOI Listing
July 2021

Quantitative T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint cartilage in asymptomatic shoulders and shoulders with increasing severity of rotator cuff pathology.

Eur J Radiol Open 2021 13;8:100329. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, 181 W Meadow Dr, Ste 1000, Vail, CO 81657, USA.

Purpose: To examine the relationship between glenohumeral cartilage T2 mapping values and rotator cuff pathology.

Method: Fifty-nine subjects (age 48.2 ± 13.5 years, 15 asymptomatic volunteers and 10 tendinosis, 13 partial-thickness tear, 8 full-thickness tear, and 13 massive tear patients) underwent glenohumeral cartilage T2 mapping. The humeral head cartilage was segmented in the sagittal and coronal planes. The glenoid cartilage was segmented in the coronal plane. Group means for each region were calculated and compared between the groups.

Results: Massive tear group T2 values were significantly higher than the asymptomatic group values for the humeral head cartilage included in the sagittal (45 ± 7 versus 32 ± 4 ms,  <  .001) and coronal (44 ± 6 versus 38 ± 1 ms,  =  0.01) plane images. Mean T2 was also significantly higher for massive than full-thickness tears (45 ± 7 versus 38 ± 5 ms,  =  0.02), massive than partial-thickness tears (45 ± 7 versus 34 ± 4 ms,  <  0.001), and massive tears than tendinosis (45 ± 7 versus 35 ± 4 ms,  =  0.001) in the sagittal-images humeral head region and significantly higher for massive tears than asymptomatic shoulders (44 ± 6 versus 38 ± 1 ms,  =  0.01) in the coronal-images humeral head region.

Conclusion: Humeral head cartilage T2 values were significantly positively correlated with rotator cuff pathology severity. Massive rotator cuff tear patients demonstrated significantly higher superior humeral head cartilage T2 mapping values relative to subjects with no/lesser degrees of rotator cuff pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejro.2021.100329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895706PMC
February 2021

Anterior Shoulder Instability in the Professional Athlete: Return to Competition, Time to Return, and Career Length.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Nov 4;8(11):2325967120959728. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

United States Air Force, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, USA.

Background: Anterior shoulder instability is a common condition in professional athletes, yet little is known about the success of surgery. Return to competition (RTC) is a metric indicative of a successful outcome for professional athletes who undergo anterior shoulder stabilization surgery.

Purpose: To determine the rate of RTC, time to RTC, recurrence rate, and length of career after surgery in professional athletes who had undergone surgical treatment for anterior shoulder instability.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: We evaluated professional athletes who underwent surgical treatment for anterior shoulder instability by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2018. Data from patients' medical records, a patient data registry, basic search engines, sports websites, and individual team websites were used to determine length of professional play before injury, duration of career after surgery, and RTC level.

Results: Overall, 23 professional athletes (25 shoulders from 12 contact and 13 noncontact athletes) were identified. The mean age at the time of surgery was 24.3 ± 4.9 years (range, 16-35 years). Primary procedures included arthroscopic Bankart repair (76%; 19/25), open Latarjet (20%; 5/25), and bony Bankart repair (4%; 1/25). Of the 23 athletes, 22 returned to their previous level of competition (96%; 95% CI, 78%-100%). The mean time between surgery and RTC was 4.5 months (range, 3-8 months). There was no difference in time to RTC between contact and noncontact athletes (4.1 vs 4.4 months). There was no difference in RTC rates and time to return for players who received a Bankart repair versus a Latarjet procedure (4.6 vs 4.2 months). A total of 12 participants were still actively engaged in their respective sport at an average of 4.3 years since surgery, while 11 athletes went on to retire at an average of 4.8 years. Duration of play after surgery was 3.8 years for contact athletes and 5.8 years for noncontact athletes ( > .05).

Conclusion: In this series, professional athletes who underwent surgical shoulder stabilization for the treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability returned to their presurgical levels of competition at a high rate. No differences in RTC rate or time to RTC were observed for contact versus noncontact athletes or for those who received arthroscopic Bankart repair versus open Latarjet. However, contact athletes had shorter careers after surgery than did noncontact athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120959728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645762PMC
November 2020

Survivorship and Patient-Reported Outcomes After Comprehensive Arthroscopic Management of Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis: Minimum 10-Year Follow-up.

Am J Sports Med 2021 01 11;49(1):130-136. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Few long-term outcome studies exist evaluating glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA) treatment with arthroscopic management.

Purpose: To determine outcomes, risk factors for failure, and survivorship for the comprehensive arthroscopic management (CAM) procedure for the treatment of GHOA at minimum 10-year follow-up.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: The CAM procedure was performed on a consecutive series of patients with advanced GHOA who opted for joint preservation surgery and otherwise met criteria for total shoulder arthroplasty. At minimum 10-year follow-up, postoperative outcome measures included change in the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) Physical Component Summary, and visual analog scale for pain, along with the QuickDASH (shortened version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and satisfaction score. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed, with failure defined as progression to arthroplasty.

Results: In total, 38 CAM procedures were performed with 10-year minimum follow-up (range, 10-14 years) with a mean patient age of 53 years (range, 27-68 years) at the time of surgery. Survivorship was 75.3% at 5 years and 63.2% at minimum 10 years. Those who progressed to arthroplasty did so at a mean 4.7 years (range, 0.8-9.6 years). For those who did not undergo arthroplasty, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores significantly improved postoperatively at 5 years (63.3 to 89.6; < .001) and 10 years (63.3 to 80.6; = .007). CAM failure was associated with severe preoperative humeral head incongruity in 93.8% of failures as compared with 50.0% of patients who did not go on to arthroplasty ( = .008). Median satisfaction was 7.5 out of 10.

Conclusion: Significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes were sustained at minimum 10-year follow-up in young patients with GHOA who underwent a CAM procedure. The survivorship rate at minimum 10-year follow-up was 63.2%. Humeral head flattening and severe joint incongruity were risk factors for CAM failure. The CAM procedure is an effective joint-preserving treatment for GHOA in appropriately selected patients, with sustained positive outcomes at 10 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520962756DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical Outcomes of Arthroscopic Suprascapular Nerve Decompression for Suprascapular Neuropathy.

Arthroscopy 2021 02 19;37(2):499-507. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report clinical outcomes following arthroscopic suprascapular nerve (SSN) decompression for suprascapular neuropathy at the suprascapular and/or spinoglenoid notch in the absence of major concomitant pathology.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data of 19 patients who underwent SSN release at the suprascapular and/or spinoglenoid notch between April 2006 and August 2017 with ≥2 years of follow-up. Patients who underwent concomitant rotator cuff or labral repairs or had severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Pre- and postoperative strength and patient-reported outcomes were collected, including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH), 12-item Short Form (SF-12), and satisfaction. Complications and revisions were recorded.

Results: At a mean final follow-up of 4.8 years, pre- to postoperative ASES (64.9 ± 18.7 versus 83.5 ± 23.1; P = .018), QuickDASH (28.7 ± 17.2 versus 12.7 ± 17.1; P = .028), SANE (64.3 ± 16.4 versus 80.8 ± 22.3; P = .034), and SF-12 PCS (41.1 ± 10.8 versus 52.3 ± 5.8; P = .007) scores all significantly improved. Median strength for external rotation improved significantly (4 [range 2 to 5] versus 5 [range 3 to 5]; P = .014). There was no statistically significant improvement in median strength for abduction (4 [range 3 to 5] versus 5 [5]; P = .059). Median postoperative satisfaction was 9 (range 1 to 10), with 8 patients (50%) rating satisfaction ≥9. No complications were observed, and no patients went on to revision surgery.

Conclusion: Arthroscopic SSN decompression for suprascapular neuropathy at the suprascapular and/or spinoglenoid notch in the absence of major concomitant glenohumeral pathology results in good functional outcomes with significant improvements from before to after surgery.

Level Of Evidence: IV, therapeutic case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.10.020DOI Listing
February 2021

Total shoulder arthroplasty outcomes after noncorrective, concentric reaming of B2 glenoids.

JSES Int 2020 Sep 6;4(3):644-648. Epub 2020 May 6.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA.

Background: Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is an effective procedure for the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA) delivering reliable pain relief and improved shoulder function. Abnormal glenoid morphologies are common, and biconcave glenoids are enigmas that have been associated with poor clinical outcomes and implant survivorship.

Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome scores of patients who underwent noncorrective, concentric reaming for TSA with biconcave glenoids (B2). We hypothesized that patients with B2 glenoids who underwent TSA with glenoid implantation using noncorrective, concentric reaming would have significant improvements in clinical outcome scores and high implant survivorship.

Methods: All patients who underwent anatomic TSA for GHOA with B2 glenoids, performed by a single surgeon, between July 2006 and December 2015 with minimum 2-year follow-up were reviewed. Walch classification was obtained from preoperative imaging (magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography). Clinical outcome scores were prospectively collected and included American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) score, Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) score, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score, 12-Item Short Form Health Survey physical component summary (PCS), and patient satisfaction. Clinical failures (revision TSA surgery or conversion to reverse TSA) and complications were reported. Paired test and bivariate correlations level of significance was set at  = .05. Survivorship analysis with implant failure as an endpoint was done using Kaplan-Meier survival curves.

Results: 51 TSA in 49 patients (9 females, 40 males) with primary GHOA with B2 glenoids were performed with a mean age of 64 (range 36-81 years) at the time of surgery. The mean retroversion was 19.1° (range 5.4°-38°), and posterior decentering was 42.0% (range 19.4%-78.5%). At final evaluation, 45/51 anatomic TSAs (88% follow-up) with a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (range 2.0-10.4 years) were assessed. All clinical outcome scores improved significantly pre- to postoperatively: ASES, 52.5 to 79.6 ( < .001); SANE, 52.4 to 74.7 ( < .001); QuickDASH, 39.2 to 19.1 ( = .001); and PCS, 40.9 to 48.9 ( = .001). Median postoperative satisfaction was 9 (range 1-10). There were 2 failures and 4 that required another surgery -subscapularis repair, lysis of adhesions, irrigation and débridement, and one to explore the status of the subscapularis for persistent pain. The implant survivorship rate was 95% at a mean follow-up of 4.9 years.

Conclusion: Anatomic total shoulder replacement with minimally noncorrective, concentric reaming in patients with B2 glenoids had significant improvement in clinical outcome scores, high patient satisfaction, and high survivorship in this cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479043PMC
September 2020

Low rate of recurrent instability following the open Latarjet procedure as a revision procedure for failed prior stabilization surgery.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Jul 24;29(7):2110-2117. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Sports Surgery Clinic, Northwood Avenue, Santry, Santry Demesne, Dublin 9, Ireland.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature to ascertain functional outcomes, recurrence rates and subsequent revision rates following the open Latarjet procedure when performed as a revision procedure.

Methods: Two independent reviewers performed the literature search based on PRISMA guidelines, utilizing the EMBASE, MEDLINE, and The Cochrane Library Databases. Studies where the Latarjet procedure was performed as a revision procedure were included. Clinical outcomes analyzed were: (1) functional outcomes, (2) recurrent instability, (3) revisions, and (4) complications.

Results: The review found 16 studies with 713 shoulders that met the inclusion criteria. 605 of the patients were male (84.9%), with an average age of 28.2 years (15-62) and follow-up of 47.7 months. The most commonly reported functional outcome measure was the Rowe score, with a weighted mean of 92.7. 86/95 patients had good-excellent outcomes (90.4%). 136/143 patients reported return to play (95.1%). 141/161 patients returned to the same level of competition (87.6%). 50 patients experienced recurrence (8.4%). Five patients experienced redislocation (0.9%) and 37 patients experienced subluxation (6.7%). There were 29 revisions (5.1%), with 12 revisions due to recurrence (2.1%). There were 68 total complications, not including recurrence (11%). The most common complications were 13 cases of nerve damage and infection respectively (2.1%). There was 17 cases of new instability arthropathy (6.5%), and 31 cases of residual pain (6.7%).

Conclusion: This review shows that the revision Latarjet provides excellent functional outcomes, low rates of recurrence and complications, and a high rate of return to sport among athletes. This results from study can be used to explain the expected outcomes associated with the Latarjet procedure performed as a revision.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06155-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Minimum 2-year clinical outcomes after superior capsule reconstruction compared with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears in patients younger than 70 years.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2020 Dec 9;29(12):2514-2522. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Center for Outcomes-based Orthopaedic Research, Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO, USA; The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Background: To compare clinical outcomes following arthroscopic superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) using a dermal allograft (DA) with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) when used to treat irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears without glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA) in patients younger than 70 years.

Methods: In this case-control study, patients who underwent SCR or RTSA for the treatment of irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, who were younger than 70 years at the time of surgery, and who were at least 2 years out of surgery were included. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) scores and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). Return to sports and patient satisfaction along with clinical failures (recurrent pain or persistent pain or loss of function), revisions, and complications were reported.

Results: Two-year follow-up was obtained on 22/22 patients (100%) in the SCR group and 29/33 patients (88%) in the RTSA group. Group differences were significant for age (SCR mean, 57 ± 6.6 years, vs. RTSA mean, 63 ± 4.9 years; P < .001) and follow-up interval (SCR mean, 2.1 years, vs. RTSA mean, 2.9 years; P = .001). Preoperative outcome scores showed no significant differences (all P > .05) between groups. No significant differences in postoperative outcome scores were detected (P > .05) between SCR and RTSA: the mean ASES score was 82.6 ± 15.5 vs. 79.3 ± 21.4, mean SANE score was 71.4 ± 24.5 vs. 75.4 ± 23.3, mean QuickDASH score was 16.2 ± 16.9 vs. 25.3 ± 21.0, and mean SF-12 was 47.7 ± 8.8 vs. 46.9 ± 10.4. No significant differences in return-to-sport responses were noticed between groups at baseline or postoperatively (P = .585, P = .758). One SCR was revised at 1.2 years with revision SCR and 1 RTSA had the glenoid component revised day 1 postoperatively for instability. Both patient groups achieved successful clinical outcomes.

Conclusion: SCR using DA results in similar postoperative functional outcomes in a younger patient population when compared to RTSA for the treatment of irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, without GHOA, at short-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.04.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Predictive Modeling to Determine Functional Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

Am J Sports Med 2020 06 14;48(7):1559-1567. Epub 2020 May 14.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) is one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic surgical procedures; however, patient-reported outcomes have varied greatly in the literature.

Purpose: To identify preoperative factors that affect outcomes and to develop prognostic tools for predicting functional outcomes in future ARCR cases.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients were included who underwent ARCR for repairable full-thickness rotator cuff tears with at least 2 years of follow-up. Twelve predictors were entered as candidate predictors in each model: age, sex, workers' compensation (WC) status, previous cuff repair, tear size, tear shape, multiple-tendon involvement, tendon stump length, Goutallier classification, critical shoulder angle, length of follow-up, and baseline subjective outcomes score. Postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), 12-Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS), QuickDASH (short version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), and patient satisfaction were each modeled through proportional odds ordinal logistic regression. Model results were presented with marginal covariate effect plots and predictive nomograms.

Results: Overall, 552 shoulders fit inclusion criteria. The mean age at surgery was 60.2 years (range, 23-81 years). Twenty-five (4.5%) shoulders underwent revision cuff repair or reverse arthroplasty at a mean 1.9 years (range, 0.1-7.9 years) postoperatively. Overall, 509 shoulders were eligible for follow-up, and minimum 2-year postoperative patient-reported outcomes were obtained for 449 (88.2%) at a mean 4.8 years (range, 2-11 years). The ASES score demonstrated significant improvement from pre- to postoperative median (interquartile range): 58 (44.9-71.6) to 98.3 (89.9-100; < .001). Women demonstrated significantly higher 2-year reoperation rates than men (5.8% vs 1.6%; odds ratio, 2.8 [95% CI, 0.73-9.6]; = .023). Independently significant predictors for lower postoperative ASES scores included previous ARCR ( < .001), female sex ( < .001), and a WC claim ( < .001). Significant predictors for worse QuickDASH scores included WC claim ( < .001), female sex ( < .001), previous ARCR ( = .007), and ≥7 years of follow-up time. Significant predictors for lower SF-12 PCS scores included WC claim ( < .001), female sex ( = .001), and lower baseline SF-12 PCS. Last, significant independent predictors of patient satisfaction included previous ARCR ( = .004), WC claim ( = .011), female sex ( = .041), and age ( = .041).

Conclusion: Excellent clinical outcomes and low failure rates were obtained after ARCR by using careful patient selection and modern surgical techniques for ARCR. Female sex, WC claim, and previous ARCR were significant predictors of poorer outcomes in at least 3 patient-reported outcome models. Prognostic nomograms were developed to aid in future patient selection, clinical decision making, and patient education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546520914632DOI Listing
June 2020

Minimum 5-Year Clinical Outcomes, Survivorship, and Return to Sports After Hamstring Tendon Autograft Reconstruction for Sternoclavicular Joint Instability.

Am J Sports Med 2020 03 10;48(4):939-946. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Center for Outcomes-Based Orthopaedic Research, Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Instability of the sternoclavicular (SC) joint is a rare but potentially devastating pathologic condition, particularly when it occurs in young or active patients, where it can lead to persistent pain and impairment of shoulder function. SC joint reconstruction using a hamstring tendon autograft is a commonly used treatment option, but midterm results are still lacking.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes, survivorship, and return-to-sports rate after SC joint reconstruction using a hamstring tendon autograft in patients suffering from SC joint instability. We hypothesized that SC joint reconstruction would result in good clinical outcomes, high rate of survivorship, and a high rate of return to sports.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: All patients who underwent SC joint reconstruction with a hamstring tendon autograft for SC joint instability, with a minimum 5-year follow-up, were included. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed prospectively by the use of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) score, short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS), and patient satisfaction. Survivorship of reconstruction was defined as no further revision surgery or clinical failure such as recurrent instability or subluxation events. Return to sports and pain were assessed using a customized questionnaire.

Results: A total of 22 shoulders that underwent SC joint reconstruction, with a mean patient age of 31.3 years (range, 15.8-57.0 years) at the time of surgery, were included. At the final evaluation, 18 shoulders, with a mean follow-up of 6.0 years (range, 5.0-7.3 years), completed a minimum 5-year follow-up. All clinical outcome scores improved significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively: ASES (50.0 to 91.0; = .005), SANE (45.9 to 86.0; = .007), QuickDASH (44.2 to 12.1; = .003), and SF-12 PCS (39.4 to 50.9; = .001). Median postoperative satisfaction was 9 (range, 7-10). The construct survivorship was 90% at 5-year follow-up. There were 2 patients with failed treatment at 82 and 336 days postoperatively because of instability or pain who underwent revision SC joint reconstruction and capsulorrhaphy. Another patient had a superficial wound infection, which was debrided once and resulted in a good clinical outcome. Of the patients who answered optional sports activity questions, 15 (17 shoulders, 77%) participated in recreational or professional sports before the injury. At final follow-up, 14 patients (16 of 17 shoulders, 94%) returned to their preinjury level of sports. The visual analog scale score for pain today ( = .004) and pain at its worst ( = .004) improved significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively.

Conclusion: SC joint reconstruction with a hamstring tendon autograft for SC joint instability resulted in significantly improved clinical outcomes with high patient satisfaction and 90% survivorship at midterm follow-up. Furthermore, 94% of this young and high-demand patient population returned to their previous level of sports. Concerns in terms of advanced postinstability arthritis were not confirmed because a significant decrease in pain was found after a minimum 5-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546519900896DOI Listing
March 2020

Clinical and Imaging Outcomes After Arthroscopic Superior Capsule Reconstruction With Human Dermal Allograft for Irreparable Posterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears: A Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up.

Arthroscopy 2020 04 15;36(4):1011-1019. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A; The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, U.S.A. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report the clinical and structural outcomes for non-pseudoparalytic irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears treated with superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) using dermal allograft (DA).

Methods: Patients who underwent SCR using DA with a mean thickness of 3 mm for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears and underwent surgery at least 2 years earlier were included. Outcomes were assessed prospectively by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) scores; patient satisfaction; and visual analog scale for pain. Structurally, acromiohumeral distances (AHDs) were assessed both preoperatively and postoperatively (standard radiographs). Graft integrity was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical failures were reported.

Results: We included 22 patients with a mean age of 56 years (range, 41-65 years) and a mean follow-up period of 2.1 years (range, 2-3 years). The ASES score improved from 54.0 to 83.9 (P < .001); the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score improved from 44.9 to 71.4 (P < .001); and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (QuickDASH) improved from 37.6 to 16.2 (P = .001). Of the patients, 85% achieved an improvement in the ASES score that exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (11.1 points). The median patient satisfaction rating was 8.5 (range, 1-10). The median preoperative visual analog scale score decreased from 4 to 0 (range, 0-3) postoperatively (P < .001). Complete radiographs of 19 of 22 patients (86%) were obtained at a mean of 5.2 months (range, 1.4-10 months) postoperatively and showed a significant increase in the mean AHD from 7.0 mm preoperatively to 8.3 mm postoperatively (P = .029). Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained in 95% of the patients (21 of 22) at a mean of 2.5 months (range, 0.3-10.2 months) postoperatively and showed graft integrity rates of 100% (21 of 21) on the tuberosity side, 76% (16 of 21) at the midsubstance, and 81% (17 of 21) on the glenoid side. No significant differences in clinical outcome scores (P > 0.930) were found in patients with intact grafts versus those with torn grafts. The number of previous shoulder surgical procedures was a negative predictor of clinical outcome. There was 1 clinical failure.

Conclusions: SCR using DA for irreparable tears improves outcomes with high satisfaction and high graft integrity at short-term follow-up. Graft integrity, although correlated with an increased AHD, had no correlation with clinical outcomes at final follow-up.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2019.12.024DOI Listing
April 2020

Minimum 5-Year Outcomes and Return to Sports After Resection Arthroplasty for the Treatment of Sternoclavicular Osteoarthritis.

Am J Sports Med 2020 03 15;48(3):715-722. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

The Steadman Clinic, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Osteoarthritis of the sternoclavicular (SC) joint is a rare condition that leads to decreased function and persistent pain, ultimately altering the function of the shoulder and keeping individuals from their desired activities. SC resection in the setting of primary and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is the most common surgical treatment for these patients, but midterm results are lacking.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to assess the clinical outcomes, pain levels, return to sports rate, and survivorship after open SC joint resection in the setting of painful primary SC joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesized that an SC joint resection of maximum 10 mm would result in a significant improvement in clinical outcomes, decreased pain levels, a high rate of return to sports, and a high survivorship.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Patients who underwent SC joint resection (maximum 10 mm) by a single surgeon between the years 2006 and 2013 with minimum 5-year follow-up were reviewed. The following clinical outcomes were collected prospectively during this time period: 12-Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Score (SF-12 PCS), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) score, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, and patient satisfaction. Return to sports and pain were assessed through use of a customized questionnaire. Survivorship of SC joint resection was defined as not requiring further surgery on the affected joint.

Results: A total of 21 SC joints were treated with resection of the medial clavicle and intra-articular disk and capsulorrhaphy for SC joint osteoarthritis in 19 patients with a mean age of 39.4 years (range, 12.5-66.7 years). At minimum 5-year follow-up, 19 SC joint resections were assessed in 16 of 19 patients (84%) with a mean follow-up of 6.7 years (range, 5.0-10.4 years). All outcome scores improved significantly from pre- to postoperative assessments: ASES (from 54 to 90.5; = .003), SANE (from 61.8 to 90.4; = .004), QuickDASH (from 43.1 to 13.8; = .004), and SF-12 PCS (from 39.8 to 51.3; = .004). Median satisfaction with surgical outcomes was 9 (range, 2-10), and pain levels improved from a score of 8 out of 10 to 3 out of 10 (scale of 0 to 10 with 0 being pain free and 10 worst possible pain). Of the 13 patients who answered the optional sports participation question, 13 (100%) patients had participated in sports before their injury. A total of 14 patients answered the question on sports participation after injury, with 12 (86%) indicating successful return to sports. Pain at its worst ( = .003) and pain with competition ( = .017) significantly decreased pre- to postoperatively. Resection survivorship at final follow-up was 84.2% at 5 years. We found that 3 patients (15%) had recurrent SC joint pain and were treated with revision surgery.

Conclusion: Open SC resection arthroplasty with capsulorrhaphy in the setting of pain for SC osteoarthritis results in significant improvement in clinical outcomes, patient satisfaction, return to sports, and pain reduction at minimum 5-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546519897892DOI Listing
March 2020

Minimum Five-year Outcomes and Clinical Survivorship for Arthroscopic Transosseous-equivalent Double-row Rotator Cuff Repair.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2019 Dec;27(24):e1093-e1101

From the Steadman Philippon Research Institute (Dr. Pogorzelski, Dr. Fritz, Ms. Horan, Dr. Katthagen, Dr. Hussain, Dr. Godin, and Dr. Millett), and the The Steadman Clinic (Dr. Godin and Dr. Millett), Vail, CO.

Introduction: Despite the widespread use of arthroscopic double-row transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair (RCR) techniques, midterm outcome data are limited. The purpose of this article was to assess midterm clinical outcomes of patients following arthroscopic TOE RCR using either a knotless tape bridge (TB) repair or knotted suture bridge (SB) repair technique. We hypothesized that there would be significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes with TOE RCR that would be durable over time. We also hypothesized that the knotless TB technique would yield equivalent clinical results to the knotted SB technique, but that there would be differences in retear types between the two TOE techniques.

Methods: Patients included were a minimum of 5 years from an index arthroscopic double-row TOE repair using either a knotless TB or knotted SB technique for one, two, or three tendon full-thickness rotator cuff tears involving the supraspinatus tendon. Preoperative and postoperative American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Short-Form 12 Physical Component Summary, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and satisfaction scores were collected. Scores were also stratified and compared based on primary and revision repair, tear location, and tear chronicity. Outcomes between techniques were contrasted, and survivorship analysis was conducted, with failure defined as progression to revision surgery.

Results: One-hundred ninety-two shoulders were included with a mean follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 5.0 to 11.0 years). Fifteen shoulders (7.8%) underwent revision cuff repair. All scores improved significantly for TB repair (P < 0.001). For SB repair, all scores improved, but only American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and Short-Form 12 Physical Component Summary scores (P < 0.05) demonstrated statistical significance. No statistically significant differences were found between the repair techniques when stratified by primary and revision repairs, tear location, or chronicity. Postoperative clinical survivorship was 96.6% and 93.6% for knotted SB repairs and 96.7% and 93.9% for knotless TB repairs at 2 and 5 years, respectively.

Conclusion: TOE RCR results in significant clinical improvement and excellent survivorship at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up, using either knotted SB or knotless TB repair techniques in primary and revision cases and in small and large tears. Equivalent results were obtained with both TOE techniques. Patients undergoing repair with a TOE showed significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes that were durable at a minimum of 5 years postoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00519DOI Listing
December 2019

Posterior bony Bankart bridge technique results in reliable clinical 2-year outcomes and high return to sports rate for the treatment of posterior bony Bankart lesions.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Jan 9;29(1):120-126. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, 181 West Meadow Drive Suite 1000, Vail, CO, 81657, USA.

Purpose: To introduce the arthroscopic "posterior bony Bankart bridge" repair technique, and to report clinical outcomes, patient satisfaction, recurrent instability rate, and return to sport rate.

Methods: Patients who were treated for posterior bony Bankart lesions with posterior bony Bankart bridge technique and were at least 2 years out from surgery were included. Clinical outcomes were assessed prospectively by the use of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Score, Single Assessment Numerical Evaluation (SANE) Score, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Score and patient satisfaction. Return to sports rate and complications were reported.

Results: Seven patients with a median age of 23.5 (range 17-43) and a median follow-up of 8 years (range 3-10) were included. Median time from injury to surgery was 15 days (range 3 days-2.2 years). Mean glenoid bone defect was 19% (range 11-31%). At final follow-up the median postoperative outcome scores were: ASES score 100 (range 92-100), SANE score 99 points (range 94-99) and QuickDASH 2.2 points (range 0-9). Median satisfaction of all patients was 10/10 (range 9-10). One patient reported subjective recurrent subluxations, which resolved under physical therapy. No patient underwent further surgery. No complications were noticed. At final follow-up, all patients (100%) reported that their sports participation levels were equal to their pre-injury levels.

Conclusion: The arthroscopic posterior bony Bankart bridge technique leads to reliable postoperative shoulder function and restores shoulder stability with high patient satisfaction and low complication rate in this small patient cohort for the treatment of posterior bony Bankart lesions. Also, no recurrent dislocation was observed at a minimum follow-up of at least 3 years, one patient continued to complain of subjective subluxations which resolved under physical therapy. All patients were able to return to their pre-injury sports level.

Level Of Evidence: Case series, Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-019-05783-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of Age and Subscapularis Tendon Reparability on Return to Recreational Sports Activities and 2-Year Outcomes After Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

Orthop J Sports Med 2019 Oct 14;7(10):2325967119875461. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: As the indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) have continued to expand, the average age of patients undergoing RTSA has decreased.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to report the minimum 2-year outcomes after RTSA and to evaluate the impact of surgical variables on outcomes. We hypothesized that younger patients, patients with larger glenosphere, and patients with irreparable subscapularis tendons would experience worse subjective patient-reported outcome scores (PROS) and that younger patients and those with a reparable subscapularis would demonstrate a higher rate of return to recreational sports activities.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Patients who underwent RTSA by a single surgeon between November 2005 and September 2014 were considered for this study. Patient characteristics, surgical details, PROS, and rates of return to recreational sports activity were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. We assessed correlations between PROS and both patient age and subscapularis reparability. PROS collected included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Short Form 12 (SF-12), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and postoperative patient satisfaction.

Results: A total of 110 patients with an average age of 68.0 years (range, 45-87 years) were included. Minimum 2-year follow-up was obtained in 94 patients (85.4%), with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 2.0-9.3 years). The subscapularis was reparable in 58 patients (57.4%). All PROS significantly improved from pre- to postoperatively ( < .001). The median patient postoperative satisfaction was 9 out of 10 (range, 1-10). Increasing patient age was correlated with significant improvements in QuickDASH and ASES scores. Postoperatively, 76.1% (67/88) of patients were able to return to recreational sports activity. However, of those who did return, 68.2% indicated that they had to modify their activity in some way. Glenosphere size was not significantly associated with PROS or the rate of return to recreational sports activity, but patients with reparable subscapularis tendons demonstrated higher PROS and return to activity rates.

Conclusion: Patients who had a reparable subscapularis tendon showed a significantly higher rate of return to recreational sports activity than patients who had a irreparable subscapularis tendon. Older age was correlated with greater improvement in several, although not all, patient-reported outcome measures. Glenosphere size was not significantly associated with higher PROS or rate of return to recreational sports activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967119875461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6792278PMC
October 2019

Midterm Results of the Bony Bankart Bridge Technique for the Treatment of Bony Bankart Lesions.

Am J Sports Med 2019 01 28;47(1):158-164. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: The arthroscopic "bony Bankart bridge" (BBB) repair technique was recently shown to successfully restore shoulder stability at short-term follow-up, but longer-term outcomes have not yet been described.

Purpose: To report the outcomes at minimum 5-year follow-up after BBB repair for anterior shoulder instability with a bony Bankart lesion.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Patients were included if they sustained a bony Bankart lesion, were treated with a BBB technique, and were at least 5 years postoperative. Patients were excluded if they underwent concomitant rotator cuff repair or an open bone fragment reduction. All patients were assessed with the following measures preoperatively and at final evaluation: QuickDASH (Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) Physical Component Summary.

Results: From 2008 to 2012, 13 patients who underwent BBB met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 39.6 years (range, 19.1-68.8 years) and a mean follow-up of 6.7 years (range, 5.1-9.0 years). Mean time from most recent injury to surgery was 6.3 months (range, 1 day-36 months). The mean glenoid bone loss was 22.5% (range, 9.1%-38.6%). Mean SF-12 scores demonstrated significant improvement from 45.8 (SD, 9.7) preoperatively to 55.1 (SD, 5.9) at a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. At final follow-up, the mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was 93.1 (range, 68.3-100); the mean QuickDASH score, 6.2 (range, 0-25); and the mean Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, 92.8 (range, 69-99). None of the patients progressed to further shoulder surgery. Three of 13 patients (23%) reported subjective recurrent instability. At final follow-up, 9 of 12 (75%) patients indicated that their sports participation levels were equal to their preinjury levels. Median patient satisfaction at final follow-up was 10 of 10 points (range, 3-10).

Conclusion: The arthroscopic BBB technique for patients with anterior bony Bankart lesions can restore shoulder stability, yield durable improvements in clinical outcomes, and provide a high return-to-sport rate at a minimum 5-year follow-up. Three of 13 patients experienced postoperative symptoms of instability but did not undergo further stabilization surgery.
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January 2019

Return to Recreational Sporting Activities Following Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Jul 5;6(7):2325967118782672. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, Colorado, USA.

Background: Patients are staying active longer and expect to return to sports or continue participating in recreational activities after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) for primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of patients to return to recreational sports following TSA. We hypothesized that TSA would allow a high rate of return to recreational sports.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: All patients who underwent primary TSA by a single surgeon and were at least 2 years out from surgery were included and were studied for their ability to return to recreational activity following surgery between December 2005 and January 2015. Patient-reported outcomes were obtained, including the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey-Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS); Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE); Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score; and satisfaction scores (10-point scale), preoperatively and at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Return-to-sport rates were assessed using a standardized patient-reported outcome questionnaire.

Results: A total of 165 patients (186 shoulders) that received TSA met the inclusion criteria for the study. Preoperatively, 139 patients (157 shoulders) were involved in recreational sports; 16 (8.6%) shoulders required additional surgical intervention after the index TSA procedure. A significant postoperative increase was noted in the mean ASES (from 48.3 to 87.0; < .001), QuickDASH (from 41.0 to 15.8; < .001), SANE (from 49.1 to 81.2; < .001), and SF-12 PCS scores (from 38.6 to 48.9; = .004). Of the 157 shoulders in the recreational sports cohort, responses to the survey examining recreational sporting activities after surgery were available for 112 shoulders. The overall rate of return to sport or recreational activity following TSA was 93.7% (105/112 shoulders). The rate of return to recreational sporting activity equal to or better than the preinjury level was 69.7% (78/112 shoulders), while 6.3% (7/112 shoulders) of our cohort reported that they were unable to compete in recreational sports following TSA. Of the patients who participated in predominantly upper extremity sporting activities after TSA, 49% had to modify their postoperative recreational sporting activity because of lifestyle change, pain, weakness, or decreased range of motion.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing TSA showed excellent postoperative improvement in their outcome scores, satisfaction, and return to athletic activities. Despite the expected decrease in activity levels with the slow progression of osteoarthritis over time until TSA was performed, almost 94% of patients successfully returned to various recreational sporting activities postoperatively. This study showed that return to recreational sports can be achieved at participation levels that are comparable with preoperative levels, but athletes in some sports such as tennis or swimming, which require more intense levels of exercise, are less likely to return to the same participation levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967118782672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6055269PMC
July 2018

Achilles tendon allograft-augmented latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for the treatment of massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2018 Sep 6;138(9):1207-1212. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, 181 West Meadow Drive, Suite 400, Vail, CO, 81657, USA.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes following Achilles tendon allograft-augmented latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) for the treatment of irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears with a minimum of 2 years post-operative follow-up. We hypothesized that patients would show significant improvement in outcomes scores with a low failure rate.

Materials And Methods: Patients who were treated with Achilles tendon allograft-augmented LDTT for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included. Patient-reported outcomes scores, including ASES, QuickDASH, SANE, SF-12 PCS, and satisfaction, were collected pre- and post-operatively. Pre- and post-operative scores were compared with a Wilcoxon test. Revision to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) was considered as failure.

Results: Between March 2006 and November 2014, a total of 16 patients with a mean age of 49 years (range 34-57 years) were included. Minimum 2-year outcomes data were available for 14 of the 16 patients (87.5%) with a mean follow-up of 5.5 years (range 2.1-10.5 years). Two patients (12.5%) advanced to RTSA at a mean of 1.1 years following LDTT. Postoperative median subjective outcomes scores improved, but did not reach statistical significance (SF-12 PCS: 35.4-46.4, P = 0.182; ASES: 47.5-69.9, P = 0.209; QuickDASH: 57.9-31.8, P = 0.176; SANE: 40.0-39.5, P = 0.273). Median post-operative patient satisfaction was 5 on a 10-point scale (range 1-10).

Conclusion: Patients with irreparable rotator cuff tears treated with Achilles tendon allograft-augmented latissimus dorsi tendon transfer did not experience significant post-operative improvement in patient-reported outcomes. Thus, the use of an additional allograft-augmentation remains questionable.

Level Of Evidence: Retrospective case series, level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-018-2943-8DOI Listing
September 2018

Failure following arthroscopic Bankart repair for traumatic anteroinferior instability of the shoulder: is a glenoid labral articular disruption (GLAD) lesion a risk factor for recurrent instability?

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Aug 2;27(8):e235-e242. Epub 2018 May 2.

Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO, USA; The Steadman Clinic, Vail, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Recurrent instability is a frequent complication following arthroscopic Bankart repair. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for poor patient-reported clinical outcome scores and failure rates.

Methods: Patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair at least 2 years earlier were included. Preoperative and postoperative Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons; and satisfaction scores were collected. The relationship of the following factors with outcomes and failure rates was assessed: (1) previous arthroscopic stabilization, (2) 3 or more dislocations prior to surgery, (3) glenoid labral articular disruption (GLAD) lesion, (4) concurrent superior labral anterior-to-posterior tear repair, and (5) concurrent biceps tenodesis.

Results: The study included 72 patients with a median age of 23 years (range, 14-49 years). Subsequent revision was required in 9 (12.5%); 1 additional patient (1.4%) had recurrent dislocation. Outcome data were available at a median follow-up of 3 years (range, 2-9 years). All scores significantly improved from preoperatively to postoperatively (P <.05); the mean patient satisfaction score was 9, with a median of 10 (range, 1-10). None of the analyzed factors were associated with worse postoperative outcome scores. GLAD lesions were significantly associated with a higher rate of failure (P = .007). No other analyzed factors had a significant association with failure rates (P > .05).

Conclusions: Patients with arthroscopic Bankart repair for traumatic anteroinferior shoulder instability had excellent outcomes, even in the context of previous arthroscopic stabilization surgery, 3 or more dislocations prior to surgery, concurrent superior labral anterior-to-posterior tear repair, or concurrent biceps tenodesis. However, GLAD lesions were associated with higher rates of failure, and the presence of a GLAD lesion may herald the presence of changes in the articular version or other as-yet-undetermined factors that could predispose patients to failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2018.02.055DOI Listing
August 2018
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