Publications by authors named "Marika Egyed"

5 Publications

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Health impact analysis of PM from wildfire smoke in Canada (2013-2015, 2017-2018).

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 6;725:138506. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Population Studies Division, Health Canada, 445-757 West Hasting St., Federal Tower, Vancouver, BC V6C 1A1, Canada. Electronic address:

Smoke from wildfires contains many air pollutants of concern and epidemiological studies have identified associations between exposure to wildfire smoke PM and mortality and respiratory morbidity, and a possible association with cardiovascular morbidity. For this study, a retrospective analysis of air quality modelling was performed to quantify the exposure to wildfire-PM across the Canadian population. The model included wildfire emissions from across North America for a 5-month period from May to September (i.e. wildfire season), between 2013 and 2015 and 2017-2018. Large variations in wildfire-PM were noted year-to-year, geospatially, and within fire season. The model results were then used to estimate the national population health impacts attributable to wildfire-PM and the associated economic valuation. The analysis estimated annual premature mortalities ranging from 54-240 premature mortalities attributable to short-term exposure and 570-2500 premature mortalities attributable to long-term exposure, as well as many non-fatal cardiorespiratory health outcomes. The economic valuation of the population health impacts was estimated per year at $410M-$1.8B for acute health impacts and $4.3B-$19B for chronic health impacts for the study period. The health impacts were greatest in the provinces with populations in close proximity to wildfire activity, though health impacts were also noted across many provinces indicating the long-range transport of wildfire-PM. Understanding the population health impacts of wildfire smoke is important as climate change is anticipated to increase wildfire activity in Canada and abroad.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138506DOI Listing
July 2020

Human health effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP): a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2019 08 29;8(1):223. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Air Health Effects Assessment Division, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave W, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada.

Background: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is one of the major sources of exposure in urban areas and has been associated with a wide range of adverse human health effects. Much of the Canadian population is regularly exposed to TRAP as a result of daily activities (e.g., commuting) and a significant portion of the population resides in close proximity to major roadways. The objective of this scoping review is to develop an evidence map of the epidemiological literature of the human health effects of exposure to TRAP, to support future reviews and assessments by Health Canada.

Methods: Literature searches will be conducted in Ovid EMBASE and Ovid MEDLINE database. DistillerSR will be used to manage the review process. Two reviewers will independently screen the studies in a two-part process (title and abstract; full text) for eligibility. Epidemiological studies and reviews will be included if they report on the human health effects of exposure to TRAP. Data collection will include study design parameters and human health outcomes evaluated in the study. A descriptive analysis will be used to provide a high-level summary of the number of studies evaluating the different types of health effects and cross-tabulations by study design parameters.

Discussion: The scoping review will be used to identify subject areas for more detailed review and evaluation of the human health effects of TRAP by the Air Health Effects Assessment Division of Health Canada.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1106-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714303PMC
August 2019

Evaluation of daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians.

Air Qual Atmos Health 2018 30;11(2):209-220. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

4Air Health Science Division, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave W, PL 4903C, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 Canada.

Exposure to traffic and traffic-related air pollution is associated with a wide array of health effects. Time spent in a vehicle, in active transportation, along roadsides, and in close proximity to traffic can substantially contribute to daily exposure to air pollutants. For this study, we evaluated daily time spent in transportation and traffic-influenced microenvironments by urban Canadians using the Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey (CHAPS) 2 results. Approximately 4-7% of daily time was spent in on- or near-road locations, mainly associated with being in a vehicle and smaller contributions from active transportation. Indoor microenvironments can be impacted by traffic emissions, especially when located near major roadways. Over 60% of the target population reported living within one block of a roadway with moderate to heavy traffic, which was variable with income level and city, and confirmed based on elevated NO exposure estimated using land use regression. Furthermore, over 55% of the target population ≤ 18 years reported attending a school or daycare in close proximity to moderate to heavy traffic, and little variation was observed based on income or city. The results underline the importance of traffic emissions as a major source of exposure in Canadian urban centers, given the time spent in traffic-influenced microenvironments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11869-017-0532-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5847121PMC
November 2017

Effects of age, season, gender and urban-rural status on time-activity: CanadianHuman Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014 Feb 19;11(2):2108-24. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Population Studies Division, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Tunney's Pasture, PL 0801A, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada.

Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010-2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110202108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3945588PMC
February 2014

Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

Environ Sci Technol 2013 Nov 8;47(22):13113-21. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Fuels Assessment Section, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4023859DOI Listing
November 2013