Publications by authors named "Marietta Papadatou-Pastou"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Meta-Analysis of Line Bisection and Landmark Task Performance in Older Adults.

Neuropsychol Rev 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Young adults exhibit a small asymmetry of visuospatial attention that favours the left side of space relative to the right (pseudoneglect). However, it remains unclear whether this leftward bias is maintained, eliminated or shifted rightward in older age. Here we present two meta-analyses that aimed to identify whether adults aged ≥50 years old display a group-level spatial attention bias, as indexed by the line bisection and the landmark tasks. A total of 69 datasets from 65 studies, involving 1654 participants, were analysed. In the meta-analysis of the line bisection task (n = 63), no bias was identified for studies where the mean age was ≥50, but there was a clear leftward bias in a subset where all individual participants were aged ≥50. There was no moderating effect of the participant's age or sex, line length, line position, nor the presence of left or right cues. There was a small publication bias in favour of reporting rightward biases. Of note, biases were slightly more leftward in studies where participants had been recruited as part of a stand-alone older group, compared to studies where participants were recruited as controls for a clinical study. Similarly, no spatial bias was observed in the meta-analysis of the landmark task, although the number of studies included was small (n = 6). Overall, these results indicate that over 50s maintain a group-level leftward bias on the line bisection task, but more studies are needed to determine whether this bias can be modulated by stimulus- or state-dependent factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11065-021-09505-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Hand preference and Mathematical Learning Difficulties: New data from Greece, the United Kingdom, and Germany and two meta-analyses of the literature.

Laterality 2021 Apr 6:1-54. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Increased rates of atypical handedness are observed in neurotypical individuals who are low-performing in mathematical tasks as well as in individuals with special educational needs, such as dyslexia. This is the first investigation of handedness in individuals with Mathematical Learning Difficulties (MLD). We report three new studies ( = 134;  = 1,893;  = 153) and two sets of meta-analyses (22 studies;  = 3,667). No difference in atypical hand preference between MLD and Typically Achieving (TA) individuals was found when handedness was assessed with self-report questionnaires, but weak evidence of a difference was found when writing hand was the handedness criterion in Study 1 ( = .049). Similarly, when combining data meta-analytically, no hand preference differences were detected. We suggest that: (i) potential handedness effects require larger samples, (ii) direction of hand preference is not a sensitive enough measure of handedness in this context, or that (iii) increased rates of atypical hand preference are not associated with MLD. The latter scenario would suggest that handedness is specifically linked to language-related conditions rather than conditions related to cognitive abilities at large. Future studies need to consider hand skill and degree of hand preference in MLD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1357650X.2021.1906693DOI Listing
April 2021

To which world regions does the valence-dominance model of social perception apply?

Nat Hum Behav 2021 01 4;5(1):159-169. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

School of Psychological, Social and Behavioural Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, UK.

Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov's valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear whether these findings apply to other regions. We addressed this question by replicating Oosterhof and Todorov's methodology across 11 world regions, 41 countries and 11,570 participants. When we used Oosterhof and Todorov's original analysis strategy, the valence-dominance model generalized across regions. When we used an alternative methodology to allow for correlated dimensions, we observed much less generalization. Collectively, these results suggest that, while the valence-dominance model generalizes very well across regions when dimensions are forced to be orthogonal, regional differences are revealed when we use different extraction methods and correlate and rotate the dimension reduction solution. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 5 November 2018. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7611443.v1 .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-01007-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Universal Patterns in Color-Emotion Associations Are Further Shaped by Linguistic and Geographic Proximity.

Psychol Sci 2020 10 8;31(10):1245-1260. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

National Mental Health Centre, Ministry of Health, Baku, Azerbaijan.

Many of us "see red," "feel blue," or "turn green with envy." Are such color-emotion associations fundamental to our shared cognitive architecture, or are they cultural creations learned through our languages and traditions? To answer these questions, we tested emotional associations of colors in 4,598 participants from 30 nations speaking 22 native languages. Participants associated 20 emotion concepts with 12 color terms. Pattern-similarity analyses revealed universal color-emotion associations (average similarity coefficient = .88). However, local differences were also apparent. A machine-learning algorithm revealed that nation predicted color-emotion associations above and beyond those observed universally. Similarity was greater when nations were linguistically or geographically close. This study highlights robust universal color-emotion associations, further modulated by linguistic and geographic factors. These results pose further theoretical and empirical questions about the affective properties of color and may inform practice in applied domains, such as well-being and design.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797620948810DOI Listing
October 2020

Four meta-analyses across 164 studies on atypical footedness prevalence and its relation to handedness.

Sci Rep 2020 09 2;10(1):14501. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Biopsychology, Department of Psychology, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44780, Bochum, Germany.

Human lateral preferences, such as handedness and footedness, have interested researchers for decades due to their pronounced asymmetries at the population level. While there are good estimates on the prevalence of handedness in the population, there is no large-scale estimation on the prevalence of footedness. Furthermore, the relationship between footedness and handedness still remains elusive. Here, we conducted meta-analyses with four different classification systems for footedness on 145,135 individuals across 164 studies including new data from the ALSPAC cohort. The study aimed to determine a reliable point estimate of footedness, to study the association between footedness and handedness, and to investigate moderating factors influencing footedness. We showed that the prevalence of atypical footedness ranges between 12.10% using the most conservative criterion of left-footedness to 23.7% including all left- and mixed-footers as a single non-right category. As many as 60.1% of left-handers were left-footed whereas only 3.2% of right-handers were left-footed. Males were 4.1% more often non-right-footed compared to females. Individuals with psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders exhibited a higher prevalence of non-right-footedness. Furthermore, the presence of mixed-footedness was higher in children compared to adults and left-footedness was increased in athletes compared to the general population. Finally, we showed that footedness is only marginally influenced by cultural and social factors, which play a crucial role in the determination of handedness. Overall, this study provides new and useful reference data for laterality research. Furthermore, the data suggest that footedness is a valuable phenotype for the study of lateral motor biases, its underlying genetics and neurodevelopment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71478-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468297PMC
September 2020

Human handedness: A meta-analysis.

Psychol Bull 2020 06 2;146(6):481-524. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

School of Medicine.

Across time and place, right hand preference has been the norm, but what is the precise prevalence of left- and right-handedness? Frequency of left-handedness has shaped and underpinned different fields of research, from cognitive neuroscience to human evolution, but reliable distributional estimates are still lacking. While hundreds of empirical studies have assessed handedness, a large-scale, comprehensive review of the prevalence of handedness and the factors that moderate it, is currently missing. Here, we report 5 meta-analyses on hand preference for different manual tasks and show that left-handedness prevalence lies between 9.3% (using the most stringent criterion of left-handedness) to 18.1% (using the most lenient criterion of nonright-handedness), with the best overall estimate being 10.6% (10.4% when excluding studies assessing elite athletes' handedness). Handedness variability depends on (a) study characteristics, namely year of publication and ways to measure and classify handedness, and (b) participant characteristics, namely sex and ancestry. Our analysis identifies the role of moderators that require taking into account in future studies on handedness and hemispheric asymmetries. We argue that the same evolutionary mechanisms should apply across geographical regions to maintain the roughly 1:10 ratio, while cultural factors, such as pressure against left-hand use, moderate the magnitude of the prevalence of left-handedness. Although handedness appears as a straightforward trait, there is no universal agreement on how to assess it. Therefore, we urge researchers to fully report study and participant characteristics as well as the detailed procedure by which handedness was assessed and make raw data publicly available. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000229DOI Listing
June 2020

A machine learning approach to quantify the specificity of colour-emotion associations and their cultural differences.

R Soc Open Sci 2019 Sep 25;6(9):190741. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Institute of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany.

The link between colour and emotion and its possible similarity across cultures are questions that have not been fully resolved. Online, 711 participants from China, Germany, Greece and the UK associated 12 colour terms with 20 discrete emotion terms in their native languages. We propose a machine learning approach to quantify (a) the consistency and specificity of colour-emotion associations and (b) the degree to which they are country-specific, on the basis of the accuracy of a statistical classifier in (a) decoding the colour term evaluated on a given trial from the 20 ratings of colour-emotion associations and (b) predicting the country of origin from the 240 individual colour-emotion associations, respectively. The classifier accuracies were significantly above chance level, demonstrating that emotion associations are to some extent colour-specific and that colour-emotion associations are to some extent country-specific. A second measure of country-specificity, the in-group advantage of the colour-decoding accuracy, was detectable but relatively small (6.1%), indicating that colour-emotion associations are both universal and culture-specific. Our results show that machine learning is a promising tool when analysing complex datasets from emotion research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.190741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6774957PMC
September 2019

Exploring the feasibility and acceptability of the contents, design, and functionalities of an online intervention promoting mental health, wellbeing, and study skills in Higher Education students.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2019 23;13:51. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

My Psychology Clinic and iConcipio Ltd, 13 Orchard Rise, Richmond, Greater London, TW10 5BX UK.

Background: Substantial numbers of students in Higher Education (HE) are reporting mental health difficulties, such as mild to moderate symptoms of depression and anxiety. Coupled with academic skills challenges, these difficulties can lead to decreased academic performance, low levels of study satisfaction, and eventually drop out. Student support services are facing budget cuts and can only attend to limited numbers of students, usually the ones who present with more severe mental health problems. Moreover, face-to-face contact may not appeal to those students who feel embarrassed by their problems or are afraid of being stigmatised. To address this important problem, an online psychological wellbeing and study skills support system called MePlusMe, has been developed to provide personalised support to its users. In the present study we investigated the feasibility and acceptability of the contents, design, and functionalities of the system.

Methods: An offline version of the system was introduced to 13 postgraduate and undergraduate students (mean age = 31.3 years, SD = 10.25 years; 4 males) in a UK HE Institution, who presented with mild or moderate mental health difficulties. The participants evaluated the design of the system, its functionalities, and contents at Baseline and at Weeks 2, 4, and 8.

Results: Participants found the system easy to use, professional, and efficient and its contents non-judgemental and informative. Participants stated that engaging with and practicing the techniques targeted at mental health difficulties led to improvements in positive thinking and self-confidence, while the study skills techniques were practical. Suggestions for further improvement included the development of an app and an option for direct engagement with professionals.

Conclusions: The findings confirmed the acceptability of the contents, design and functionalities of the system, while providing useful information to inform its further development. Next steps include a feasibility study, which will test and quantify the effects on everyday functioning, mood, mental wellbeing, and academic self-efficacy after using the system, and subsequently a randomized controlled trial, which will evaluate its effectiveness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0308-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647293PMC
July 2019

Handedness and sex effects on lateral biases in human cradling: Three meta-analyses.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 09 26;104:30-42. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Biopsychology, Department of Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

The earliest form of social contact for a newborn is being cradled by its mother. This important behavior has been found to be lateralized to the left side by many, but not all empirical studies. Factors that have been suggested to modulate cradling asymmetry are handedness and sex. However, these factors have not been demonstrated consistently, possibly due to low sample sizes and inconsistent experimental paradigms. To address this issue, we used a meta-analytical approach to (1) quantify the widely reported leftward bias in human cradling and (2) identify moderating factors of the cradling bias such as handedness and sex. Across forty studies, we observed a leftward cradling bias showing that this effect is robust and replicable. Furthermore, we found that left-handers demonstrate a significantly less pronounced leftward bias compared to right-handers and that males are less lateralized compared to females. In conclusion, we could verify that parental handedness and sex contribute to a cradling population bias. Future studies examining genetic factors could illuminate the mechanism supporting a cradling bias.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.06.035DOI Listing
September 2019

Cerebral laterality as assessed by hand preference measures and developmental stuttering.

Laterality 2020 Mar 30;25(2):127-149. Epub 2019 May 30.

School of Education, Faculty of Primary Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The causes of developmental stuttering, a neurodevelopmental communicative disorder, have not been elucidated to date. Neuroimaging studies suggest that atypical cerebral laterality could be one of such causal factors. Moreover, handedness, a behavioural index for cerebral laterality, has been linked to stuttering and recovery from it. However, findings are conflicting, possibly due to sample selection procedures, which typically rely on self-reported stuttering, and to the fact that handedness is typically assessed with regards to its direction rather than degree. We investigated the possible relationship between handedness and stuttering. This is the first study where children who stutter (CWS) were selected using clinical criteria as well as speech samples and where a non-Western population was studied. Findings from 83 CWS aged 3-9 years (mean = 6.43, SD = 1.84) and 90 age- and sex-matched children who do not stutter (mean = 6.45, SD = 1.71) revealed no differences in their hand preference scores as evaluated by parent-completed Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, for both direction and degree. The severity of stuttering was not found to correlate with the degree of handedness. We suggest that parents and professionals not treat left- or mixed-hand preference as a reason for concern with regards to stuttering.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1357650X.2019.1621329DOI Listing
March 2020

Paw preferences in cats and dogs: Meta-analysis.

Laterality 2019 Nov 10;24(6):647-677. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

School of Education, Department of Primary Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens , Athens , Greece.

Predator-prey relationships have been suggested to be one of the primary evolutionary factors driving the development of functional hemispheric asymmetries. However, lateralization in many predator species is not well understood and existing studies often are statistically underpowered due to small sample sizes and they moreover show conflicting results. Here, we statistically integrated findings on paw preferences in cats and dogs, two predator species within the order that are commonly kept as pets in many societies around the globe. For both species, there were significantly more lateralized than non-lateralized animals. We found that 78% of cats and 68% of dogs showed either left- or right-sided paw preference. Unlike humans, neither dogs nor cats showed a rightward paw preference on the population level. For cats, but not dogs, we found a significant sex difference, with female animals having greater odds of being right-lateralized compared to male animals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1357650X.2019.1578228DOI Listing
November 2019

Supporting mental health, wellbeing and study skills in Higher Education: an online intervention system.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2018 6;12:54. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

iConcipio Ltd, London, UK.

Background: Dealing with psychological and study skill difficulties can present a challenge for both Higher Education (HE) students, who suffer from them, but also for HE Institutions and their support services. Alternative means of support, such as online interventions, have been identified as cost-effective and efficient ways to provide inclusive support to HE students, removing many of the barriers to help-seeking as well as promoting mental health and wellbeing.

Case Presentation: The current case study initially outlines the rigorous approach in the development of one such online intervention system, MePlusMe. It further highlights key features that constitute innovative delivery of evidence-based psychological and educational practice in the areas of mental health, promotion of wellbeing, support of mood and everyday functioning, and study-skills enhancement.

Conclusions: This case study aims to present the innovative features of MePlusMe in relation to current needs and evidence-basis. Finally, it presents future directions in the evaluation, assessment, and evidence of the fitness-for-purpose process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-018-0233-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173914PMC
October 2018

Handedness and cognitive ability: Using meta-analysis to make sense of the data.

Prog Brain Res 2018 12;238:179-206. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Primary Education, School of Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

The literature on the relationship between handedness and cognitive ability is riddled with studies using different conceptualizations of handedness (e.g., hand preference vs hand skill, direction vs degree, consistency vs inconsistency) and different conceptualizations of cognitive ability (intelligence vs distinct abilities), as well as different measurements thereof. Recently the literature was summarized by means of meta-analytic techniques. The findings show quite robustly that when handedness is assessed as hand preference and individuals are classified according to direction (i.e., as left-handers vs right-handers), no differences in cognitive ability emerge between handedness groups. However, other evidence points to the importance of assessing degree rather than direction of handedness and of employing hand skill rather than hand preference measures. A meta-analysis of such studies has not been possible to date, due to their scarcity. It is here suggested that degree of handedness and hand skill measures are employed in future studies exploring the possible relationship between handedness and cognitive ability so as to elaborate whether or not such a relationship exists and if so, what its characteristics are.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.06.008DOI Listing
January 2019

A review of web-based support systems for students in higher education.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2017 25;11:59. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

iConcipio Ltd, London, UK.

Background: Recent evidence suggests that there is an increasing need for accessible and anonymous services to support higher education (HE) students suffering from psychological and/or academic difficulties. Such difficulties can lead to several negative outcomes, including poor academic performance, sub-optimal mental health, reduced study satisfaction, and dropout from study. Currently, universities in the UK lack financial resources and the on-campus mental health services traditionally offered to students are increasingly economically unsustainable. Compounded by the perceived stigma of using such services, mental health providers have been driven to address the escalating needs of students through online services.

Methods: In this paper, we review online support systems identified through a literature search and a manual search of references in the identified papers. Further systems were identified through web searches, and systems still in development were identified by consultation with researchers in the field. We accessed systems online to extract relevant information, regarding the main difficulties addressed by the systems, the psychological techniques used and any relevant research evidence to support their effectiveness.

Conclusion: A large number of web-based support systems have been developed to support mental health and wellbeing, although few specifically target HE students. Further research is necessary to establish the effectiveness of such interventions in providing a cost-effective alternative to face-to-face therapy, particularly in certain settings such as HE institutions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-017-0165-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613335PMC
September 2017

Right-handers have negligibly higher IQ scores than left-handers: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Jan 19;84:376-393. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

Research Centre for Psychophysiology and Education, School of Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 27 Deinokratous Str, 106 75, Athens, Greece; Cognition and Health Research Group, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

The relationship between intelligence and handedness remains a matter of debate. The present study is a systematic review of 36 studies (totaling 66,108 individuals), which have measured full IQ scores in different handedness groups. Eighteen of those studies were further included in three sets of meta-analyses (totaling 20,442 individuals), which investigated differences in standardized mean IQ scores in (i) left-handers, (ii) non-right-handers, and (iii) mixed-handers compared to right-handers. The bulk of the studies included in the systematic review reported no differences in IQ scores between left- and right-handers. In the meta-analyses, statistically significant differences in mean IQ scores were detected between right-handers and left-handers, but were marginal in magnitude (d=-0.07); the data sets were found to be homogeneous. Significance was lost when the largest study was excluded. No differences in mean IQ scores were found between right-handers and non-right-handers as well as between right-handers and mixed-handers. No sex differences were found. Overall, the intelligence differences between handedness groups in the general population are negligible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.08.007DOI Listing
January 2018

Elevated Levels of Atypical Handedness in Autism: Meta-Analyses.

Neuropsychol Rev 2017 Sep 23;27(3):258-283. Epub 2017 Jul 23.

Research Center for Psychophysiology and Education, School of Education, Faculty of Primary Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 27 Deinokratous Str, 106 75, Athens, Greece.

An elevated prevalence of atypical handedness (left-, mixed-, or non-right-handedness) has been repeatedly reported in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing individuals. However, the exact magnitude of this difference as well as the presence of possible moderating factors remains unknown. Here, we present three sets of meta-analyses of studies that assessed the handedness prevalence among individuals with ASD, totaling 1199 individuals (n = 723 individuals with ASD and n = 476 typically developing individuals). Meta-analysis set 1 found that individuals with ASD are 3.48, 2.49, and 2.34 times more likely to be non-right-handed, left-handed, and mixed-handed compared to typically developing individuals, respectively. Meta-analysis set 2 found a 45.4%, 18.3%, and 36.1% prevalence of non-right-handedness, left-handedness, and mixed-handedness, respectively, amongst individuals with ASD. The classification of handedness, the instrument used to measure handedness, and the main purpose of the study were found to moderate the findings of meta-analysis set 2. Meta-analysis set 3 revealed a trend towards weaker handedness for individuals with ASD. The elevated levels of atypical handedness in individuals with ASD could be attributed to atypicalities in cerebral structure and lateralization for language in individuals with ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11065-017-9354-4DOI Listing
September 2017

Brain Knowledge and the Prevalence of Neuromyths among Prospective Teachers in Greece.

Front Psychol 2017 29;8:804. Epub 2017 May 29.

Department of Special Education, University of ThessalyVolos, Greece.

Although very often teachers show a great interest in introducing findings from the field of neuroscience in their classrooms, there is growing concern about the lack of academic instruction on neuroscience on teachers' curricula because this has led to a proliferation of neuromyths. We surveyed 479 undergraduate (mean age = 19.60 years, = 2.29) and 94 postgraduate students (mean age = 28.52 years, = 7.16) enrolled in Departments of Education at the University of Thessaly and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. We used a 70-item questionnaire aiming to explore general knowledge on the brain, neuromyths, the participants' attitude toward neuroeducation as well as their reading habits. Prospective teachers were found to believe that neuroscience knowledge is useful for teachers (90.3% agreement), to be somewhat knowledgeable when it comes to the brain (47.33% of the assertions were answered correctly), but to be less well informed when it comes to neuroscientific issues related to special education (36.86% correct responses). Findings further indicate that general knowledge about the brain was found to be the best safeguard against believing in neuromyths. Based on our results we suggest that prospective teachers can benefit from academic instruction on neuroscience. We propose that such instruction takes place in undergraduate courses of Departments of Education and that emphasis is given in debunking neuromyths, enhancing critical reading skills, and dealing with topics relevant to special education.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447089PMC
May 2017

Cerebral laterality for language is related to adult salivary testosterone levels but not digit ratio (2D:4D) in men: A functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound study.

Brain Lang 2017 Mar 11;166:52-62. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Cognition and Health Research Group, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, 9 South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK. Electronic address:

The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D). A significant quadratic relationship between degree of cerebral laterality for language and adult T concentrations was observed, with enhanced T levels for strong left hemisphere dominance and strong right hemisphere dominance. No systematic effects on laterality were found for cortisol or 2D:4D. Findings suggest that higher levels of T are associated with a relatively attenuated degree of interhemispheric sharing of linguistic information, providing support for the callosal and the sexual differentiation hypotheses rather than the Geschwind, Behan and Galaburda (GBG) hypothesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2016.12.002DOI Listing
March 2017

Online support system for students in higher education: Proof-of-concept study.

Digit Health 2016 Jan-Dec;2:2055207616655012. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

Private Practice at Bank and Harley Street, UK.

Background: Providing support to the increasing numbers of students facing mental health difficulties in higher education (HE) can be difficult due to stigma or lack of resources. Alternative and/or complementary sources of support are needed, such as online interventions that are recognised for their therapeutic value and cost-effectiveness.

Objectives: We aim to provide evidence supporting the conceptual and practical value of a newly developed online multimedia intervention system for HE students who face mild to moderate symptoms of anxiety and depression and study-skills difficulties.

Methods: Students from five universities were invited to participate in a cross-sectional proof-of-concept study. Students were invited through the universities' internal communication channels. Following demonstration of each part of the system, students completed a survey with quantitative and qualitative questions.

Results: Response was largely positive. Positive responses on the features of the questionnaire ranged between 65% and 86%; on the features of the workshops ranged between 57% and 91%; on 'My place' ranged between 65% and 79%; on the animated videos ranged between 79% and 92%; and on the overall system ranged between 78% and 89%. Participants indicated areas for improvement and ways in which such improvement could be accomplished; these then guided the development of the system.

Conclusions: The results confirm the need for such a system. It can complement student support services (SSS) by dealing with cases with mild to moderate difficulties, hence allowing SSS to prioritise and effectively address more severe cases. Potentially this method can provide a meaningful alternative to SSS; this is worth investigating further.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055207616655012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001197PMC
June 2016

Corrigendum to "Handedness prevalence in the deaf: Meta-analyses" [Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 60 (2016) 98-114].

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2016 Jun 7;65:362. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.03.023DOI Listing
June 2016

Salivary testosterone levels are unrelated to handedness or cerebral lateralization for language.

Laterality 2017 Mar 2;22(2):123-156. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

c Institute of Psychology , University of Lausanne , Lausanne , Switzerland.

Behavioural and cerebral lateralization are thought to be controlled, at least in part, by prenatal testosterone (T) levels, explaining why sex differences are found in both laterality traits. The present study investigated hormonal effects on laterality using adult salivary T levels, to explore the adequacy of competing theories: the Geschwind, Behan and Galaburda, the callosal, and the sexual differentiation hypotheses. Sixty participants (15 right-handers and 15 left-handers of each sex) participated. Behavioural lateralization was studied by means of hand preference tests (i.e., the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and the Quantification of Hand Preference test) and a hand skill test (i.e., the Peg-Moving test) whereas cerebral lateralization for language was studied using the Consonant-Vowel Dichotic Listening test and the Visual Half-Field Lexical Decision test. Salivary T and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay. Canonical correlations did not reveal significant relationships between T levels and measures of hand preference, hand skill, or language laterality. Thus, our findings add to the growing literature showing no relationship between T concentrations with behavioural or cerebral lateralization. It is claimed that prenatal T is not a major determinant of individual variability in either behavioural or cerebral lateralization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1357650X.2016.1149485DOI Listing
March 2017

Handedness prevalence in the deaf: Meta-analyses.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2016 Jan 26;60:98-114. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

An under-investigated aspect of handedness, a biological proxy for cerebral laterality for language, is its prevalence amongst deaf individuals. We present four sets of meta-analyses on studies measuring handedness prevalence in deaf individuals, comprising 31 data sets and totaling 5,392 participants (4,606 deaf, 786 hearing). Deaf individuals were found to be 2.61 times more likely to be non-right-handed and 2.25 times more likely to be left-handed compared to their hearing counterparts. When handedness was measured by means of manipulative actions, the weighted estimates of handedness prevalence for deaf populations were 17.70% and 14.70% for non-right- and left-handedness respectively; when handedness was measured by means of sign actions, the prevalence was 10.60% and 9.70%, respectively. Yet, when comparing studies that measured handedness in the same deaf individuals using both manipulative and sign actions, no difference was found in their handedness prevalence. This pattern is taken to suggest that the higher prevalence of atypical handedness in the deaf population may be linked to delayed language acquisition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.11.013DOI Listing
January 2016

Online intervention, 'MePlusMe', supporting mood, wellbeing, study skills, and everyday functioning in students in higher education: a protocol for a feasibility study.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2015 8;1:34. Epub 2015 Oct 8.

Department of Neuropsychology, Queen's Hospital, Romford, UK.

Background: Psychological and study skill difficulties faced by students in higher education can lead to poor academic performance, sub-optimal mental health, reduced study satisfaction, and drop out from study. At the same time, higher education institutions' support services are costly, oversubscribed, and struggle to meet demand whilst facing budget reductions. The purpose of the proposed study is to evaluate the acceptability of a new online intervention, MePlusMe, aimed at students in higher education facing mild to moderate psychological and/or study skill difficulties. The study will also assess the feasibility of proposed recruitment and outcome assessment protocols for a future trial of effectiveness. The system supports self-management strategies alongside ongoing monitoring facilitated by a messaging service, as well as featuring a built-in community of student users. It is based on current clinical guidelines for the management of common mental health problems, together with best practice from the educational field.

Methods/design: Two hundred and forty two students will be recruited to a within-subjects, repeated measures study conducted over 8 weeks. Self-report measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, mental wellbeing, academic self-efficacy, and everyday functioning will be collected at baseline, and then at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. During this period, students will have access to the intervention system. UK higher education institutions Bournemouth University and University of Warwick will participate in the study. Data on student satisfaction and engagement will also be collected. Study findings will help to determine the most appropriate primary outcome and the required sample size for a future trial.

Discussion: This study will evaluate the acceptability of an online intervention system for students facing psychological and/or study skill difficulties and will test recruitment procedures and outcome measures for a future trial of effectiveness. The system is designed to be implemented as a stand-alone service or a service complementary to student support services, which is accessible to the majority of students and effective in improving student experience at higher education institutions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-015-0029-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5154097PMC
October 2015

Intelligence and handedness: Meta-analyses of studies on intellectually disabled, typically developing, and gifted individuals.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015 Sep 2;56:151-65. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Research Centre for Psychophysiology and Education, School of Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 27 Deinokratous Str, 106 75 Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Understanding the relationship between cerebral laterality and intelligence is important in elucidating the neurological underpinnings of individual differences in cognitive abilities. A widely used, behavioral indicator for cerebral laterality, mainly of language, is handedness. A number of studies have compared cognitive abilities between groups of left- and right-handers, while others have investigated the handedness prevalence between groups of different cognitive abilities. The present study comprises five meta-analyses of studies that have assessed the handedness prevalence in (a) individuals with intellectual disability (ID) of unknown/idiopathic nature compared to typically developing (TD) individuals, and (b) individuals with intellectual giftedness (IG) compared to TD individuals. Nineteen data sets totaling 16,076 participants (5795 ID, 8312 TD, and 1969 IG) were included in the analyses. Elevated levels of atypical handedness were found to be robust only for the ID to TD comparison. Findings constrain the range of acceptable theories on the handedness distribution for different intelligence levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.06.017DOI Listing
September 2015

Measuring hand preference: a comparison among different response formats using a selected sample.

Laterality 2013 18;18(1):68-107. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Research Centre for Psychophysiology and Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Hand preference (HP) is a major behavioural variable for inferring individual differences in neurological organisation. Yet, despite the extensive use of HP measures for both research and clinical purposes, there is little research on the properties of the structural features of HP questionnaires, the most common method of HP measurement. We study here the effects of different response formats of HP questionnaires on participants' responses. A total of 200 volunteers (100 left-handers, 50 male; 100 right-handers, 50 male) completed two versions of a composite HP questionnaire containing the items of the Annett, Edinburgh, Healy, and Waterloo instruments, one with a binary response format and the other with a 5-point graded response format. The tendency towards extreme responses and the mapping between a graded either response and a binary left/right response were investigated. It was found that both patterns were significantly influenced by participant handedness, but not by sex. Finally, in terms of the overall ordering of participants by HP measures, considerable consistency was found across questionnaire content and response format.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1357650X.2011.628794DOI Listing
June 2013

Acute antidepressant drug administration and autobiographical memory recall: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2012 Oct 25;20(5):364-72. Epub 2012 Jun 25.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, England.

Antidepressants affect memory and neural responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in healthy volunteers. However, it is unclear whether this extends to autobiographical memory for personally experienced events. The current study investigated the effects of acute administration of the antidepressant reboxetine on emotional autobiographical retrieval in healthy volunteers (14 men, 10 women). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in a double-blind between-groups investigation with reboxetine (4 mg) and placebo. Consistent with previous reports using lab-based stimuli, neural activation in the processing of positive versus negative memories was reduced following reboxetine compared with placebo in the left frontal lobe (extending into the insula) and the right superior temporal gyrus. This was paired with increased memory speed in volunteers given reboxetine versus placebo. The effect of reboxetine on emotional memory extends to recall of personally experienced events. Such effects may be relevant to the cognitive improvements found with recovery from depression and with the mechanism of action of contemporary antidepressant drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027969DOI Listing
October 2012

Sex and location as determinants of handedness: reply to Vuoksimaa and Kaprio (2010).

Psychol Bull 2010 May;136(3):348-50

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, United Kingdom.

In response to the comment by Vuoksimaa and Kaprio (2010) on our previous article on sex differences in left-handedness (Papadatou-Pastou, Martin, Munafò, and Jones, 2008), we carried out an additional meta-analysis to explore whether the widely observed tendency for rates of left-handedness to be greater among male than female individuals is also found in Scandinavian (Nordic) studies. The overall male-to-female ratio for left- to right-handedness odds provides evidence in favor of this hypothesis. However, the results were subject to a significant moderating effect related to nation of origin. We discuss the potential impact on observed measures of additive rather than multiplicative processes that may underlie sex differences in handedness and also the date-of-study effect on handedness rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019215DOI Listing
May 2010

An efficient and reliable method for measuring cerebral lateralization during speech with functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

Neuropsychologia 2009 Jan 25;47(2):587-90. Epub 2008 Sep 25.

University of Oxford, UK.

The gold standard method for measuring cerebral lateralization, the Wada technique, is too invasive for routine research use. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a viable alternative but it is costly and affected by muscle artefact when activation tasks involve speech. Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD) can be used to assess cerebral lateralization by comparing blood flow in the middle cerebral arteries. We used fTCD to compare indices of language lateralization in 33 adults in three different paradigms: Word Generation, Picture Description and a shorter Animation Description task. Animation Description gave valid results, and we subsequently demonstrated its reliability in a group of 21 4-year-old children. Cerebral lateralization during spoken language generation can be assessed reliably and cheaply using fTCD with a paradigm that is less taxing than the traditional word generation paradigm, does not require literacy skills and can be completed in 15min or less.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.09.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904804PMC
January 2009

Sex differences in left-handedness: a meta-analysis of 144 studies.

Psychol Bull 2008 Sep;134(5):677-699

Department of Psychology.

Human handedness, a marker for language lateralization in the brain, continues to attract great research interest. A widely reported but not universal finding is a greater male tendency toward left-handedness. Here the authors present a meta-analysis of k = 144 studies, totaling N = 1,787,629 participants, the results of which demonstrate that the sex difference is both significant and robust. The overall best estimate for the male to female odds ratio was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 1.19, 1.27). The widespread observation of this sex difference is consistent with it being related to innate characteristics of sexual differentiation, and its observed magnitude places an important constraint on current theories of handedness. In addition, the size of the sex difference was significantly moderated by the way in which handedness was assessed (by writing hand or by other means), the location of testing, and the year of publication of the study, implicating additional influences on its development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0012814DOI Listing
September 2008

Single dose antidepressant administration modulates the neural processing of self-referent personality trait words.

Neuroimage 2007 Sep 2;37(3):904-11. Epub 2007 Jun 2.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK.

Drugs which inhibit the re-uptake of monoamines in the brain are effective in the treatment of depression; however, the neuropsychological mechanisms which lead to the resolution of depressive symptomatology are unclear. Behavioral studies in healthy volunteers suggest that acute administration of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine modulates emotional processing. The current study therefore explored the neural basis of this effect. A single dose of reboxetine (4 mg) or placebo was administered to 24 healthy volunteers in a double-blind between-group design. Neural responses during categorisation and recognition of self-referent personality trait words were assessed using event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Reboxetine had no effect on neuronal response during self-referent categorisation of positive or negative personality trait words. However, in a subsequent memory test, reboxetine reduced neuronal activation in a fronto-parietal network during correct recognition of positive target words vs. matched distractors. This was combined with increased speed to recognize positive vs. negative words compared to control subjects and suggests facilitated memory for positive self-referent material. These results support the hypothesis that antidepressants have early effects on the neural processing of emotional material which may be important in their therapeutic actions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.05.036DOI Listing
September 2007