Publications by authors named "Marieke van der Hart"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Plasma xanthurenic acid in a context of insulin resistance and obesity in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2019 09 2;211:98-99. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Magdeburg, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2019.07.038DOI Listing
September 2019

Basal and Evoked Neurotransmitter Levels in Parkin, DJ-1, PINK1 and LRRK2 Knockout Rat Striatum.

Neuroscience 2019 06 25;409:169-179. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294; Department of Neurology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294; Department of Neurobiology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized by the loss of neurons in the substantia nigra that project to the striatum and release dopamine (DA), which is required for normal movement. Common non-motor symptoms likely involve abnormalities with other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, glycine, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). As part of a broad effort to provide better PD research tools, the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research funded the generation and characterization of knockout (KO) rats for genes with PD-linked mutations, including PINK1, Parkin, DJ-1 and LRRK2. Here we extend the phenotypic characterization of these lines of KO rats to include in vivo microdialysis to measure both basal and potassium-induced release of the above neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the striatum of awake and freely moving rats at ages 4, 8 and 12 months compared to wild-type (WT) rats. We found age-dependent abnormalities in basal DA, glutamate and acetylcholine in PINK1 KO rats and age-dependent abnormalities in basal DA metabolites in Parkin and LRRK2 KO rats. Parkin KO rats had increased glycine release while DJ-1 KO rats had decreased glutamate release and increased acetylcholine release compared to WT rats. All lines except DJ-1 KO rats showed age-dependent changes in release of one or more neurotransmitters. Our data suggest these rats may be useful for studies of PD-related synaptic dysfunction and neurotransmitter dynamics as well as studies of the normal and pathogenic functions of these genes with PD-linked mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6559826PMC
June 2019

Peripheral Tryptophan - Kynurenine Metabolism Associated with Metabolic Syndrome is Different in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab J 2017 Nov 19;1(4). Epub 2017 Nov 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine, USA.

Insulin resistance (IR), obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome [MetS] are highly associated with Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Dysregulation of kynurenine (Kyn) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism was suggested as major contributor to pathogenesis of AD and PD and MetS. KP, the major source of NAD in humans, occurs in brain and peripheral organs. Considering that some, but not all, peripherally originated derivatives of Kyn penetrate blood brain barrier, dysregulation of central and peripheral KP might have different functional impact. Up-regulated Kyn formation from Trp was discovered in central nervous system of AD and PD while assessments of peripheral KP in these diseases yield controversial results. We were interested to compare peripheral kynurenines in AD and PD with emphasis on MetS-associated kynurenines, i.e., kynurenic (KYNA) and anthranilic (ANA) acids and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). Serum concentrations of KP metabolites were evaluated (HPLC-MS method). In PD patients Trp concentrations were lower, and Kyn: Trp ratio, Kyn, ANA and KYNA were higher than in controls. 3-HK concentrations of PD patients were below the sensitivity threshold of the method. In AD patients. ANA serum concentrations were approximately 3 fold lower, and KYNA concentrations were approximately 40% higher than in controls. Our data suggest different patterns of KP dysregulation in PD and AD: systemic chronic subclinical inflammation activating central and peripheral KP in PD, and central, rather than peripheral, activation of KP in AD triggered by Aβ. Dysregulation of peripheral KP in PD and AD patients might underline association between neurodegenerative diseases and MetS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5747375PMC
November 2017

Increased whole cerebellar serotonin in aged C57BL/6 mice.

Matters (Zur) 2017 9;2017. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center; Microdialysis, Brains Online.

Mobility and locomotor impairments have high prevalence, morbidity, and significant mortality in older adult populations. Cerebellar functional changes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of these age-related mobility and gait deficits unrelated to stroke, Parkinson's disease, or degenerative joint disease. We thus examined total cerebellar glutamate, glutamine, GABA, glycine, dopamine, norepinephrine, tryptophan, serotonin, alanine, threonine, and asparagine content from male 2-3-month (young, = 6) and 21-24-month-old (aged, = 6) CBL/6 mice. Neurotransmitter and amino acid concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography followed with mass spectroscopy. We found a significant increase in cerebellar serotonin in aged versus young mice, but otherwise no significant phenotypic differences in measured neurotransmitter concentrations. Applying current thought about cerebellar aging and cerebellar serotonergic systems, we consider how this age-related increase in cerebellar serotonin may contribute to gait ataxia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5591457PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.19185/matters.201702000011DOI Listing
March 2017

Peripheral kynurenine-3-monooxygenase deficiency as a potential risk factor for metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patients.

Integr Clin Med 2017 10;1(1). Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine, USA.

Increased predisposition of schizophrenia patients (SP) to development of obesity and insulin resistance suggested common signaling pathway between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and schizophrenia. Deficiency of kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO), enzyme catalyzing formation of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) from kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan (Trp) metabolite, might contribute to development of MetS as suggested by non-expression of KMO genes in human fat tissue and elevated serum concentrations of Kyn and its metabolites, kynurenic (KYNA) and anthranilic (ANA) acids, in diabetic patients and Zucker fatty rats (ZFR). Markers of KMO deficiency: decreased 3-HK and elevated Kyn, KYNA and ANA, were observed in brains and spinal fluids of SP, and in brains and serum of experimental animals with genetically- or pharmacologically-induced KMO deficiency. However, elevated concentrations of ANA and decreased 3-HK were reported in serum of SP without concurrent increase of Kyn and KYNA. Present study aimed to re-assess serum Kyn metabolites (HPLC-MS) in a sub-group of SP with elevated KYNA. We found increased Kyn concentrations (by 30%) and Kyn:Trp ratio (by 20%) in serum of SP with elevated KYNA concentrations (by 40%). Obtained results and our previous data suggest that peripheral KMO deficiency might be manifested by, at least, two different patterns: elevated ANA with decreased 3-HK; and elevated KYNA and KYN. The latter pattern was previously described in type 2 diabetes patients and might underline increased predisposition of SP to development of MetS. Assessment of peripheral KMO deficiency might identify SP predisposed to MetS. Attenuation of the consequences of peripheral KMO deficiency might be a new target for prevention/treatment of obesity and diabetes in SP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5523985PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.15761/ICM.1000105DOI Listing
May 2017

Disease-Modifying Effects of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 in the GAERS Model of Absence Epilepsy.

Neurochem Res 2017 Jul 16;42(7):2055-2064. Epub 2017 May 16.

Department of Medicine (Royal Melbourne Hospital), Melbourne Brain Centre, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.

Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency. The first study compared the effects of acute sc injection of vehicle, NRP 10 µg/kg, NRP 20 µg/kg, and controlled against the active comparator Valproaic acid (200 mg/kg). In the second study, animals received one of four treatments for 4 weeks: vehicle, NRP 60 µg/kg/day, NRP 120 µg/kg/day (delivered by continuous infusion) or NRP 20 µg/kg sc injected every second day (e.s.d). In the acute study, we found significant (p < 0.01) anti-seizure effects in animals treated with NRP2945 (20 µg/kg) and VPA, with NRP2945 slightly more efficacious, despite the 70,000 times lower molar dosage. In the chronic study, animals receiving 120 µg/kg/day and NRP 20 µg/kg e.s.d had significantly fewer seizures (p < 0.001), compared with vehicle. These effects were sustained for at least 10 days after drug treatment had ceased, indicative of disease-modifying activity. We demonstrate sustained anti-seizure effects of NRP2945, a potent small molecule peptide which enters the brain and is devoid of adverse effects. Early stage first-in-man trials have been initiated for subcutaneously delivered NRP2945 which is a promising step to providing therapeutic benefits for refractory epilepsy patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-017-2305-xDOI Listing
July 2017

Cyclooxygenase inhibition targets neurons to prevent early behavioural decline in Alzheimer's disease model mice.

Brain 2016 07 13;139(Pt 7):2063-81. Epub 2016 May 13.

1 Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Identifying preventive targets for Alzheimer's disease is a central challenge of modern medicine. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in normal ageing populations. This preventive effect coincides with an extended preclinical phase that spans years to decades before onset of cognitive decline. In the brain, COX-2 is induced in neurons in response to excitatory synaptic activity and in glial cells in response to inflammation. To identify mechanisms underlying prevention of cognitive decline by anti-inflammatory drugs, we first identified an early object memory deficit in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 mice that preceded previously identified spatial memory deficits in this model. We modelled prevention of this memory deficit with ibuprofen, and found that ibuprofen prevented memory impairment without producing any measurable changes in amyloid-β accumulation or glial inflammation. Instead, ibuprofen modulated hippocampal gene expression in pathways involved in neuronal plasticity and increased levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. The gene most highly downregulated by ibuprofen was neuronal tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2), which encodes an enzyme that metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. TDO2 expression was increased by neuronal COX-2 activity, and overexpression of hippocampal TDO2 produced behavioural deficits. Moreover, pharmacological TDO2 inhibition prevented behavioural deficits in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate broad effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition on multiple neuronal pathways that counteract the neurotoxic effects of early accumulating amyloid-β oligomers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/aww117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939702PMC
July 2016

Anthranilic Acid: A Potential Biomarker and Treatment Target for Schizophrenia.

Ann Psychiatry Ment Health 2016;4(2). Epub 2016 Jan 30.

Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University, USA.

Dysregulation of Trp-Kyn pathway is the most recent hypothesis of mechanisms of schizophrenia. In particular, over-production of kynurenic acid (KYNA), one of the three immediate downstream metabolites of kynurenine (Kyn) along tryptophan (Trp): Kyn pathway, has been considered as a new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. Up-regulation of KYNA formation was suggested to occur at the expense of down-regulated production of 3-hydroxyKyn (3-HK), the second immediate downstream metabolite of Kyn. We were interested to assess the third immediate downstream Kyn metabolite, anthranilic acid (AA). Serum AA concentrations were evaluated in schizophrenia patients and control subjects by HPLC-mass spectrometry method. We found 2-fold increase of AA and 3-fold decrease of 3-HK concentrations in serum of schizophrenia patients. Up regulated formation of AA might contribute to mechanisms of schizophrenia considering experimental evidences of AA augmentation of autoimmune processes in rat and mice; clinical findings of AA elevation in rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases diametrical to schizophrenia; and involvement of autoimmunity in development of schizophrenia. Present data warrant further studies of AA as biological marker in, at least, a subgroup (associated with autoimmune mechanisms) of schizophrenia patients and as a new target for therapeutic intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4817843PMC
January 2016

Elevated anthranilic acid plasma concentrations in type 1 but not type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Integr Mol Med 2015;2(5):365-368. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

Psychiatry and Inflammation Program, Department of Psychiatry, Tufts University School of Medicine/Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, 02111, USA.

Experimental data suggested involvement of tryptophan (Trp) - kynurenine (Kyn) pathway (TKP) in mechanisms of autoimmune, type 1 (T1D), and metabolic, type 2 (T2D), diabetes. However, clinical evaluations of TKP metabolites were limited to T2D. We assessed Trp, Kyn and TKP metabolites: anthranilic (AA), kynurenic (KYNA) and xanthurenic (XA) acids, in plasma samples of fifteen T1D, thirty T2D patients and twenty eight non-diabetic subjects by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Trp concentrations were higher in T1D than in T2D and controls while Kyn concentrations were not changed suggesting down-regulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme of TKP, in T1D. AA concentrations were 2.3-fold higher in T1D than in T2D and in controls. KYNA and XA concentrations were higher in T1D than in controls, and in previously reported T2D. AA elevation might be a specific feature of T1D. TKP shift towards AA formation in T1D may result from riboflavin deficiency, that increases AA in rats and baboons, and is highly associated with T1D but not T2D. AA augments autoimmune-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cells (PC) by increasing formation of antibodies to PC auto-antigen. Marked increase of AA was reported in rheumatoid arthritis, another autoimmune disorder. Trp, an essential amino acid for humans, is synthesized from AA by diabetogenic intestinal microbiome. AA down-regulates IDO by inhibition of Trp entry into cells. Resulting elevation of Trp attenuates Trp depletion-induced protection of PC against autoimmunity. Further studies of TKP might offer new tools for prevention and treatment of T1D and other autoimmune disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15761/IMM.1000169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4624227PMC
September 2015

Dopamine physiology in the basal ganglia of male zebra finches during social stimulation.

Eur J Neurosci 2015 Jun 15;41(12):1506-14. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) is involved in altering neural activity and gene expression in a zebra finch cortical-basal ganglia circuit specialized for singing, upon the shift between solitary singing and singing as a part of courtship. Our objective here was to sample changes in the extracellular concentrations of DA in Area X of adult and juvenile birds, to test the hypothesis that DA levels would change similarly during presentation of a socially salient stimulus in both age groups. We used microdialysis to sample the extracellular milieu of Area X in awake, behaving adult and juvenile male zebra finches, and analysed the dialysate using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. The extracellular levels of DA in Area X increased significantly during both female presentation to adult males and tutor presentation to juvenile males. DA levels were not correlated with the time spent singing. We also reverse-dialysed Area X with pharmacologic agents that act either on DA systems directly or on norepinephrine, and found that all of these agents significantly increased DA levels (3- to 10-fold) in Area X. These findings suggest that changes in extracellular DA levels can be stimulated similarly by very different social contexts (courtship and interaction with tutor), and influenced potently by dopaminergic and noradrenergic drugs. These results raise the possibility that the arousal level or attentional state of the subject (rather than singing behavior) is the common feature eliciting changes in extracellular DA concentration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.12887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4542065PMC
June 2015

Impact of serotonin (5-HT)2C receptors on executive control processes.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2013 May 13;38(6):957-67. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Although the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmitter system has been implicated in modulating executive control processes such as attention, response inhibition, and behavioral flexibility, the contributions of particular serotonin receptors remain unclear. Here, using operant-based behavioral paradigms, we demonstrate that mice with genetically ablated 5-HT2C receptors (2CKO mice) display deficits in executive functions. 2CKO mice were impaired in the acquisition of a visuospatial attention task as assessed in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). In this task, 2CKO mice exhibited marked impairment of attentional processes, with normal response inhibition. We assessed dynamic changes in neurotransmitter levels within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by in vivo microdialysis in task-performing animals. Extracellular dopamine concentrations were elevated in the NAc of 2CKO mice during task performance, indicating that 5-HT2C receptors impact dopamine homeostasis during a visuospatial attention task. These findings raise the possibility that disinhibition of mesolimbic dopamine pathways contributes to impaired attention and perturbed task performance in 2CKO mice. Additionally, in a spatial reversal learning task, 2CKO mice failed to improve their performance over a series of reversals, indicating that intact 5-HT2C receptor signaling is required to accurately respond to repeated changes in reward contingencies. In contrast to the 2CKO phenotype in the 5-CSRTT, wild-type mice treated with the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084 exhibited diminished response inhibition, suggesting differing effects of acute pharmacological blockade and constitutive loss of 5-HT2C receptor activity. Altogether, these findings provide insights into the serotonergic regulation of executive control processes and suggest that impaired 5-HT2C receptor signaling during development may predispose to executive function disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2012.258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3629384PMC
May 2013

Improved preclinical cardiovascular therapeutic indices with long-term inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake using reboxetine.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2012 Nov 19;264(3):343-50. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Department of Global Safety Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics & Metabolism, and Neuroscience, Pfizer Global Research and Development Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) acutely increase norepinephrine (NE) levels, but therapeutic antidepressant activity is only observed after weeks of treatment because central NE levels progressively increase during continued drug exposure. Similarly, while NRIs acutely increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) due to enhanced sympathetic neurotransmission, chronic treatment changes the responsiveness of the central noradrenergic system and suppresses these effects via autonomic regulation. To better understand the relationship between NE increases and cardiovascular safety, we investigated acute and chronic effects of the NRI reboxetine on central NE release and on BP and HR and electrical alternans, a measure of arrhythmia liability, in guinea pigs. NE release was assessed by microdialysis in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN); BP and HR were measured by telemetry. Animals were treated for 28 days with 15 mg/kg/day of reboxetine or vehicle via an osmotic minipump and then challenged with acute intravenous doses of reboxetine. Animals chronically treated with reboxetine had 2-fold higher extracellular basal NE levels in mPFC and PVN compared to basal levels after chronic vehicle treatment. BP was significantly increased after the first day of treatment, and gradually returned to vehicle levels by day 21. These data indicate that chronic NRI treatment may lead to an increase in central NE levels and a concomitant reduction in BP based on exposure-response curves compared to vehicle treatment, suggesting a larger separation between preclinical estimates of efficacy vs. safety compared to acute NRI treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2012.09.010DOI Listing
November 2012

Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressant, produces regionally selective increases of multiple neurotransmitters--a rat microdialysis and electrophysiology study.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2013 Feb 20;23(2):133-45. Epub 2012 May 20.

Lundbeck Research USA, 215 College Rd, Paramus, NJ 07652, USA.

The monoaminergic network, including serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) pathways, is highly interconnected and has a well-established role in mood disorders. Preclinical research suggests that 5-HT receptor subtypes, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as the 5-HT transporter (SERT), may have important roles in treating depression. This study evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressant combining 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, 5-HT1A receptor agonism, and SERT inhibition in recombinant cell lines. Extracellular 5-HT, NE and DA levels were evaluated in the ventral hippocampus (vHC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) after acute and subchronic treatment with Lu AA21004 or escitalopram. The acute effects of LuAA21004 on NE and DA neuronal firing were also evaluated in the locus coeruleus (LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), respectively. Acute Lu AA21004 dose-dependently increased 5-HT in the vHC, mPFC and NAc. Maximal 5-HT levels in the vHC were higher than those in the mPFC. Furthermore, mPFC 5-HT levels were increased at low SERT occupancy levels. In the vHC and mPFC, but not the NAc, high Lu AA21004 doses increased NE and DA levels. Lu AA21004 slightly decreased LC NE neuronal firing and had no effect on VTA DA firing. Results are discussed in context of occupancy at 5-HT3, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1A receptors and SERT. In conclusion, Lu AA21004, acting via two pharmacological modalities, 5-HT receptor modulation and SERT inhibition, results in a brain region-dependent increase of multiple neurotransmitter concentrations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.04.006DOI Listing
February 2013

Biochemical and behavioral effects of long-term citalopram administration and discontinuation in rats: role of serotonin synthesis.

Neurochem Int 2010 Dec 12;57(8):948-57. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

University Centre of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

We have investigated effects of continuous SSRI administration and abrupt discontinuation on biochemical and behavioral indices of rat brain serotonin function, and attempted to identify underlying mechanisms. Biochemistry of serotonin was assessed with brain tissue assays and microdialysis; behavior was assessed as the acoustic startle reflex. Long-term SSRI administration to rats reduced the content of 5-HT and its main metabolite shortly after inhibition of 5-HT synthesis in many brain areas with more than 50%. Turnover was not appreciably decreased, but significantly increased within 48h of drug discontinuation. The microdialysis experiments indicate that neuronal release of 5-HT depends strongly on new synthesis and emphasize the role of 5-HT(1B) receptors in the regulation of these processes. Discontinuation of the SSRI rapidly increased behavioral reactivity to the external stimulus. Additional startle experiments suggest that the increased reactivity is more likely related to the reduced extracellular 5-HT levels than to impaired synthesis. The combination of the marked reduction of serotonin content and limited synthesis may destabilize brain serotonin transmission during long-term SSRI treatment. These combined effects may compromise the efficacy of an SSRI therapy and facilitate behavioral changes following non-compliance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2010.10.001DOI Listing
December 2010

Serotonin regulates pancreatic beta cell mass during pregnancy.

Nat Med 2010 Jul 27;16(7):804-8. Epub 2010 Jun 27.

Diabetes Center, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

During pregnancy, the energy requirements of the fetus impose changes in maternal metabolism. Increasing insulin resistance in the mother maintains nutrient flow to the growing fetus, whereas prolactin and placental lactogen counterbalance this resistance and prevent maternal hyperglycemia by driving expansion of the maternal population of insulin-producing beta cells. However, the exact mechanisms by which the lactogenic hormones drive beta cell expansion remain uncertain. Here we show that serotonin acts downstream of lactogen signaling to stimulate beta cell proliferation. Expression of serotonin synthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1) and serotonin production rose sharply in beta cells during pregnancy or after treatment with lactogens in vitro. Inhibition of serotonin synthesis by dietary tryptophan restriction or Tph inhibition blocked beta cell expansion and induced glucose intolerance in pregnant mice without affecting insulin sensitivity. Expression of the G alpha(q)-linked serotonin receptor 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-2b (Htr2b) in maternal islets increased during pregnancy and normalized just before parturition, whereas expression of the G alpha(i)-linked receptor Htr1d increased at the end of pregnancy and postpartum. Blocking Htr2b signaling in pregnant mice also blocked beta cell expansion and caused glucose intolerance. These studies reveal an integrated signaling pathway linking beta cell mass to anticipated insulin need during pregnancy. Modulators of this pathway, including medications and diet, may affect the risk of gestational diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.2173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921604PMC
July 2010

Chronic citalopram administration causes a sustained suppression of serotonin synthesis in the mouse forebrain.

PLoS One 2009 Aug 27;4(8):e6797. Epub 2009 Aug 27.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter with important roles in the regulation of neurobehavioral processes, particularly those regulating affect in humans. Drugs that potentiate serotonergic neurotransmission by selectively inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin (SSRIs) are widely used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the regulation of serotonin synthesis may be an factor in SSRI efficacy, the effect of chronic SSRI administration on 5-HT synthesis is not well understood. Here, we describe effects of chronic administration of the SSRI citalopram (CIT) on 5-HT synthesis and content in the mouse forebrain.

Methodology/principal Findings: Citalopram was administered continuously to adult male C57BL/6J mice via osmotic minipump for 2 days, 14 days or 28 days. Plasma citalopram levels were found to be within the clinical range. 5-HT synthesis was assessed using the decarboxylase inhibition method. Citalopram administration caused a suppression of 5-HT synthesis at all time points. CIT treatment also caused a reduction in forebrain 5-HIAA content. Following chronic CIT treatment, forebrain 5-HT stores were more sensitive to the depleting effects of acute decarboxylase inhibition.

Conclusions/significance: Taken together, these results demonstrate that chronic citalopram administration causes a sustained suppression of serotonin synthesis in the mouse forebrain. Furthermore, our results indicate that chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibition renders 5-HT brain stores more sensitive to alterations in serotonin synthesis. These results suggest that the regulation of 5-HT synthesis warrants consideration in efforts to develop novel antidepressant strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0006797PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2728775PMC
August 2009

Antagonism of 5-HT(1A) receptors uncovers an excitatory effect of SSRIs on 5-HT neuronal activity, an action probably mediated by 5-HT(7) receptors.

J Neurochem 2009 Mar 23;108(5):1126-35. Epub 2009 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Biomonitoring & Sensoring, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

Both microdialysis and electrophysiology were used to investigate whether another serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype next to the 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor is involved in the acute effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor on 5-HT neuronal activity. On the basis of a previous study, we decided to investigate the involvement of the 5-HT(7) receptors. Experiments were performed with the specific 5-HT(7) antagonist SB 258741 and the putative 5-HT(7) agonist AS19. In this study WAY 100.635 was used to block 5-HT(1A) receptors. Systemic administration of SB 258741 significantly reduced the effect of combined selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and WAY 100.635 administration on extracellular 5-HT in the ventral hippocampus as well as 5-HT neuronal firing in the dorsal raphe nucleus. In the microdialysis study, co-administration of AS19 and WAY 100.635 showed a biphasic effect on extracellular 5-HT in ventral hippocampus, hinting at opposed 5-HT(7) receptor mediated effects. In the electrophysiological experiments, systemic administration of AS19 alone displayed a bell-shaped dose-effect curve: moderately increasing 5-HT neuronal firing at lower doses while decreasing it at higher doses. SB 258741 was capable of blocking the effect of AS19 at a low dose. This is consistent with the pharmacological profile of AS19, displaying high affinity for 5-HT(7) receptors and moderate affinity for 5-HT(1A) receptors. The data are in support of an excitatory effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on 5-HT neuronal activity mediated by 5-HT(7) receptors. It can be speculated, that the restoration of 5-HT neuronal firing upon chronic antidepressant treatment, which is generally attributed to desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptors alone, in fact results from a shift in balance between 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05850.xDOI Listing
March 2009

SONU20176289, a compound combining partial dopamine D(2) receptor agonism with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor activity, affects neuroplasticity in an animal model for depression.

Eur J Pharmacol 2008 Nov 17;598(1-3):43-50. Epub 2008 Sep 17.

Neuroscience Centre, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, St. Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 2AT, UK.

We investigated the efficacy of SONU20176289, a member of a group of novel phenylpiperazine derivatives with a mixed dopamine D(2) receptor partial agonist and specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) activity, in a chronic stress model of depression in male tree shrews. Animals were subjected to a 7-day period of psychosocial stress before treatment for 28 days with SONU20176289 (6 mg/kg/day, p.o.), during which stress was maintained. Stress reduced the in vivo brain concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate, total creatine, and choline-containing compounds, as measured by localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Post mortem analyses revealed a reduced adult dentate cell proliferation and a decreased GluR2 expression in the prefrontal cortex. All these alterations were prevented by concomitant administration of SONU20176289. The results provide further support to the concept that antidepressant treatments may act by normalizing disturbed neuroplasticity, and indicate that combining dopamine D(2) receptor agonism with SSRI activity may serve as an effective tool in the treatment of depressive/anxiety syndromes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.09.006DOI Listing
November 2008

Chronic psychosocial stress in tree shrews: effect of the substance P (NK1 receptor) antagonist L-760735 and clomipramine on endocrine and behavioral parameters.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005 Sep 14;181(2):207-16. Epub 2005 Oct 14.

Clinical Neurobiology Laboratory, German Primate Center, Göttingen.

Rationale: Substance P and its preferred receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK(1)R), have been proposed as possible targets for new antidepressant therapies, although results of a recently completed phase III trial failed to demonstrate that the NK(1)R antagonist MK-869 is more effective than placebo in the treatment of depression.

Methods: In the present study, we compared the effects of the NK(1)R antagonist L-760735 with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine on endocrine and behavioral parameters in chronically stressed tree shrews. Animals were subjected to a 7-day period of psychosocial stress before receiving daily oral administration of L-760735 (10 mg/kg/day) or clomipramine (50 mg/kg/day). The psychosocial stress continued throughout the treatment period of 21 days. Daily morning urine was collected to measure cortisol and norepinephrine levels. All animals were videotaped daily and three types of behavior were analyzed.

Results: Chronic psychosocial stress resulted in a significant increase of urinary cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations. Moreover, stressed animals displayed decreased marking behavior and locomotor activity, while grooming remained unaffected. Neither treatment with clomipramine nor L-760735 was able to normalize the stress-induced elevation of cortisol or norepinephrine. On the behavioral parameters, L-760735 had a time-dependent restorative influence on marking behavior close to normal levels, without affecting locomotor activity. Grooming behavior was significantly increased by the 3 weeks of drug treatment.

Conclusions: These results suggest that L-760735 was able to counteract certain stress-induced behavioral alterations in an animal model of depression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-005-2260-0DOI Listing
September 2005

Examining SLV-323, a novel NK1 receptor antagonist, in a chronic psychosocial stress model for depression.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005 Jul 22;180(3):548-57. Epub 2005 Feb 22.

Clinical Neurobiology Laboratory, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

Rationale: Substance P antagonists have been proposed as candidates for a new class of antidepressant compounds.

Objectives: We examined the effects of SLV-323, a novel neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist, in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm of adult male tree shrews.

Methods: Animals were subjected to a 7 day period of psychosocial stress before being treated daily with SLV-323 (20 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). The psychosocial stress continued throughout the treatment period of 28 days. Brain metabolite concentrations were determined in vivo by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Norepinephrine excretion was monitored from daily urine samples, and serum testosterone concentrations were measured at the end of the experiment. All animals were videotaped daily to analyze scent-marking behavior and locomotor activity. Cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus and hippocampal volume were measured postmortem.

Results: Stress significantly decreased cerebral concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate, total creatine, and choline-containing compounds in vivo and resulted in an increase of urinary norepinephrine and decrease of serum testosterone concentrations. Moreover, stressed animals displayed decreased scent-marking behavior and locomotor activity. The proliferation rate of the granule precursor cells in the dentate gyrus was reduced, and hippocampal volume was mildly decreased. The stress-induced alterations in the central nervous system were partially prevented by concomitant administration of SLV-323, while drug treatment had only a minor effect on the stress-induced behavioral changes.

Conclusions: The novel NK1R antagonist SLV-323 has certain antidepressant-like effects in a valid animal model of depression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-005-2184-8DOI Listing
July 2005

Chronic stress decreases the number of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus: prevention by treatment with a substance P receptor (NK1) antagonist.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2005 Jan;30(1):67-79

Clinical Neurobiology Laboratory, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany.

Previous studies have demonstrated that stress may affect the hippocampal GABAergic system. Here, we examined whether long-term psychosocial stress influenced the number of parvalbumin-containing GABAergic cells, known to provide the most powerful inhibitory input to the perisomatic region of principal cells. Adult male tree shrews were submitted to 5 weeks of stress, after which immunocytochemical and quantitative stereological techniques were used to estimate the total number of hippocampal parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) neurons. Stress significantly decreased the number of PV-IR cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) (-33%), CA2 (-28%), and CA3 (-29%), whereas the CA1 was not affected. Additionally, we examined whether antidepressant treatment offered protection from this stress-induced effect. We administered fluoxetine (15 mg/kg per day) and SLV-323 (20 mg/kg per day), a novel neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonist, because the NK1R has been proposed as a possible target for novel antidepressant therapies. Animals were subjected to a 7-day period of psychosocial stress before the onset of daily oral administration of the drugs, with stress continued throughout the 28-day treatment period. NK1R antagonist administration completely prevented the stress-induced reduction of the number of PV-IR interneurons, whereas fluoxetine attenuated this decrement in the DG, without affecting the CA2 and CA3. The effect of stress on interneuron numbers may reflect real cell loss; alternatively, parvalbumin concentration is diminished in the neurons, which might indicate a compensatory attempt. In either case, antidepressant treatment offered protection from the effect of stress and appears to modulate the hippocampal GABAergic system. Furthermore, the NK1R antagonist SLV-323 showed neurobiological efficacy similar to that of fluoxetine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300581DOI Listing
January 2005

Future antidepressants: what is in the pipeline and what is missing?

CNS Drugs 2004 ;18(11):705-32

Department of Psychiatry, University and University Hospital of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, PO Box 30 001, Groningen, 9700 RB, The Netherlands.

Monoamine reuptake inhibitors still reign in the treatment of major depression, but possibly not for long. While medicinal chemists have been able to reduce the side effects of these drugs, their delayed onset of action and considerable non-response rate remain problematic. Of late, serious questions have been raised regarding the efficacy of monoamine reuptake inhibitors. The present review presents an inventory of what is (and until recently was) in the antidepressant pipeline of pharmaceutical companies. Novel antidepressant compounds can be categorised into four groups depending on their target(s): (i) monoamine receptors; (ii) non-monoamine receptors; (iii) neuropeptide receptors; and (iv) hormone receptors. Other possible targets include components of post-receptor intracellular processes and elements of the immune system; to date, however, compounds specifically aimed at these targets have not been the subject of clinical trials. Development of several compounds targeted at monoamine receptors has recently been discontinued. At least five neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonists were until recently in phase II of clinical testing. However, the apparent interest in the NK(1) receptor should not be interpreted as representing a departure from the monoamine hypothesis since neurokinins also modulate monoaminergic systems. In the authors' view, development of future antidepressants will continue to rely on the serendipity-based monoamine hypothesis. However, an alternative approach, based on the hypothesis that chronic stress precipitates depressive symptoms, might be more productive. Unfortunately, clinical results using drugs targeted at components of the HPA axis have not been very encouraging to date. In the short run, the authors believe that augmentation strategies offer the best hope for improving the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. Several approaches to improve the efficacy of SSRIs are conceivable, such as concurrent blockade of monoamine autoreceptors and the addition of antipsychotics, neuromodulators or hormones (HPA axis and gender related). In the long-term, however, construction of a scientifically verified conceptual framework will be needed before more effective antidepressants can be developed. It can be argued that it is not depression itself that should be treated, but rather that its duration should be reduced by pharmacological means. Animal models that take this concept into consideration and identify mechanisms for acceleration of recovery from the effects of stress need to be developed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00023210-200418110-00002DOI Listing
November 2004

Identification of genes regulated by chronic psychosocial stress and antidepressant treatment in the hippocampus.

Eur J Neurosci 2004 Feb;19(3):659-66

IIB-INTECH-CONICET-UNSAM, Avenida Gral Paz 5445, INTI, edificio 24 (1650) San Martin, Argentina.

Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the brain is a promising tool for elucidating pathological mechanisms that lead to central nervous disorders. Stress is known to be involved in the development of psychopathologies such as depression. In the present study, we searched for differentially expressed genes in the hippocampal formation after chronic psychosocial stress and after treatment with the antidepressant clomipramine. Experiments were conducted in male tree shrews, a valid psychosocial stress model in which antidepressant drugs prevent diverse effects of stress. Because many effects of stress have been attributed to the stress-induced elevation in glucocorticoids, we screened two subtractive hippocampal cDNA libraries generated from RNA of chronic cortisol-treated animals. Using real-time PCR to measure mRNA amounts, we identified five sequences whose expression levels differed between stressed animals and controls. Transcript levels of four of them, nerve growth factor (NGF), membrane glycoprotein 6a (M6a), CDC-like kinase 1 (CLK-1) and G-protein alpha q (GNAQ) were reduced by chronic psychosocial stress. Reduced amounts of these genes, which are all related to processes of cell differentiation, is in agreement with previous findings showing a retraction of dendrites and an impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation after chronic stress. An additional expressed sequence that was also regulated by stress could not be assigned to any known gene. Treatment with the antidepressant clomipramine prevented stress effects on expression of M6a, CLK-1, GNAQ and the novel sequence, but showed no effect on NGF stress-induced down-regulation. These findings support the concept that depressive disorders are accompanied by processes of neuronal dedifferentiation, at least in the hippocampal formation, and that antidepressants prevent these processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03178.xDOI Listing
February 2004