Publications by authors named "Marieke Bax"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Crossreactivity to vinculin and microbes provides a molecular basis for HLA-based protection against rheumatoid arthritis.

Nat Commun 2015 May 5;6:6681. Epub 2015 May 5.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

The HLA locus is the strongest risk factor for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)(+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite considerable efforts in the last 35 years, this association is poorly understood. Here we identify (citrullinated) vinculin, present in the joints of ACPA(+) RA patients, as an autoantigen targeted by ACPA and CD4(+) T cells. These T cells recognize an epitope with the core sequence DERAA, which is also found in many microbes and in protective HLA-DRB1*13 molecules, presented by predisposing HLA-DQ molecules. Moreover, these T cells crossreact with vinculin-derived and microbial-derived DERAA epitopes. Intriguingly, DERAA-directed T cells are not detected in HLA-DRB1*13(+) donors, indicating that the DERAA epitope from HLA-DRB1*13 mediates (thymic) tolerance in these donors and explaining the protective effects associated with HLA-DRB1*13. Together our data indicate the involvement of pathogen-induced DERAA-directed T cells in the HLA-RA association and provide a molecular basis for the contribution of protective/predisposing HLA alleles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7681DOI Listing
May 2015

The pathogenic potential of autoreactive antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.

Semin Immunopathol 2014 May 25;36(3):313-25. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300, RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease affecting ∼1 % of the population. Although major advances have been made in the treatment of RA, relatively little is known about disease pathogenesis. Autoantibodies, present in approximately 60 % of the patients with early disease, might provide indications for immunological mechanisms underlying RA. Among the RA-associated autoantibodies, especially anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) have been studied intensively in the last decade. The discovery of ACPAs resulted into novel insight in RA pathogenesis and allowed division of the heterogeneous entity of RA into an ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative subset of disease. Other autoantibodies discovered in the serum of RA patients, including rheumatoid factors (RFs) targeting human IgG and anti-peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD)3/4 antibodies reactive against and activating the enzyme involved in citrullination, might contribute in collaboration with ACPAs to a feed-forward loop to aggravate erosive outcome of disease. Recently, a novel autoantibody system associated with RA was identified. These autoantibodies recognize carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP antibodies) and are detected in approximately 20 % of ACPA-negative patients, suggesting another parameter to sub-classify RA. In this review, the implication of autoantibodies in RA pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis and as biomarker for personalized medicine is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00281-014-0429-5DOI Listing
May 2014

Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis: what have we learned?

Immunogenetics 2011 Aug 10;63(8):459-66. Epub 2011 May 10.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center RC, The Netherlands.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting 0.5-1% of the population worldwide. The disease has a heterogeneous character, including clinical subsets of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and APCA-negative disease. Although the pathogenesis of RA is poorly understood, progress has been made in identifying genetic factors that contribute to the disease. The most important genetic risk factor for RA is found in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus. In particular, the HLA molecules carrying the amino acid sequence QKRAA, QRRAA, or RRRAA at positions 70-74 of the DRβ1 chain are associated with the disease. The HLA molecules carrying these "shared epitope" sequences only predispose for ACPA-positive disease. More than two decades after the discovery of HLA-DRB1 as a genetic risk factor, the second genetic risk factor for RA was identified in 2003. The introduction of new techniques, such as methods to perform genome-wide association has led to the identification of more than 20 additional genetic risk factors within the last 4 years, with most of these factors being located near genes implicated in immunological pathways. These findings underscore the role of the immune system in RA pathogenesis and may provide valuable insight into the specific pathways that cause RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-011-0528-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3132380PMC
August 2011

Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides modulate dendritic cell-mediated T cell polarization in a sialic acid linkage-dependent manner.

Infect Immun 2011 Jul 18;79(7):2681-9. Epub 2011 Apr 18.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, PO Box 7057, 1007MB Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Carbohydrate mimicry between Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides (LOS) and host neural gangliosides plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Campylobacter jejuni LOS may mimic various gangliosides, which affects the immunogenicity and the type of neurological deficits in GBS patients. Previous studies have shown the interaction of LOS with sialic acid-specific siglec receptors, although the functional consequences remain unknown. Cells that express high levels of siglecs include dendritic cells (DCs), which are crucial for initiation and differentiation of immune responses. We confirm that α2,3-sialylated GD1a/GM1a mimic and α2,8-sialylated GD1c mimic LOS structures interact with recombinant Sn and siglec-7, respectively. Although the linkage of the terminal sialic acid of LOS did not regulate expression of DC maturation markers, it displayed clear opposite expression levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and OX40L, molecules involved in DC-mediated Th cell differentiation. Accordingly, targeting DC-expressed siglec-7 with α2,8-linked sialylated LOS resulted in Th1 responses, whereas Th2 responses were induced by targeting with LOS containing α2,3-linked sialic acid. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that depending on the sialylated composition of Campylobacter jejuni LOS, specific Th differentiation programs are initiated, possibly through targeting of distinct DC-expressed siglecs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00009-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3191980PMC
July 2011

TLR4-mediated sensing of Campylobacter jejuni by dendritic cells is determined by sialylation.

J Immunol 2010 Jul 4;185(1):748-55. Epub 2010 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

In Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), ganglioside mimicry of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) drives the production of cross-reactive Abs to peripheral nerve gangliosides. We determined whether sialic acid residues in C. jejuni LOS modulate dendritic cell (DC) activation and subsequent B cell proliferation as a possible mechanism for the aberrant humoral immune response in GBS. Highly purified sialylated LOS of C. jejuni isolates from three GBS patients induced human DC maturation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines that were inhibited by anti-TLR4 neutralizing Abs. The extent of TLR4 signaling and DC activation was greater with LOS of the wild type isolates than with nonsialylated LOS of the corresponding sialyltransferase gene knockout (cst-II mutant) strains, indicating that sialylation boosts the DC response to C. jejuni LOS. Supernatants of LOS-activated DCs induced B cell proliferation after cross-linking of surface Igs in the absence of T cells. Lower B cell proliferation indices were found with DC supernatants after DC stimulation with cst-II mutant or neuraminidase desialylated LOS. This study showed that sialylation of C. jejuni LOS enhances human DC activation and subsequent B cell proliferation, which may contribute to the development of cross-reactive anti-ganglioside Abs found in GBS patients following C. jejuni infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0903014DOI Listing
July 2010

Interaction of polysialic acid with CCL21 regulates the migratory capacity of human dendritic cells.

PLoS One 2009 Sep 14;4(9):e6987. Epub 2009 Sep 14.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Immature DCs (iDCs) are situated in the periphery where they capture pathogen. Subsequently, they migrate as mature DCs (mDCs) to draining lymph nodes to activate T cells. CCR7 and CCL21 contribute to the migratory capacity of the DC, but it is not completely understood what molecular requirements are involved. Here we demonstrate that monocyte-derived DCs dramatically change ST8Sia IV expression during maturation, leading to the generation of polysialic acid (polySia). PolySia expression is highly upregulated after 2 days Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) triggering. Surprisingly, only immunogenic and not tolerogenic mDCs upregulated polySia expression. Furthermore, we show that polySia expression on DCs is required for CCL21-directed migration, whereby polySia directly captures CCL21. Corresponding to polySia, the expression level of CCR7 is maximal two days after TLR4 triggering. In contrast, although TLR agonists other than LPS induce upregulation of CCR7, they achieve only a moderate polySia expression. In situ we could detect polySia-expressing APCs in the T cell zone of the lymph node and in the deep dermis. Together our results indicate that prolonged TLR4 engagement is required for the generation of polySia-expressing DCs that facilitate CCL21 capture and subsequent CCL21-directed migration.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0006987PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2737307PMC
September 2009

Dendritic cell maturation results in pronounced changes in glycan expression affecting recognition by siglecs and galectins.

J Immunol 2007 Dec;179(12):8216-24

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent APC in the organism. Immature dendritic cells (iDC) reside in the tissue where they capture pathogens whereas mature dendritic cells (mDC) are able to activate T cells in the lymph node. This dramatic functional change is mediated by an important genetic reprogramming. Glycosylation is the most common form of posttranslational modification of proteins and has been implicated in multiple aspects of the immune response. To investigate the involvement of glycosylation in the changes that occur during DC maturation, we have studied the differences in the glycan profile of iDC and mDC as well as their glycosylation machinery. For information relating to glycan biosynthesis, gene expression profiles of human monocyte-derived iDC and mDC were compared using a gene microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. This gene expression profiling showed a profound maturation-induced up-regulation of the glycosyltransferases involved in the expression of LacNAc, core 1 and sialylated structures and a down-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of core 2 O-glycans. Glycosylation changes during DC maturation were corroborated by mass spectrometric analysis of N- and O-glycans and by flow cytometry using plant lectins and glycan-specific Abs. Interestingly, the binding of the LacNAc-specific lectins galectin-3 and -8 increased during maturation and up-regulation of sialic acid expression by mDC correlated with an increased binding of siglec-1, -2, and -7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.12.8216DOI Listing
December 2007

Glycan modification of the tumor antigen gp100 targets DC-SIGN to enhance dendritic cell induced antigen presentation to T cells.

Int J Cancer 2008 Feb;122(4):839-46

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Dendritic cells (DC) have gained much interest in the field of anticancer vaccine development because of their central function in immune regulation. However, the clinical application of ex vivo cultured DC has significant disadvantages. A vaccine that targets dendritic cells in vivo and enhances antigen presentation would be of great benefit. Because of its DC-restricted expression pattern, and its function as an antigen uptake receptor, DC-SIGN is an interesting candidate target structure for human immature DC. Here, we studied whether modification of the melanoma differentiation antigen gp100 with DC-SIGN-interacting glycans enhances targeting to human DC. A high-mannose form of gp100, as protein or as tumor lysate, not only interacted specifically with DC through DC-SIGN but also resulted in an enhanced antigen presentation to gp100-specific CD4(+) T cells. Our results indicate that glycan modification of tumor antigens to target C-type lectin receptors, such as DC-SIGN, is a new way to develop in vivo targeting DC strategies that simultaneously enhance the induction of tumor-specific T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23101DOI Listing
February 2008
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