Publications by authors named "Marie-Rosette Nahimana"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

How Can Digital Health Technologies Contribute to Sustainable Attainment of Universal Health Coverage in Africa? A Perspective.

Front Public Health 2019 15;7:341. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

International Health System Strengthening Expert, Accra, Ghana.

Innovative strategies such as digital health are needed to ensure attainment of the ambitious universal health coverage in Africa. However, their successful deployment on a wider scale faces several challenges on the continent. This article reviews the key benefits and challenges associated with the application of digital health for universal health coverage and propose a conceptual framework for its wide scale deployment in Africa. Digital health has several benefits. These include; improving access to health care services especially for those in hard-to-reach areas, improvements in safety and quality of healthcare services and products, improved knowledge and access of health workers and communities to health information; cost savings and efficiencies in health services delivery; and improvements in access to the social, economic and environmental determinants of health, all of which could contribute to the attainment of universal health coverage. However, digital health deployment in Africa is constrained by challenges such as poor coordination of mushrooming pilot projects, weak health systems, lack of awareness and knowledge about digital health, poor infrastructure such as unstable power supply, poor internet connectivity and lack of interoperability of the numerous digital health systems. Contribution of digital health to attainment of universal health coverage requires the presence of elements such as resilient health system, communities and access to the social and economic determinants of health. Further evidence and a conceptual framework are needed for successful and sustainable deployment of digital health for universal health coverage in Africa.
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November 2019

Risk factors for transmission of Typhi in Mahama refugee camp, Rwanda: a matched case-control study.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 13;29:148. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

World Health Organization Country Office, Kigali, Rwanda.

Introduction: In early October 2015, the health facility in Mahama, a refugee camp for Burundians, began to record an increase in the incidence of a disease characterized by fever, chills and abdominal pain. The investigation of the outbreak confirmed Typhi as the cause. A case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for the disease.

Methods: A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted between January and February 2016. Data were obtained through a survey of matched cases and controls, based on an epidemiological case definition and environmental assessment. Odd ratios were calculated to determine the risk factors associated with typhoid fever.

Results: Overall, 260 cases and 770 controls were enrolled in the study. Findings from the multivariable logistic regression identified that having a family member who had been infected with S. Typhi in the last 3 months (OR 2.7; p < 0.001), poor awareness of typhoid fever (OR 1.6; p = 0.011), inconsistent hand washing after use of the latrine (OR 1.8; p = 0.003), eating food prepared at home (OR 2.8; p < 0.001) or at community market (OR 11.4; p = 0.005) were risk factors for typhoid fever transmission. Environmental assessments established the local sorghum beer and yoghurt were contaminated with yeast, aerobic flora, coliforms or Staphylococcus.

Conclusion: These findings highlight the need of reinforcement of hygiene promotion, food safety regulations, hygiene education for beverage and food handlers in community market and intensification of environmental interventions to break the transmission of S.Typhi in Mahama.
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August 2018

Knowledge, attitude and practice of hygiene and sanitation in a Burundian refugee camp: implications for control of a Salmonella typhi outbreak.

Pan Afr Med J 2017 21;28:54. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

WHO Country Office, Ebenezer House, Boulevard of Umuganda, Kigali, Rwanda.

Introduction: A outbreak was reported in a Burundian refugee camp in Rwanda in October 2015. Transmission persisted despite increased hygiene promotion activities and hand-washing facilities instituted to prevent and control the outbreak. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of ongoing typhoid fever preventive interventions.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Mahama Refugee Camp of Kirehe District, Rwanda from January to February 2016. Data were obtained through administration of a structured KAP questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed using STATA software.

Results: A total of 671 respondents comprising 264 (39.3%) males and 407 (60.7%) females were enrolled in the study. A comparison of hand washing practices before and after institution of prevention and control measures showed a 37% increase in the proportion of respondents who washed their hands before eating and after using the toilet (p < 0.001). About 52.8% of participants reported having heard about typhoid fever, however 25.9% had received health education. Only 34.6% and 38.6% of the respondents respectively knew how typhoid fever spreads and is prevented. Most respondents (98.2%) used pit latrines for disposal of feces. Long duration of stay in the camp, age over 35 years and being unemployed were statistically associated with poor hand washing practices.

Conclusion: The findings of this study underline the need for bolstering up health education and hygiene promotion activities in Mahama and other refugee camp settings.
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December 2017

A population-based national estimate of the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension in Rwanda: implications for prevention and control.

BMC Public Health 2017 07 10;18(1). Epub 2017 Jul 10.

WHO Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.

Background: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and a growing public health problem in many developed and developing countries. However, population-based data to inform policy development are scarce in Rwanda. This nationally representative study aimed to determine population-based estimates of the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension in Rwanda.

Methods: We conducted secondary epidemiological analysis of data collected from a cross-sectional population-based study to assess the risk factors for NCDs using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPS). Adjusted odds ratios at 95% confidence interval were used to establish association between hypertension, socio-demographic characteristics and health risk behaviors.

Results: Of the 7116 study participants, 62.8% were females and 38.2% were males. The mean age of study participants was 35.3 years (SD 12.5). The overall prevalence of hypertension was 15.3% (16.4% for males and 14.4% for females). Twenty two percent of hypertensive participants were previously diagnosed. A logistic regression model revealed that age (AOR: 8.02, 95% CI: 5.63-11.42, p < 0.001), living in semi-urban area (AOR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01-1.67, p = 0.040) alcohol consumption (AOR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.44, p = 0.009) and, raised BMI (AOR: 3.93, 95% CI: 2.54-6.08, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with hypertension. The risk of having hypertension was 2 times higher among obese respondents (AOR: 3.93, 95% CI: 2.54-6.08, p-value < 0.001) compared to those with normal BMI (AOR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.30-2.32, p-value < 0.001). Females (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63-0.88, p < 0.001) and students (AOR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.25-0.80, p = 0.007) were less likely to be hypertensive.

Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that the prevalence of hypertension is high in Rwanda, suggesting the need for prevention and control interventions aimed at decreasing the incidence taking into consideration the risk factors documented in this and other similar studies.
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July 2017