Publications by authors named "Marie-Pierre Dehouck"

35 Publications

Chemoselective Hydrogenation of 6-Alkynyl-3-fluoro-2-pyridinaldoximes: Access to First-in-Class 6-Alkyl-3-Fluoro-2-pyridinaldoxime Scaffolds as New Reactivators of Sarin-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase with Increased Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability.

Chemistry 2020 Nov 20;26(65):15035-15044. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

ICPEES UMR CNRS 7515, Institut de Chimie des Procédés, pour l'Energie, l'Environnement, et la Santé, 25 Rue Becquerel, 67087, Strasbourg, France.

Novel 6-alkyl- and 6-alkenyl-3-fluoro-2-pyridinaldoximes have been synthesised by using a mild and efficient chemoselective hydrogenation of 6-alkynyl-3-fluoro-2-pyridinaldoxime scaffolds, without altering the reducible, unprotected, sensitive oxime functionality and the C-F bond. These novel 6-alkyl-3-fluoro-2-pyridinaldoximes may find medicinal application as antidotes to organophosphate poisoning. Indeed, one low-molecular-weight compound exhibited increased affinity for sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and greater reactivation efficiency or resurrection for sarin-inhibited hAChE, compared with those of 2-pyridinaldoxime (2-PAM) and 1-({[4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy}methyl)-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium chloride (HI-6), two pyridinium salts currently used as antidote by several countries. In addition, the uncharged 3-fluorinated bifunctional hybrid showed increased in vitro blood-brain barrier permeability compared with those of 2-PAM, HI-6 and obidoxime. These promising features of novel low-molecular-weight alkylfluoropyridinaldoxime open up a new era for the design, synthesis and discovery of central non-quaternary broad spectrum reactivators for organophosphate-inhibited cholinesterases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202002012DOI Listing
November 2020

Efficacy Assessment of an Uncharged Reactivator of NOP-Inhibited Acetylcholinesterase Based on Tetrahydroacridine Pyridine-Aldoxime Hybrid in Mouse Compared to Pralidoxime.

Biomolecules 2020 06 4;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, F-91220 Brétigny-sur-Orge, France.

(1) Background: Human exposure to organophosphorus compounds employed as pesticides or as chemical warfare agents induces deleterious effects due to cholinesterase inhibition. One therapeutic approach is the reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase by oximes. While currently available oximes are unable to reach the central nervous system to reactivate cholinesterases or to display a wide spectrum of action against the variety of organophosphorus compounds, we aim to identify new reactivators without such drawbacks. (2) Methods: This study gathers an exhaustive work to assess in vitro and in vivo efficacy, and toxicity of a hybrid tetrahydroacridine pyridinaldoxime reactivator, KM297, compared to pralidoxime. (3) Results: Blood-brain barrier crossing assay carried out on a human in vitro model established that KM297 has an endothelial permeability coefficient twice that of pralidoxime. It also presents higher cytotoxicity, particularly on bone marrow-derived cells. Its strong cholinesterase inhibition potency seems to be correlated to its low protective efficacy in mice exposed to paraoxon. Ventilatory monitoring of KM297-treated mice by double-chamber plethysmography shows toxic effects at the selected therapeutic dose. This breathing assessment could help define the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) dose of new oximes which would have a maximum therapeutic effect without any toxic side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355633PMC
June 2020

Development of a human in vitro blood-brain tumor barrier model of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma to better understand the chemoresistance.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2020 Jun 2;17(1):37. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Laboratoire de la Barrière Hémato-Encéphalique (LBHE), Univ. Artois, UR 2465, 62300, Lens, France.

Background: Pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) represents one of the most devastating and lethal brain tumors in children with a median survival of 12 months. The high mortality rate can be explained by the ineligibility of patients to surgical resection due to the diffuse growth pattern and midline localization of the tumor. While the therapeutic strategies are unfortunately palliative, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is suspected to be responsible for the treatment inefficiency. Located at the brain capillary endothelial cells (ECs), the BBB has specific properties to tightly control and restrict the access of molecules to the brain parenchyma including chemotherapeutic compounds. However, these BBB specific properties can be modified in a pathological environment, thus modulating brain exposure to therapeutic drugs. Hence, this study aimed at developing a syngeneic human blood-brain tumor barrier model to understand how the presence of DIPG impacts the structure and function of brain capillary ECs.

Methods: A human syngeneic in vitro BBB model consisting of a triple culture of human (ECs) (differentiated from CD34-stem cells), pericytes and astrocytes was developed. Once validated in terms of BBB phenotype, this model was adapted to develop a blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB) model specific to pediatric DIPG by replacing the astrocytes by DIPG-007, -013 and -014 cells. The physical and metabolic properties of the BBTB ECs were analyzed and compared to the BBB ECs. The permeability of both models to chemotherapeutic compounds was evaluated.

Results: In line with clinical observation, the integrity of the BBTB ECs remained intact until 7 days of incubation. Both transcriptional expression and activity of efflux transporters were not strongly modified by the presence of DIPG. The permeability of ECs to the chemotherapeutic drugs temozolomide and panobinostat was not affected by the DIPG environment.

Conclusions: This original human BBTB model allows a better understanding of the influence of DIPG on the BBTB ECs phenotype. Our data reveal that the chemoresistance described for DIPG does not come from the development of a "super BBB". These results, validated by the absence of modification of drug transport through the BBTB ECs, point out the importance of understanding the implication of the different protagonists in the pathology to have a chance to significantly improve treatment efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-020-00198-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268424PMC
June 2020

Derivation of Brain Capillary-like Endothelial Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

Stem Cell Reports 2019 10 5;13(4):599-611. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

The derivation of human brain capillary endothelial cells is of utmost importance for drug discovery programs focusing on diseases of the central nervous system. Here, we describe a two-step differentiation protocol to derive brain capillary-like endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells. The cells were initially differentiated into endothelial progenitor cells followed by specification into a brain capillary-like endothelial cell phenotype using a protocol that combined the induction, in a time-dependent manner, of VEGF, Wnt3a, and retinoic acid signaling pathways and the use of fibronectin as the extracellular matrix. The brain capillary-like endothelial cells displayed a permeability to lucifer yellow of 1 × 10 cm/min, a transendothelial electrical resistance value of 60 Ω cm and were able to generate a continuous monolayer of cells expressing ZO-1 and CLAUDIN-5 but moderate expression of P-glycoprotein. Further maturation of these cells required coculture with pericytes. The study presented here opens a new approach for the study of soluble and non-soluble factors in the specification of endothelial progenitor cells into brain capillary-like endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2019.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6829749PMC
October 2019

A nanoformulation for the preferential accumulation in adult neurogenic niches.

J Control Release 2018 08 15;284:57-72. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

CNC - Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Stimulation of adult neurogenesis by targeting the endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs), located in hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ), with nanoformulations has been proposed for brain repair in cases of neurodegenerative diseases. Unfortunately, it is relatively unknown the nanoformulation properties to facilitate their accumulation in the neurogenic niches after intravenous injection. Here, we have screened different gold-based formulations having variable morphology, surface chemistry and responsiveness to light for their capacity to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and accumulate preferentially in the neurogenic niches. Results obtained in a human in vitro BBB model showed that gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and gold nanorods (Au NRs) conjugated with medium density of transferrin (Tf) peptides (i.e. between 169 and 230 peptides per NP) crossed more efficiently the BBB than the remaining formulations. This is due to a relatively lower avidity of these formulations to Tf receptor (TfR) and lower accumulation in the lysosomes, as compared to the other formulations. We further show that the near infrared light (NIR) irradiation of Au NRs, under a certain concentration and at specific cell culture time, lead to the opening of the BBB. Finally, we demonstrate that Au NRs conjugated with Tf administered intravenously in mice and activated by NIR had the highest accumulation in the neurogenic niches. Our results open the possibility of targeting more effectively the neurogenic niches by controlling the properties of the nanoformulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.06.013DOI Listing
August 2018

Sodium Transporters Are Involved in Lithium Influx in Brain Endothelial Cells.

Mol Pharm 2018 07 14;15(7):2528-2538. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Inserm U1144 , Paris F-75006 , France.

Variability in drug response to lithium (Li) is poorly understood and significant, as only 40% of patients with bipolar disorder highly respond to Li. Li can be transported by sodium (Na) transporters in kidney tubules or red blood cells, but its transport has not been investigated at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inhibition and/or transcriptomic strategies for Na transporters such as NHE (SLC9), NBC (SLC4), and NKCC (SLC12) were used to assess their role on Li transport in human brain endothelial cells. Na-free buffer was also used to examine Na/Li countertransport (NLCT) activity. The BBB permeability of Li evaluated in the rat was 2% that of diazepam, a high passive diffusion lipophilic compound. Gene expression of several Na transporters was determined in hCMEC/D3 cells, human hematopoietic stem-cell-derived BBB models (HBLEC), and human primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (hPBMECs) and showed the following rank order with close expression profile: NHE1 > NKCC1 > NHE5 > NBCn1, while NHE2-4, NBCn2, and NBCe1-2 were barely detected. Li influx in hCMEC/D3 cells was increased in Na-free buffer by 3.3-fold, while depletion of chloride or bicarbonate had no effect. DMA (NHE inhibitor), DIDS (anionic carriers inhibitor), and bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) decreased Li uptake significantly in hCMEC/D3 by 52, 51, and 47%, respectively, while S0859 (NBC inhibitor) increased Li influx 2.3-fold. Zoniporide (NHE1 inhibitor) and siRNA against NHE1 had no effect on Li influx in hCMEC/D3 cells. Our study shows that NHE1 and/or NHE5, NBCn1, and NKCC1 may play a significant role in the transport of Li through the plasma membrane of brain endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b00018DOI Listing
July 2018

ST6GALNAC5 Expression Decreases the Interactions between Breast Cancer Cells and the Human Blood-Brain Barrier.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Aug 11;17(8). Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Université d'Artois (UArtois), EA2465, Laboratoire de la Barrière Hémato-Encéphalique (LBHE), Lens F-62300, France.

The ST6GALNAC5 gene that encodes an α2,6-sialyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of α-series gangliosides, was previously identified as one of the genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain. We have shown that the expression of ST6GALNAC5 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells resulted in the expression of GD1α ganglioside at the cell surface. By using a human blood-brain barrier in vitro model recently developed, consisting in CD34⁺ derived endothelial cells co-cultivated with pericytes, we show that ST6GALNAC5 expression decreased the interactions between the breast cancer cells and the human blood-brain barrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5000706PMC
August 2016

Selection of a Relevant In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model to Investigate Pro-Metastatic Features of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

PLoS One 2016 9;11(3):e0151155. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Université d'Artois (UArtois), EA2465, LBHE, Lens, F-62307, France.

Around 7-17% of metastatic breast cancer patients will develop brain metastases, associated with a poor prognosis. To reach the brain parenchyma, cancer cells need to cross the highly restrictive endothelium of the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). As treatments for brain metastases are mostly inefficient, preventing cancer cells to reach the brain could provide a relevant and important strategy. For that purpose an in vitro approach is required to identify cellular and molecular interaction mechanisms between breast cancer cells and BBB endothelium, notably at the early steps of the interaction. However, while numerous studies are performed with in vitro models, the heterogeneity and the quality of BBB models used is a limitation to the extrapolation of the obtained results to in vivo context, showing that the choice of a model that fulfills the biological BBB characteristics is essential. Therefore, we compared pre-established and currently used in vitro models from different origins (bovine, mice, human) in order to define the most appropriate tool to study interactions between breast cancer cells and the BBB. On each model, the BBB properties and the adhesion capacities of breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. As endothelial cells represent the physical restriction site of the BBB, all the models consisted of endothelial cells from animal or human origins. Among these models, only the in vitro BBB model derived from human stem cells both displayed BBB properties and allowed measurement of meaningful different interaction capacities of the cancer cell lines. Importantly, the measured adhesion and transmigration were found to be in accordance with the cancer cell lines molecular subtypes. In addition, at a molecular level, the inhibition of ganglioside biosynthesis highlights the potential role of glycosylation in breast cancer cells adhesion capacities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151155PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4784983PMC
August 2016

Adapting coculture in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier for use in cancer research: maintaining an appropriate endothelial monolayer for the assessment of transendothelial migration.

Lab Invest 2016 05 22;96(5):588-98. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

Laboratoire de la Barrière Hémato-Encéphalique-EA 2465, Faculté des Sciences Jean Perrin, Université d'Artois, LBHE, Lens, France.

Although brain metastases are the most common brain tumors in adults, there are few treatment options in this setting. To colonize the brain, circulating tumor cells must cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is situated within specialized, restrictive microvascular endothelium. Understanding how cancer cells manage to transmigrate through the BBB might enable this process to be prevented. In vitro models are dedicated tools for characterizing the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie transendothelial migration process, as long as they accurately mimic the brain endothelium's in vivo characteristics. The objective of the present study was to adapt an existing in vitro model of the human BBB for use in studying cancer cell transmigration. The model is based on the coculture of endothelial cells (ECs, derived from cord blood hematopoietic stem cells) and brain pericytes. To allow the migration of cancer cells into the lower compartment, our model had to be transposed onto inserts with a larger pore size. However, we encountered a problem when culturing ECs on large (3-μm)-pore inserts: the cells crossed the membrane and formed a non-physiological second layer on the lower face of the insert. Using 3-μm-pore inserts (in a 12-well plate format), we report here on a method that enables the maintenance of a single monolayer of ECs on the insert's upper face only. Under these chosen conditions, the ECs exhibited typical BBB properties found in the original model (including restricted paracellular permeability and the expression of continuous tight junctions). This modified in vitro model of the human BBB enabled us to investigate the migratory potential of the MDA-MB-231 cell line (derived from highly metastatic human breast cancer cells). Last, the results obtained were compared with the rate of transmigration through endothelia with no BBB features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2016.35DOI Listing
May 2016

Development and Pharmacological Characterization of Selective Blockers of 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol Degradation with Efficacy in Rodent Models of Multiple Sclerosis and Pain.

J Med Chem 2016 03 7;59(6):2612-32. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

European Research Centre for Drug Discovery and Development (NatSynDrugs), University of Siena , via Aldo Moro 2, I-53100 Siena, Italy.

We report the discovery of compound 4a, a potent β-lactam-based monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) inhibitor characterized by an irreversible and stereoselective mechanism of action, high membrane permeability, high brain penetration evaluated using a human in vitro blood-brain barrier model, high selectivity in binding and affinity-based proteomic profiling assays, and low in vitro toxicity. Mode-of-action studies demonstrate that 4a, by blocking MGL, increases 2-arachidonoylglycerol and behaves as a cannabinoid (CB1/CB2) receptor indirect agonist. Administration of 4a in mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalitis ameliorates the severity of the clinical symptoms in a CB1/CB2-dependent manner. Moreover, 4a produced analgesic effects in a rodent model of acute inflammatory pain, which was antagonized by CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists. 4a also relieves the neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by oxaliplatin. Given these evidence, 4a, as MGL selective inhibitor, could represent a valuable lead for the future development of therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis and chronic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01812DOI Listing
March 2016

Tissue Non-specific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP) in Vessels of the Brain.

Subcell Biochem 2015 ;76:125-51

University of Lille Nord de France, F-59000, Lille, France.

The microvessels of the brain represent around 3-4 % of the brain compartment but constitute the most important length (400 miles) and surface of exchange (20 m(2)) between the blood and the parenchyma of brain. Under influence of surrounding tissues, the brain microvessel endothelium expresses a specific phenotype that regulates and restricts the entry of compounds and cells from blood to brain, and defined the so-called blood-brain barrier (BBB). Evidences that alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a characteristic feature of the BBB phenotype that allows differentiating capillary endothelial cells from brain to those of the periphery have rapidly emerge. Thenceforth, AP has been rapidly used as a biomarker of the blood-brain barrier phenotype. In fact, brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) express exclusively tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). There are several lines of evidence in favour of an important role for TNAP in brain function. TNAP is thought to be responsible for the control of transport of some compounds across the plasma membrane of the BCECs. Here, we report that levamisole-mediated inhibition of TNAP provokes an increase of the permeability to Lucifer Yellow of the endothelial monolayer. Moreover, we illustrate the disruption of the cytoskeleton organization. Interestingly, all observed effects were reversible 24 h after levamisole removal and correlated with the return of a full activity of the TNAP. This reversible effect remains to be studied in details to evaluate the potentiality of a levamisole treatment to enhance the entry of drugs in the brain parenchyma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7197-9_7DOI Listing
January 2016

Blood-brain barrier proteomics: towards the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases.

Arch Med Res 2014 Nov 20;45(8):730-7. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Laboratoire de la Barrière Hématoencéphalique, Lens, France.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the passage of endogenous and exogenous compounds and thus contributes to the brain homeostasis with the help of well-known proteins such as tight junction proteins, plasma membrane transporters and metabolic barrier proteins. In the last decade, proteomics have emerged as supplementary tools for BBB research. The development of proteomic technologies has provided several means to extend knowledge on the BBB and to investigate additional routes for the bypass of this barrier. Proteomics approaches have been used in vivo and also using in vitro BBB models to decipher the physiological characteristics and, under stress conditions, to understand the molecular mechanisms of brain diseases. This work has demonstrated that both quantitative global and targeted proteomics approaches are powerful and provide significant information on the brain microvessel endothelium. However, current knowledge is only partial and it is necessary to increase the studies using proteomics tools that will provide additional information concerning brain pathologies or BBB metabolism. Highly sensitive, accurate and specific protein quantification by quantitative targeted proteomics appears as an essential methodology for human BBB studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2014.11.008DOI Listing
November 2014

A stable and reproducible human blood-brain barrier model derived from hematopoietic stem cells.

PLoS One 2014 17;9(6):e99733. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

CNC - Center of Neurosciences and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Biomaterials and Stem Cell-based Therapeutics Laboratory, Biocant - Center of Innovation in Biotechnology, Cantanhede, Portugal.

The human blood brain barrier (BBB) is a selective barrier formed by human brain endothelial cells (hBECs), which is important to ensure adequate neuronal function and protect the central nervous system (CNS) from disease. The development of human in vitro BBB models is thus of utmost importance for drug discovery programs related to CNS diseases. Here, we describe a method to generate a human BBB model using cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells. The cells were initially differentiated into ECs followed by the induction of BBB properties by co-culture with pericytes. The brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs) express tight junctions and transporters typically observed in brain endothelium and maintain expression of most in vivo BBB properties for at least 20 days. The model is very reproducible since it can be generated from stem cells isolated from different donors and in different laboratories, and could be used to predict CNS distribution of compounds in human. Finally, we provide evidence that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mediates in part the BBB inductive properties of pericytes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0099733PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4061029PMC
February 2015

Glial-cell-mediated re-induction of the blood-brain barrier phenotype in brain capillary endothelial cells: a differential gel electrophoresis study.

Proteomics 2013 Apr;13(7):1185-99

Université Lille Nord de France, Lille, France.

In the neurovascular unit, brain microvascular endothelial cells develop characteristic barrier features that control the molecular exchanges between the blood and the brain. These characteristics are partially or totally lost when the cells are isolated for use in in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models. Hence, the re-induction of barrier properties is crucial for the relevance of BBB models. Although the role of astrocyte promiscuity is well established, the molecular mechanisms of re-induction remain largely unknown. Here, we used a DIGE-based proteomics approach to study endothelial cellular proteins showing significant quantitative variations after BBB re-induction. We confirm that quantitative changes mainly concern proteins involved in cell structure and motility. Furthermore, we describe the possible involvement of the asymmetric dimethylarginine pathway in the BBB phenotype re-induction process and we discuss asymmetric dimethylarginine's potential role in regulating endothelial function (in addition to its role as a by-product of protein modification). Our results also suggest that the intracellular redox potential is lower in the in vitro brain capillary endothelial cells displaying re-induced BBB functions than in cells with limited BBB functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201200166DOI Listing
April 2013

Brain pericytes from stress-susceptible pigs increase blood-brain barrier permeability in vitro.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2012 Jun 29;9(1):11. Epub 2012 Jun 29.

Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000, Lille, France.

Background: The function of pericytes remains questionable but with improved cultured technique and the use of genetically modified animals, it has become increasingly clear that pericytes are an integral part of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and the involvement of pericyte dysfunction in certain cerebrovascular diseases is now emerging. The porcine stress syndrome (PSS) is the only confirmed, homologous model of malignant hyperthermia (MH) in veterinary medicine. Affected animals can experience upon slaughter a range of symptoms, including skeletal muscle rigidity, metabolic acidosis, tachycardia and fever, similar to the human syndrome. Symptoms are due to an enhanced calcium release from intracellular stores. These conditions are associated with a point mutation in ryr1/hal gene, encoding the ryanodine receptor, a calcium channel. Important blood vessel wall muscle modifications have been described in PSS, but potential brain vessel changes have never been documented in this syndrome.

Methods: In the present work, histological and ultrastructural analyses of brain capillaries from wild type and ryr1 mutated pigs were conducted to investigate the potential impairment of pericytes, in this pathology. In addition, brain pericytes were isolated from the three porcine genotypes (wild-type NN pigs; Nn and nn pigs, bearing one or two (n) mutant ryr1/hal alleles, respectively), and tested in vitro for their influence on the permeability of BBB endothelial monolayers.

Results: Enlarged perivascular spaces were observed in ryr1-mutant samples, corresponding to a partial or total detachment of the astrocytic endfeet. These spaces were electron lucent and sometimes filled with lipid deposits and swollen astrocytic feet. At the ultrastructural level, brain pericytes did not seem to be affected because they showed regular morphology and characteristics, so we aimed to check their ability to maintain BBB properties in vitro. Our results indicated that pericytes from the three genotypes of pigs had differing influences on the BBB. Unlike pericytes from NN pigs, pericytes from Nn and nn pigs were not able to maintain low BBB permeability.

Conclusions: Electron microscopy observations demonstrated brain capillary modifications in PSS condition, but no change in pericyte morphology. Results from in vitro experiments suggest that brain pericytes from ryr1 mutated pigs, even if they are not affected by this condition at the ultrastructural level, are not able to maintain BBB integrity in comparison with pericytes from wild-type animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2045-8118-9-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3386891PMC
June 2012

Brain pericytes ABCA1 expression mediates cholesterol efflux but not cellular amyloid-β peptide accumulation.

J Alzheimers Dis 2012 ;30(3):489-503

Univ Lille Nord de France, Lille, France.

In brain, excess cholesterol is metabolized into 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH-chol) and eliminated into the circulation across the blood-brain barrier. 24S-OH-chol is a natural agonist of the nuclear liver X receptors (LXRs) involved in peripheral cholesterol homeostasis. The effects of this oxysterol on the pericytes embedded in the basal lamina of this barrier (close to the brain compartment) have not been previously studied. We used primary cultures of brain pericytes to demonstrate that the latter express LXR nuclear receptors and their target gene ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 1 (ABCA1), known to be one of the major transporters involved in peripheral lipid homeostasis. Treatment with 24S-OH-chol caused an increase in ABCA1 expression that correlated with a reverse cholesterol transfer to apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-I, and high density lipoprotein particles. Inhibition of ABCA1 decreased this efflux. As pericytes are able to internalize the amyloid-β peptides which accumulate in brain of Alzheimer's disease patients, we then investigated the effects of 24S-OH-chol on this process. We found that the cellular accumulation process was not modified by 24S-OH-chol treatment. Overall, our results highlight the importance of the LXR/ABCA1 system in brain pericytes and suggest a new role for these cells in brain cholesterol homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2012-112090DOI Listing
October 2012

Vaccinia virus-induced smallpox postvaccinal encephalitis in case of blood-brain barrier damage.

Vaccine 2012 Feb 9;30(7):1397-405. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

Laboratoire de Virologie, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées-antenne de la Tronche-CRSSA, F-38700 La Tronche, France.

Smallpox vaccination is the only currently effective mean to combat the threat of variola virus used as a bioterrorism agent, although it is responsible for a rare but serious complication, the postvaccinal encephalitis (PVE). Development of safer vaccines therefore is a high priority as the PVE physiopathology is not well understood to date. If vaccinia virus (VACV) is responsible for PVE by central nervous system (CNS) dissemination, trans-migration of the VACV across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) would be supposed to be essential. Given the complexity of the pathogenesis of vaccinia neurovirulence, an in vitro BBB model was used to explore the mechanism of VACV to induce BBB permeability. Two VACV strains were studied, the neurovirulent Western Reserve strain (VACV-WR) and the vaccine reference Lister strain (VACV-List). A mouse model was also developed to study the ability of these two viral strains to propagate in the brain from the blood compartment, their neurovirulence and their neuropathogenesis. In vitro, the loss of permeability resulted from the tight-junctions disruption was induced by virus replication. The ability of VACV to release infectious particles at the abluminal side suggests the capacity of both VACV strains to migrate across the BBB from the blood to the CNS. In vivo, the virus replication in mice CNS was strain-dependent. The VACV-WR laboratory strain proved to be neuroinvasive and neurovirulent, whereas the VACV-List strain is safe in physiological conditions. Mice PVE was observed only with VACV-WR in the co-infection model, when BBB opening was obtained by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. This study suggests that VACV is able to cross the BBB but encephalitis occurs only in the presence of a co-infection by bacteria. So, a model of co-infection, mimicked by LPS treatment, could have important implication towards the assessment of neurovirulence of new vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.08.116DOI Listing
February 2012

Radiation-induced blood-brain barrier damages: an in vitro study.

Brain Res 2012 Jan 12;1433:114-26. Epub 2011 Nov 12.

Département Effets Biologiques des Rayonnements, IRBA-CRSSA, 24 avenue des maquis du Grésivaudan, F-38700 La Tronche, France.

A radiation-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown has been supposed to explain the acute radiation syndrome and the delayed brain radiation injury, but it has been clearly demonstrated only at high doses. In a previous study (Diserbo et al., 2002), we showed that non-lethal total body irradiation produced an early transient increase in BBB permeability in rats but the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced BBB breakdown remain unclear. In the present work, the effects of ionizing radiation were studied on an in vitro BBB model. Gamma irradiation induced an increase in [(14)C]-sucrose BBB permeability that can be detected 72 h after exposure at doses up to 4 Gy. This increase was more important 8 days after irradiation and could be limited by dexamethasone treatment. An increase in fluorescein and FITC-dextrans (4 kDa/70 kDa) permeability was also observed, which can be related to a substantial opening of endothelial cell tight-junctions but without massive modification of tight-junction protein (ZO-1, ZO-2, claudin-5, occludin) immunolabeling even 8 days after 25 Gy exposure. Formation of actin stress fibers occurred in endothelial cells 8 days after 25 Gy exposure. A progressive decrease in cellular density associated with a simultaneous spreading of the endothelial cells was also observed after irradiation. Anti-γH2AX immunolabeling was used to investigate both DNA double-strand break induction and repair rates in endothelial cells. It revealed long-lasting DNA double-strand breaks after gamma irradiation. A better understanding and awareness of these phenomena are essential for designing appropriate pharmacotherapy in radiation-therapy and treatment of accidental overexposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.11.022DOI Listing
January 2012

Case study: adapting in vitro blood-brain barrier models for use in early-stage drug discovery.

Drug Discov Today 2012 Apr 20;17(7-8):285-90. Epub 2011 Oct 20.

Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille, France.

Several parameters influencing the brain distribution of compounds must be considered when designing potential neuropharmaceuticals in early-stage drug discovery. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents an obstacle for drug penetration into the brain. Many in vitro BBB models have proven useful for predicting the BBB permeation rate, but do not meet all criteria for use in early-stage drug discovery: feasibility, rapidity, reliability and a low requirement for human resources. To meet this demand, we have developed a robust, higher-throughput, cell-based model exhibiting BBB features (low paracellular permeability, functional efflux pumps and the correct endothelial phenotype). This system comes in a ready-to-use, frozen format, appropriate for in-house use by large pharmaceutical firms and small biotech companies during early-stage drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2011.10.006DOI Listing
April 2012

Modelling the neurovascular unit and the blood-brain barrier with the unique function of pericytes.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2011 Nov;8(4):258-69

Université Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille, France.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic cellular complex that is responsible for the maintenance of brain homeostasis. To understand the BBB's key cellular and molecular mechanisms, in vitro models combining endothelial cells and astrocytes can be used to reproduce most of the barrier's in vivo features (low paracellular permeability and the expression of specific transporters). However, these models lack pericytes - a poorly characterized cell type which appears to be of crucial importance to understand BBB's function in healthy and diseased states. The present study sought to identify and characterize this cell population - which lacks a specific marker - by comparing its phenotype with that of vascular smooth muscle cells. Even if pericytes and smooth muscle cells shared many markers in vitro, our results showed that they could be distinguished by their different P-glycoprotein expression and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase activity. Two different three-cell-type culture models were described, including pericytes to mimic the neurovascular unit. In the first model, endothelial cells were cultured alone on a filter, away from glial cells and pericytes, allowing endothelial cell phenotype characterization. In the second model, glial cells were at the bottom of the well while pericytes and endothelial cells were cultured together in the filter: close interactions were observed in peg-and-socket contacts. In both models low paracellular permeability and P-glycoprotein functionality were demonstrated. These models are likely to be useful tools for understanding the pericytes' role in BBB physiology and could be of value in investigating the pericytes' influence on BBB in diseased states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156720211798121016DOI Listing
November 2011

A differential proteomic approach identifies structural and functional components that contribute to the differentiation of brain capillary endothelial cells.

J Proteomics 2011 Dec 23;75(2):628-41. Epub 2011 Sep 23.

Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille, France.

When in the vicinity of astrocytes, brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) develop the characteristic structural and functional features of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The latter has low cellular permeability and restricts various compounds from entering the brain. We recently reported that the cytoskeleton-related proteins actin, gelsolin and filamin-A undergo the largest quantitative changes in bovine BCECs after re-induction of BBB functions by co-culture with glial cells. In the present study, we used an in-depth, proteomic approach to quantitatively compare differences in Triton-X-100-solubilized proteins from bovine BCECs with limited or re-induced BBB functions (i.e. cultured in the absence or presence of glial cells, respectively). The 81 protein spots of differing abundance were linked to 55 distinct genes. According to the Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships classification system and an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, these quantitative changes mainly affected proteins involved in (i) cell structure and motility and (ii) protein metabolism and modification. The fold-changes affecting HSPB1, moesin and ANXA5 protein levels were confirmed by western blot analysis but were not accompanied by changes in the corresponding mRNA expression levels. Our results reveal that the bovine BCECs' phenotype adaptation to variations in their environment involves the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2011.09.002DOI Listing
December 2011

Cerebrovascular protection as a possible mechanism for the protective effects of NXY-059 in preclinical models: an in vitro study.

Brain Res 2009 Oct 23;1294:144-52. Epub 2009 Jul 23.

Univ Lille-Nord de France, F59000 Lille, France.

NXY-059, a polar compound with limited transport across the blood-brain barrier, has demonstrated neuroprotection in several animal models of acute ischemic stroke but failed to confirm clinical benefit in the second phase III trial (SAINT-II). To improve the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for its neuroprotective action in preclinical models a series of experiments was carried out in an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. A clinically attainable concentration of 250 mumol/L of NXY-059 administered at the onset or up to 4 h after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) produced a significant reduction in the increased BBB permeability caused by OGD. Furthermore, OGD produced a huge influx of tissue plasminogen activator across the BBB, which was substantially reduced by NXY-059. This study suggests that the neuroprotective effects of NXY-059 preclinically, may at least in part be attributed to its ability to restore functionality of the brain endothelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.035DOI Listing
October 2009

An in vitro blood-brain barrier model for high throughput (HTS) toxicological screening.

Toxicol In Vitro 2008 Apr 8;22(3):799-811. Epub 2008 Jan 8.

Laboratoire de Physiopathologie de la Barrière Hémato Encéphalique, Université d'Artois, EA 2465-IMPRT-IFR 114, Faculté Jean Perrin, Rue Jean Souvraz, SP 18 62307 Lens, France.

There is a growing interest to use in vitro BBB cell assays in early safety assessment of compounds. By modifying a well-validated co-culture model of brain capillary endothelial and glial cells, developed by Dehouck et al. [Dehouck, M.P., Meresse, S., Delorme, P., Fruchart, J.C., Cecchelli, R., 1990. An easier, reproducible, and mass-production method to study the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Journal of Neurochemistry 54 (5), 1798-1801], it has been possible to develop a new in vitro BBB system suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). In addition, this new procedure substantially reduces the use of experimental animals and considerably facilitates the process of obtaining a functional in vitro BBB model. The model is ready to use after only 4 days of culture and then shows the typical expression and localization of tight junction proteins. The function of the P-glycoprotein and the transcriptional expression of other efflux transporters such as MRP 1, 4 and 5 have been demonstrated. In addition, the model produces a good in vitro/in vivo correlation for 10 compounds (R2=0.81). Furthermore, studies were undertaken within the European ACuteTox consortium with the objective to assess BBB toxicity and make risk assessments of potentially toxic compounds according to their predicted ability to reach the CNS compartment. These investigations demonstrated that the results produced in the HTS BBB model were similar to the standard co-culture model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2007.12.016DOI Listing
April 2008

Modelling of the blood-brain barrier in drug discovery and development.

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2007 Aug;6(8):650-61

Laboratoire de physiopathologie de la barrière hémato-encéphalique E.A.2465, IMPRT IFR-114, Université d'Artois, Faculté Jean Perrin, 62307 Lens, France.

The market for neuropharmaceuticals is potentially one of the largest sectors of the global pharmaceutical market owing to the increase in average life expectancy and the fact that many neurological disorders have been largely refractory to pharmacotherapy. The brain is a delicate organ that can efficiently protect itself from harmful compounds and precisely regulate its microenvironment. Unfortunately, the same mechanisms can also prove to be formidable hurdles in drug development. An improved understanding of the regulatory interfaces that exist between blood and brain may provide novel and more effective strategies to treat neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd2368DOI Listing
August 2007

The MAP kinase pathway mediates transcytosis induced by TNF-alpha in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

Eur J Neurosci 2005 Aug;22(4):835-44

Laboratoire de Physiopathologie de la Barrière Hémato-Encéphalique, Université d'Artois EA2465, Faculté des Sciences Jean Perrin, rue Jean Souvraz, 62307 Lens cedex, France.

Cerebral capillary endothelial cells constitute the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In these highly specialized cells, transcellular transports rarely occur, and the presence of tight junctions between them leads to a low paracellular permeability. In order to understand the functions of this barrier, an in vitro model of the BBB has been developed and consists in a co-culture of primary cerebral capillary endothelial cells and glial cells. When these endothelial cells are subjected to an inflammatory agent, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in vitro BBB permeability is increased, as indicated by the increase in holotransferrin transcytosis. However, no significant change in the paracellular permeability is observed. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie these transcytosis processes, we investigated the implication of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, as TNF-alpha is known to activate this kinase family. In the present study, an increase in the activation of p42-44 MAPK is observed after TNF-alpha treatment. Holotransferrin transcytosis as well as p42-44 MAPK activation are inhibited after addition of a p42-44 MAPK pathway inhibitor (UO126) during TNF-alpha challenge. These data suggest that the MAPK pathway is involved in the transcytosis regulation in endothelial cells from an in vitro BBB model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04273.xDOI Listing
August 2005

Mycobacterium tuberculosis heparin-binding haemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) triggers receptor-mediated transcytosis without altering the integrity of tight junctions.

Microbes Infect 2006 Jan 19;8(1):1-9. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

Inserm, U629, Mécanismes Moléculaires de la Pathogénie Microbienne, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1, rue du professeur Calmette, 59019 Lille cedex, France.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, adheres to, invades and multiplies in both professional phagocytes and epithelial cells. Adherence to epithelial cells is predominantly mediated by the 28-kDa heparin-binding haemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA), which is also required for the extrapulmonary dissemination of the bacilli. To study the cellular mechanisms that might result in HBHA-mediated extrapulmonary dissemination, we used a transwell model of cellular barrier and fluorescence microscopy and found that HBHA induces a reorganization of the actin filament network in confluent endothelial cells, but does not affect the tight junctions that link them. When coupled to colloidal gold particles, HBHA-mediated a rapid attachment of the particles to the membrane of human laryngeal epithelial cells (non polarized HEp-2 cells) and human type II pneumocytes (polarized A-549 pneumocytes). After attachment, the particles were internalized in membrane-bound vacuoles that migrated across the polarized pneumocytes to reach the basal side. Attachment of the HBHA-coated particles was not observed when the epithelial cells were pretreated with heparinase III, a lyase that specifically cleaves the heparan sulfate chains borne by the proteoglycans. Furthermore, no binding was observed when the gold particles were coated with HBHA lacking its C-terminal heparin-binding domain. These observations indicate that HBHA induces receptor-mediated endocytosis through the recognition of heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans by the heparin-binding domain of the adhesin. In addition, the transcellular migration of the endocytic vacuoles containing HBHA-coated particles suggests that HBHA induces epithelial transcytosis, which may represent a macrophage-independent extrapulmonary dissemination mechanism leading to systemic infection by M. tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2005.03.023DOI Listing
January 2006

Oxygen glucose deprivation switches the transport of tPA across the blood-brain barrier from an LRP-dependent to an increased LRP-independent process.

Stroke 2005 May 7;36(5):1065-70. Epub 2005 Apr 7.

INSERM-Avenir, Centre Cyceron, Université de Caen, France.

Background And Purpose: Despite uncontroversial benefit from its thrombolytic activity, the documented neurotoxic effect of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) raises an important issue: the current emergency stroke treatment might not be optimum if exogenous tPA can enter the brain and thus add to the deleterious effects of endogenous tPA within the cerebral parenchyma. Here, we aimed at determining whether vascular tPA crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during cerebral ischemia, and if so, by which mechanism.

Methods: First, BBB permeability was assessed in vivo by measuring Evans Blue extravasation following intravenous injection at 0 or 3 hours after middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation in mice. Second, the passage of vascular tPA was investigated in an in vitro model of BBB, subjected or not to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD).

Results: We first demonstrated that after focal permanent ischemia in mice, the BBB remains impermeable to Evans Blue in the early phase (relative to the therapeutic window of tPA), whereas at later time points massive Evans Blue extravasation occurs. Then, the passage of tPA during these 2 phases, was investigated in vitro and we show that in control conditions, tPA crosses the intact BBB by a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (LRP)-dependent transcytosis, whereas OGD leads to an exacerbation of tPA passage, which switches to a LRP-independent process.

Conclusions: We evidence 2 different mechanisms through which vascular tPA can reach the brain parenchyma, depending on the state of the BBB. As discussed, these data show the importance of taking the side effects of blood-derived tPA into account and offer a basis to improve the current thrombolytic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000163050.39122.4fDOI Listing
May 2005

Induction of blood-brain barrier properties in cultured brain capillary endothelial cells: comparison between primary glial cells and C6 cell line.

Glia 2005 Aug;51(3):187-98

ECVAM, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra (VA), Italy.

The communication between glial cells and brain capillary endothelial cells is crucial for a well-differentiated blood-brain barrier (BBB). It has been suggested that in vitro primary glial cells (GCs) be replaced by the glial C6 cell line to standardise the model further. This study compares directly the structural and functional differentiation of bovine brain capillary endothelial cells (BBCECs) induced by co-culture with rat primary GCs or C6 cells, for the first time. Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements showed that under no condition were C6 cells able to reproduce TEER values as high as in the presence of GCs. At the same time, permeability of the BBCECs to both radioactive sucrose and FITC-inulin was 2.5-fold higher when cells were co-cultured with C6 than with GCs. Furthermore, immunocytochemistry studies showed different cell morphology and less developed tight junction pattern of BBCECs co-cultured with C6 toward GCs. Additionally, studies on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) showed much lower P-gp presence and activity in BBCECs co-cultured with C6 than GCs. Both VEGF mRNA expression and protein content were dramatically increased when compared with GCs, suggesting that VEGF could be one of the factors responsible for higher permeability of BBB. Our results clearly indicate that, in the presence of the glial C6 cell line, BBCECs did not differentiate as well as in the co-culture with primary GCs at both structural and functional levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.20189DOI Listing
August 2005

[Cerebral transfer and neuroprotection].

Therapie 2004 Mar-Apr;59(2):191-5

CELLIAL Technologies, Faculté Jean Perrin, Lens, France.

In contrast to other vascular beds, the endothelial cells in brain capillaries, which constitute the blood-brain barrier, are sealed together by continuous tight junctions and have little transcellular vesicular transport. In addition to these morphological properties, the presence of specific enzymes and proteins highly restricts the passage of molecules from the blood to the brain. To provide an in vitro system for studying brain capillary functions, we have developed a process of coculture that closely mimics the in vivo situation by culturing brain capillary endothelial cells on one side of a filter and glial cells on the other. In these culture conditions, endothelial cells retain all the endothelial cell markers and the characteristics of the blood-brain barrier, including gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and P-glycoprotein activities. Moreover, the close correlation between the results obtained in vitro with our model and in vivo allows us to conclude that our in vitro blood-brain barrier model is a relevant model for the screening of new molecules to the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2515/therapie:2004036DOI Listing
October 2004

Contribution of glial cells and pericytes to the mRNA profiles of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated proteins in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier.

Brain Res 2004 Aug;1018(1):1-9

Laboratoire de Physiopathologie de la Barrière Hémato-Encéphalique, Unité mixte Institut Pasteur de Lille, Université d'Artois, Faculté Jean Perrin, EA.2465 Lens, France.

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP), whose expression is associated with multidrug resistance, have been recently located in the brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC) forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB), without taking into account a possible influence or contribution of glial cells and pericytes. Using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the present study analysed the transcriptional expression of P-gp and the seven homologues of MRP transporters in BCECs in solo culture or in an in vitro model of the BBB consisting of a co-culture of BCECs and glial cells. Pericytes, glial cells, isolated brain capillaries and bovine grey matter extracts were also tested. P-gp mRNA, absent in glial cells, was found in brain capillaries and in co-cultured BCECs with an increased signal compared to the in solo culture. No amplification was observed in pericytes or grey matter. While MRP2, MRP3 and MRP7 remained undetected, MRP1, absent in capillaries or grey matter, was amplified in BCECs, glial cells and pericytes. MRP4 gave a low signal in most cultures. MRP5 was ubiquitously expressed, displaying a potent signal in all conditions. In spite of its presence in cultured glial cells, MRP6 mRNA expression appeared to be restricted to BCECs, with the same upregulation in the co-cultured condition as observed with P-gp. Moreover, MRP6 was the only transporter whose endothelial mRNA expression was influenced by the presence of pericytes. The tissue distribution of the expression of these transporters and the contribution of the different cell populations are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2004.05.092DOI Listing
August 2004