Publications by authors named "Marie-Hélène Disatnik"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A selective inhibitor of mitofusin 1-βIIPKC association improves heart failure outcome in rats.

Nat Commun 2019 01 18;10(1):329. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, 94305-5174, CA, USA.

We previously demonstrated that beta II protein kinase C (βIIPKC) activity is elevated in failing hearts and contributes to this pathology. Here we report that βIIPKC accumulates on the mitochondrial outer membrane and phosphorylates mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) at serine 86. Mfn1 phosphorylation results in partial loss of its GTPase activity and in a buildup of fragmented and dysfunctional mitochondria in heart failure. βIIPKC siRNA or a βIIPKC inhibitor mitigates mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death. We confirm that Mfn1-βIIPKC interaction alone is critical in inhibiting mitochondrial function and cardiac myocyte viability using SAMβA, a rationally-designed peptide that selectively antagonizes Mfn1-βIIPKC association. SAMβA treatment protects cultured neonatal and adult cardiac myocytes, but not Mfn1 knockout cells, from stress-induced death. Importantly, SAMβA treatment re-establishes mitochondrial morphology and function and improves cardiac contractility in rats with heart failure, suggesting that SAMβA may be a potential treatment for patients with heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08276-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338754PMC
January 2019

Cardioprotection induced by a brief exposure to acetaldehyde: role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

Cardiovasc Res 2018 06;114(7):1006-1015

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Aims: We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol administration protects the heart from ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury thorough activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Here, we characterized the role of acetaldehyde, an intermediate product from ethanol metabolism, and its metabolizing enzyme, ALDH2, in an ex vivo model of cardiac I/R injury.

Methods And Results: We used a combination of homozygous knock-in mice (ALDH2*2), carrying the human inactivating point mutation ALDH2 (E487K), and a direct activator of ALDH2, Alda-1, to investigate the cardiac effect of acetaldehyde. The ALDH2*2 mice have impaired acetaldehyde clearance, recapitulating the human phenotype. Yet, we found a similar infarct size in wild type (WT) and ALDH2*2 mice. Similar to ethanol-induced preconditioning, pre-treatment with 50 μM acetaldehyde increased ALDH2 activity and reduced cardiac injury in hearts of WT mice without affecting cardiac acetaldehyde levels. However, acetaldehyde pre-treatment of hearts of ALDH2*2 mice resulted in a three-fold increase in cardiac acetaldehyde levels and exacerbated I/R injury. Therefore, exogenous acetaldehyde appears to have a bimodal effect in I/R, depending on the ALDH2 genotype. Further supporting an ALDH2 role in cardiac preconditioning, pharmacological ALDH2 inhibition abolished ethanol-induced cardioprotection in hearts of WT mice, whereas a selective activator, Alda-1, protected ALDH2*2 against ethanol-induced cardiotoxicity. Finally, either genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ALDH2 mitigated ischaemic preconditioning.

Conclusion: Taken together, our findings suggest that low levels of acetaldehyde are cardioprotective whereas high levels are damaging in an ex vivo model of I/R injury and that ALDH2 is a major, but not the only, regulator of cardiac acetaldehyde levels and protection from I/R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvy070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967552PMC
June 2018

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation and coevolution of its εPKC-mediated phosphorylation sites.

J Biomed Sci 2017 Jan 5;24(1). Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5174, USA.

Background: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme for the metabolism of many toxic aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, derived from alcohol drinking, and 4HNE, an oxidative stress-derived lipid peroxidation aldehyde. Post-translational enhancement of ALDH2 activity can be achieved by serine/threonine phosphorylation by epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC). Elevated ALDH2 is beneficial in reducing injury following myocardial infarction, stroke and other oxidative stress and aldehyde toxicity-related diseases. We have previously identified three εPKC phosphorylation sites, threonine 185 (T185), serine 279 (S279) and threonine 412 (T412), on ALDH2. Here we further characterized the role and contribution of each phosphorylation site to the enhancement of enzymatic activity by εPKC.

Methods: Each individual phosphorylation site was mutated to a negatively charged amino acid, glutamate, to mimic a phosphorylation, or to a non-phosphorylatable amino acid, alanine. ALDH2 enzyme activities and protection against 4HNE inactivation were measured in the presence or absence of εPKC phosphorylation in vitro. Coevolution of ALDH2 and its εPKC phosphorylation sites was delineated by multiple sequence alignments among a diverse range of species and within the ALDH multigene family.

Results: We identified S279 as a critical εPKC phosphorylation site in the activation of ALDH2. The critical catalytic site, cysteine 302 (C302) of ALDH2 is susceptible to adduct formation by reactive aldehyde, 4HNE, which readily renders the enzyme inactive. We show that phosphomimetic mutations of T185E, S279E and T412E confer protection of ALDH2 against 4HNE-induced inactivation, indicating that phosphorylation on these three sites by εPKC likely also protects the enzyme against reactive aldehydes. Finally, we demonstrate that the three ALDH2 phosphorylation sites co-evolved with εPKC over a wide range of species. Alignment of 18 human ALDH isozymes, indicates that T185 and S279 are unique ALDH2, εPKC specific phosphorylation sites, while T412 is found in other ALDH isozymes. We further identified three highly conserved serine/threonine residues (T384, T433 and S471) in all 18 ALDH isozymes that may play an important phosphorylation-mediated regulatory role in this important family of detoxifying enzymes.

Conclusion: εPKC phosphorylation and its coevolution with ALDH2 play an important role in the regulation and protection of ALDH2 enzyme activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12929-016-0312-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5217657PMC
January 2017

Potential biomarkers to follow the progression and treatment response of Huntington's disease.

J Exp Med 2016 11 7;213(12):2655-2669. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305

Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare genetic disease caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein resulting in selective neuronal loss. Although genetic testing readily identifies those who will be affected, current pharmacological treatments do not prevent or slow down disease progression. A major challenge is the slow clinical progression and the inability to biopsy the affected tissue, the brain, making it difficult to design short and effective proof of concept clinical trials to assess treatment benefit. In this study, we focus on identifying peripheral biomarkers that correlate with the progression of the disease and treatment benefit. We recently developed an inhibitor of pathological mitochondrial fragmentation, P110, to inhibit neurotoxicity in HD. Changes in levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and inflammation markers in plasma, a product of DNA oxidation in urine, mutant huntingtin aggregates, and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in muscle and skin tissues were all noted in HD R6/2 mice relative to wild-type mice. Importantly, P110 treatment effectively reduced the levels of these biomarkers. Finally, abnormal levels of mtDNA were also found in plasma of HD patients relative to control subjects. Therefore, we identified several potential peripheral biomarkers as candidates to assess HD progression and the benefit of intervention for future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20160776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5110026PMC
November 2016

Selective Phosphorylation Inhibitor of Delta Protein Kinase C-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Protein-Protein Interactions: Application for Myocardial Injury in Vivo.

J Am Chem Soc 2016 06 8;138(24):7626-35. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, School of Medicine, Stanford University , Stanford, California 94305-5174, United States.

Protein kinases regulate numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, metabolism, and cell death. Because the primary sequence and the three-dimensional structure of many kinases are highly similar, the development of selective inhibitors for only one kinase is challenging. Furthermore, many protein kinases are pleiotropic, mediating diverse and sometimes even opposing functions by phosphorylating multiple protein substrates. Here, we set out to develop an inhibitor of a selective protein kinase phosphorylation of only one of its substrates. Focusing on the pleiotropic delta protein kinase C (δPKC), we used a rational approach to identify a distal docking site on δPKC for its substrate, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). We reasoned that an inhibitor of PDK's docking should selectively inhibit the phosphorylation of only PDK without affecting phosphorylation of the other δPKC substrates. Our approach identified a selective inhibitor of PDK docking to δPKC with an in vitro Kd of ∼50 nM and reducing cardiac injury IC50 of ∼5 nM. This inhibitor, which did not affect the phosphorylation of other δPKC substrates even at 1 μM, demonstrated that PDK phosphorylation alone is critical for δPKC-mediated injury by heart attack. The approach we describe is likely applicable for the identification of other substrate-specific kinase inhibitors.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065007PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.6b02724DOI Listing
June 2016

Impaired GAPDH-induced mitophagy contributes to the pathology of Huntington's disease.

EMBO Mol Med 2015 Oct;7(10):1307-26

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. In order to maintain a healthy population of functional mitochondria in cells, defective mitochondria must be properly eliminated by lysosomal machinery in a process referred to as mitophagy. Here, we uncover a new molecular mechanism underlying mitophagy driven by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) under the pathological condition of Huntington's disease (HD) caused by expansion of polyglutamine repeats. Expression of expanded polyglutamine tracts catalytically inactivates GAPDH (iGAPDH), which triggers its selective association with damaged mitochondria in several cell culture models of HD. Through this mechanism, iGAPDH serves as a signaling molecule to induce direct engulfment of damaged mitochondria into lysosomes (micro-mitophagy). However, abnormal interaction of mitochondrial GAPDH with long polyglutamine tracts stalled GAPDH-mediated mitophagy, leading to accumulation of damaged mitochondria, and increased cell death. We further demonstrated that overexpression of inactive GAPDH rescues this blunted process and enhances mitochondrial function and cell survival, indicating a role for GAPDH-driven mitophagy in the pathology of HD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201505256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604685PMC
October 2015

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species at the heart of the matter: new therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular diseases.

Circ Res 2015 May;116(11):1783-99

From the Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in a variety of age-related diseases, including multiple cardiovascular disorders. However, translation of ROS scavengers (antioxidants) into the clinic has not been successful. These antioxidants grossly reduce total levels of cellular ROS including ROS that participate in physiological signaling. In this review, we challenge the traditional antioxidant therapeutic approach that targets ROS directly with novel approaches that improve mitochondrial functions to more effectively treat cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4443500PMC
May 2015

New therapeutics to modulate mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in cardiac diseases.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2015 Mar 5;93(3):279-87. Epub 2015 Feb 5.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

The processes that control the number and shape of the mitochondria (mitochondrial dynamics) and the removal of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) have been the subject of intense research. Recent work indicates that these processes may contribute to the pathology associated with cardiac diseases. This review describes some of the key proteins that regulate these processes and their potential as therapeutic targets for cardiac diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-015-1256-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333238PMC
March 2015

Protein folding creates structure-based, noncontiguous consensus phosphorylation motifs recognized by kinases.

Sci Signal 2014 Nov 4;7(350):ra105. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508000, Brazil.

Linear consensus motifs are short contiguous sequences of residues within a protein that can form recognition modules for protein interaction or catalytic modification. Protein kinase specificity and the matching of kinases to substrates have been mostly defined by phosphorylation sites that occur in linear consensus motifs. However, phosphorylation can also occur within sequences that do not match known linear consensus motifs recognized by kinases and within flexible loops. We report the identification of Thr(253) in α-tubulin as a site that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C βI (PKCβI). Thr(253) is not part of a linear PKC consensus motif. Instead, Thr(253) occurs within a region on the surface of α-tubulin that resembles a PKC phosphorylation site consensus motif formed by basic residues in different parts of the protein, which come together in the folded protein to form the recognition motif for PKCβI. Mutations of these basic residues decreased substrate phosphorylation, confirming the presence of this "structurally formed" consensus motif and its importance for the protein kinase-substrate interaction. Analysis of previously reported protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC substrates identified sites within structurally formed consensus motifs in many substrates of these two kinase families. Thus, the concept of consensus phosphorylation site motif needs to be expanded to include sites within these structurally formed consensus motifs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.2005412DOI Listing
November 2014

The challenge in translating basic research discoveries to treatment of Huntington disease.

Rare Dis 2014 31;2:e28637. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Department of Physiology & Biophysics; Center of Mitochondrial Disease; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; Cleveland, OH USA.

Huntington disease is a rare neurodegenerative disease resulting from insertion and/or expansion of a polyglutamine repeats close to the N-terminal of the huntingtin protein. Although unequivocal genetic tests have been available for about 20 years, current pharmacological treatments do not prevent or slow down disease progression. Recent basic research identified potential novel drug targets for the treatment of Huntington disease. However, there are clear challenges in translating these discoveries into treatment strategies for these patients. The following is a brief discussion of these challenges using our recent experience as an example.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/rdis.28637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4091548PMC
July 2014

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation in heart failure restores mitochondrial function and improves ventricular function and remodelling.

Cardiovasc Res 2014 Sep 9;103(4):498-508. Epub 2014 May 9.

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Paulo, Brazil Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Aims: We previously demonstrated that pharmacological activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects the heart against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we determined the benefits of chronic activation of ALDH2 on the progression of heart failure (HF) using a post-myocardial infarction model.

Methods And Results: We showed that a 6-week treatment of myocardial infarction-induced HF rats with a selective ALDH2 activator (Alda-1), starting 4 weeks after myocardial infarction at a time when ventricular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction were present, improved cardiomyocyte shortening, cardiac function, left ventricular compliance and diastolic function under basal conditions, and after isoproterenol stimulation. Importantly, sustained Alda-1 treatment showed no toxicity and promoted a cardiac anti-remodelling effect by suppressing myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. Moreover, accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts and protein carbonyls seen in HF was not observed in Alda-1-treated rats, suggesting that increasing the activity of ALDH2 contributes to the reduction of aldehydic load in failing hearts. ALDH2 activation was associated with improved mitochondrial function, including elevated mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and reduced H2O2 release. Importantly, selective ALDH2 activation decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition and cytochrome c release in failing hearts. Further supporting a mitochondrial mechanism for ALDH2, Alda-1 treatment preserved mitochondrial function upon in vitro aldehydic load.

Conclusions: Selective activation of mitochondrial ALDH2 is sufficient to improve the HF outcome by reducing the toxic effects of aldehydic overload on mitochondrial bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species generation, suggesting that ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, have a potential therapeutic value for treating HF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvu125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155470PMC
September 2014

Inhibition of mitochondrial fragmentation diminishes Huntington's disease-associated neurodegeneration.

J Clin Invest 2013 Dec 15;123(12):5371-88. Epub 2013 Nov 15.

Huntington's disease (HD) is the result of expression of a mutated Huntingtin protein (mtHtt), and is associated with a variety of cellular dysfunctions including excessive mitochondrial fission. Here, we tested whether inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission prevents mtHtt-induced pathology. We developed a selective inhibitor (P110-TAT) of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1). We found that P110-TAT inhibited mtHtt-induced excessive mitochondrial fragmentation, improved mitochondrial function, and increased cell viability in HD cell culture models. P110-TAT treatment of fibroblasts from patients with HD and patients with HD with iPS cell-derived neurons reduced mitochondrial fragmentation and corrected mitochondrial dysfunction. P110-TAT treatment also reduced the extent of neurite shortening and cell death in iPS cell-derived neurons in patients with HD. Moreover, treatment of HD transgenic mice with P110-TAT reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, motor deficits, neuropathology, and mortality. We found that p53, a stress gene involved in HD pathogenesis, binds to DRP1 and mediates DRP1-induced mitochondrial and neuronal damage. Furthermore, P110-TAT treatment suppressed mtHtt-induced association of p53 with mitochondria in multiple HD models. These data indicate that inhibition of DRP1-dependent excessive mitochondrial fission with a P110-TAT-like inhibitor may prevent or slow the progression of HD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI70911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3859413PMC
December 2013

Acute inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission after myocardial infarction prevents long-term cardiac dysfunction.

J Am Heart Assoc 2013 Oct 8;2(5):e000461. Epub 2013 Oct 8.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, 94305, CA.

Background: Ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and multiple molecular and cellular pathways have been implicated in this injury. We determined whether acute inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission at the onset of reperfusion improves mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac contractility postmyocardial infarction in rats.

Methods And Results: We used a selective inhibitor of the fission machinery, P110, which we have recently designed. P110 treatment inhibited the interaction of fission proteins Fis1/Drp1, decreased mitochondrial fission, and improved bioenergetics in three different rat models of IR, including primary cardiomyocytes, ex vivo heart model, and an in vivo myocardial infarction model. Drp1 transiently bound to the mitochondria following IR injury and P110 treatment blocked this Drp1 mitochondrial association. Compared with control treatment, P110 (1 μmol/L) decreased infarct size by 28 ± 2% and increased adenosine triphosphate levels by 70+1% after IR relative to control IR in the ex vivo model. Intraperitoneal injection of P110 (0.5 mg/kg) at the onset of reperfusion in an in vivo model resulted in improved mitochondrial oxygen consumption by 68% when measured 3 weeks after ischemic injury, improved cardiac fractional shortening by 35%, reduced mitochondrial H2O2 uncoupling state by 70%, and improved overall mitochondrial functions.

Conclusions: Together, we show that excessive mitochondrial fission at reperfusion contributes to long-term cardiac dysfunction in rats and that acute inhibition of excessive mitochondrial fission at the onset of reperfusion is sufficient to result in long-term benefits as evidenced by inhibiting cardiac dysfunction 3 weeks after acute myocardial infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.113.000461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3835263PMC
October 2013

Pharmacological inhibition of βIIPKC is cardioprotective in late-stage hypertrophy.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2011 Dec 2;51(6):980-7. Epub 2011 Sep 2.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5174, USA.

We previously found that in the hearts of hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats, βIIPKC levels increase during the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to cardiac dysfunction. Here we showed that a six-week treatment of these hypertensive rats with a βIIPKC-specific inhibitor, βIIV5-3, prolonged their survival by at least 6weeks, suppressed myocardial fibrosis and inflammation, and delayed the transition from compensated hypertrophy to cardiac dysfunction. In addition, changes in the levels of the Ca(2+)-handling proteins, SERCA2 and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, as well as troponin I phosphorylation, seen in the control-treated hypertensive rats were not observed in the βΙΙPKC-treated rats, suggesting that βΙΙPKC contributes to the regulation of calcium levels in the myocardium. In contrast, treatment with the selective inhibitor of βIPKC, an alternative spliced form of βIIPKC, had no beneficial effects in these rats. We also found that βIIV5-3, but not βIV5-3, improved calcium handling in isolated rat cardiomyocytes and enhanced contractility in isolated rat hearts. In conclusion, our data using an in vivo model of cardiac dysfunction (late-phase hypertrophy), suggest that βIIPKC contributes to the pathology associated with heart failure and thus an inhibitor of βIIPKC may be a potential treatment for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.08.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3418885PMC
December 2011

Aberrant mitochondrial fission in neurons induced by protein kinase C{delta} under oxidative stress conditions in vivo.

Mol Biol Cell 2011 Jan 30;22(2):256-65. Epub 2010 Nov 30.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Neuronal cell death in a number of neurological disorders is associated with aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial degeneration. However, the triggers for this mitochondrial dysregulation are not known. Here we show excessive mitochondrial fission and mitochondrial structural disarray in brains of hypertensive rats with hypertension-induced brain injury (encephalopathy). We found that activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) induced aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation and impaired mitochondrial function in cultured SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and in this rat model of hypertension-induced encephalopathy. Immunoprecipitation studies indicate that PKCδ binds Drp1, a major mitochondrial fission protein, and phosphorylates Drp1 at Ser 579, thus increasing mitochondrial fragmentation. Further, we found that Drp1 Ser 579 phosphorylation by PKCδ is associated with Drp1 translocation to the mitochondria under oxidative stress. Importantly, inhibition of PKCδ, using a selective PKCδ peptide inhibitor (δV1-1), reduced mitochondrial fission and fragmentation and conferred neuronal protection in vivo and in culture. Our study suggests that PKCδ activation dysregulates the mitochondrial fission machinery and induces aberrant mitochondrial fission, thus contributing to neurological pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E10-06-0551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3020920PMC
January 2011

Mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon is mediated by HSP90: a role in cardioprotection from ischaemia and reperfusion injury.

Cardiovasc Res 2010 Oct 16;88(1):83-92. Epub 2010 Jun 16.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5174, USA.

Aims: Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) is critical for cardiac protection from ischaemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. PKCepsilon substrates that mediate cytoprotection reside in the mitochondria. However, the mechanism enabling mitochondrial translocation and import of PKCepsilon to enable phosphorylation of these substrates is not known. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a cytoprotective protein chaperone that participates in mitochondrial import of a number of proteins. Here, we investigated the role of HSP90 in mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon.

Methods And Results: Using an ex vivo perfused rat heart model of IR, we found that PKCepsilon translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial fraction following IR. Immunogold electron microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation demonstrated that following IR, mitochondrial PKCepsilon is localized within the mitochondria, on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 prevented IR-induced interaction between PKCepsilon and the translocase of the outer membrane (Tom20), reduced mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon, and increased necrotic cell death by approximately 70%. Using a rational approach, we designed a 7-amino acid peptide activator of PKCepsilon, derived from an HSP90 homologous sequence located in the C2 domain of PKCepsilon (termed psiepsilonHSP90). Treatment with this peptide (conjugated to the cell permeating TAT protein-derived peptide, TAT(47-57)) increased PKCepsilon-HSP90 protein-protein interaction, enhanced mitochondrial translocation of PKCepsilon, increased phosphorylation and activity of an intra-mitochondrial PKCepsilon substrate, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, and reduced cardiac injury in ex vivo and in vivo models of myocardial infarction.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that HSP90-mediated mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon plays an important role in the protection of the myocardium from IR injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvq154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936125PMC
October 2010

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in cardiac protection: a new therapeutic target?

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2009 Jul;19(5):158-64

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305-5174, USA.

Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is emerging as a key enzyme involved in cytoprotection in the heart. ALDH2 mediates both the detoxification of reactive aldehydes such as acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and the bioactivation of nitroglycerin to nitric oxide. In addition, chronic nitrate treatment results in ALDH2 inhibition and contributes to nitrate tolerance. Our laboratory recently identified ALDH2 to be a key mediator of endogenous cytoprotection. We reported that ALDH2 is phosphorylated and activated by the survival kinase protein kinase C epsilon and found a strong inverse correlation between ALDH2 activity and infarct size. We also identified a small molecule ALDH2 activator which reduces myocardial infarct size induced by ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. In this review, we discuss evidence that ALDH2 is a key mediator of endogenous survival signaling in the heart, suggest possible cardioprotective mechanisms mediated by ALDH2 and discuss potential clinical implications of these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2009.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2856486PMC
July 2009

Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) confers cardioprotection in protein kinase C epsilon (PKCvarepsilon) knockout mice.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2010 Apr 11;48(4):757-64. Epub 2009 Nov 11.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CCSR, Rm 3145A, 269 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5174, USA.

Acute administration of ethanol can reduce cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. Previous studies demonstrated that the acute cytoprotective effect of ethanol on the myocardium is mediated by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCvarepsilon). We recently identified aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as a PKCvarepsilon substrate, whose activation is necessary and sufficient to confer cardioprotection in vivo. ALDH2 metabolizes cytotoxic reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), which accumulate during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Here, we used a combination of PKCvarepsilon knockout mice and a direct activator of ALDH2, Alda-44, to further investigate the interplay between PKCvarepsilon and ALDH2 in cardioprotection. We report that ethanol preconditioning requires PKCvarepsilon, whereas direct activation of ALDH2 reduces infarct size in both wild type and PKCvarepsilon knockout hearts. Our data suggest that ALDH2 is downstream of PKCvarepsilon in ethanol preconditioning and that direct activation of ALDH2 can circumvent the requirement of PKCvarepsilon to induce cytoprotection. We also report that in addition to ALDH2 activation, Alda-44 prevents 4-HNE induced inactivation of ALDH2 by reducing the formation of 4-HNE-ALDH2 protein adducts. Thus, Alda-44 promotes metabolism of cytotoxic reactive aldehydes that accumulate in ischemic myocardium. Taken together, our findings suggest that direct activation of ALDH2 may represent a method of harnessing the cardioprotective effect of ethanol without the side effects associated with alcohol consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.10.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2837767PMC
April 2010

Ethanol for cardiac ischemia: the role of protein kinase c.

Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2008 Dec;2(6):469-83

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

The physiological effects of ethanol are dependent upon the amount and duration of consumption. Chronic excessive consumption can lead to diseases such as liver cirrhosis, and cardiac arrhythmias, while chronic moderate consumption can have therapeutic effects on the cardiovascular system. Recently, it has also been observed that acute administration of ethanol to animals prior to an ischemic event provides significant protection to the heart. This review focuses on the different modalities of chronic vs. acute ethanol consumption and discusses recent evidence for a protective effect of acute ethanol exposure and the possible use of ethanol as a therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753944708094735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3600863PMC
December 2008

Time-dependent and ethanol-induced cardiac protection from ischemia mediated by mitochondrial translocation of varepsilonPKC and activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2009 Feb 17;46(2):278-84. Epub 2008 Oct 17.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5174, USA.

The cardioprotective effects of moderate alcohol consumption have been well documented in animal models and in humans. Protection afforded against ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R) proceeds through an ischemic preconditioning-like mechanism involving the activation of epsilon protein kinase C (varepsilonPKC) and is dependent on the time and duration of ethanol treatment. However, the substrates of varepsilonPKC and the molecular mechanisms by which the enzyme protects the heart from oxidative damage induced by I/R are not fully described. Using an open-chest model of acute myocardial infarction in vivo, we find that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.5 g/kg) 60 min prior to (but not 15 min prior to) a 30-minute transient ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery reduced I/R-mediated injury by 57% (measured as a decrease of creatine phosphokinase release into the blood). Only under cardioprotective conditions, ethanol treatment resulted in the translocation of varepsilonPKC to cardiac mitochondria, where the enzyme bound aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2). ALDH2 is an intra-mitochondrial enzyme involved in the detoxification of toxic aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and 4-HNE mediates oxidative damage, at least in part, by covalently modifying and inactivating proteins (by forming 4-HNE adducts). In hearts subjected to I/R after ethanol treatment, the levels of 4-HNE protein adducts were lower and JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 activities were diminished relative to the hearts from rats subjected to I/R in the absence of ethanol. Together, this work provides an insight into the mitochondrial-dependent basis of ethanol-induced and varepsilonPKC-mediated protection from cardiac ischemia, in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.09.713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675554PMC
February 2009

Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 reduces ischemic damage to the heart.

Science 2008 Sep;321(5895):1493-5

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5174, USA.

There is substantial interest in the development of drugs that limit the extent of ischemia-induced cardiac damage caused by myocardial infarction or by certain surgical procedures. Here, using an unbiased proteomic search, we identified mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as an enzyme whose activation correlates with reduced ischemic heart damage in rodent models. A high-throughput screen yielded a small-molecule activator of ALDH2 (Alda-1) that, when administered to rats before an ischemic event, reduced infarct size by 60%, most likely through its inhibitory effect on the formation of cytotoxic aldehydes. In vitro, Alda-1 was a particularly effective activator of ALDH2*2, an inactive mutant form of the enzyme that is found in 40% of East Asian populations. Thus, pharmacologic enhancement of ALDH2 activity may be useful for patients with wild-type or mutant ALDH2 who are subjected to cardiac ischemia, such as during coronary bypass surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1158554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2741612PMC
September 2008

Regulation of Pax3 by proteasomal degradation of monoubiquitinated protein in skeletal muscle progenitors.

Cell 2007 Jul;130(2):349-62

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Pax3 and Pax7 play distinct but overlapping roles in developmental and postnatal myogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the differential regulation of these highly homologous proteins are unknown. We present evidence that Pax3, but not Pax7, is regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation during adult muscle stem cell activation. Intriguingly, only monoubiquitinated forms of Pax3 could be detected. Mutation of two specific lysine residues in the C-terminal region of Pax3 reduced the extent of its monoubiquitination and susceptibility to proteasomal degradation, whereas introduction of a key lysine into the C-terminal region of Pax7 rendered that protein susceptible to monoubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Monoubiquitinated Pax3 was shuttled to the intrinsic proteasomal protein S5a by interacting specifically with the ubiquitin-binding protein Rad23B. Functionally, sustained expression of Pax3 proteins inhibited myogenic differentiation, demonstrating that Pax3 degradation is an essential step for the progression of the myogenic program. These results reveal an important mechanism of Pax3 regulation in muscle progenitors and an unrecognized role of protein monoubiquitination in mediating proteasomal degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.044DOI Listing
July 2007

Peptides derived from the C2 domain of protein kinase C epsilon (epsilon PKC) modulate epsilon PKC activity and identify potential protein-protein interaction surfaces.

J Biol Chem 2007 Feb 2;282(6):4113-23. Epub 2006 Dec 2.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Peptides derived from protein kinase C (PKC) modulate its activity by interfering with critical protein-protein interactions within PKC and between PKC and PKC-binding proteins (Souroujon, M. C., and Mochly-Rosen, D. (1998) Nat. Biotechnol. 16, 919-924). We previously demonstrated that the C2 domain of PKC plays a critical role in these interactions. By focusing on epsilonPKC and using a rational approach, we then identified one C2-derived peptide that acts as an isozyme-selective activator and another that acts as a selective inhibitor of epsilonPKC. These peptides were used to identify the role of epsilonPKC in protection from cardiac and brain ischemic damage, in prevention of complications from diabetes, in reducing pain, and in protecting transplanted hearts. The efficacy of these two peptides led us to search for additional C2-derived peptides with PKC-modulating activities. Here we report on the activity of a series of 5-9-residue peptides that are derived from regions that span the length of the C2 domain of epsilonPKC. These peptides were tested for their effect on PKC activity in cells in vivo and in an ex vivo model of acute ischemic heart disease. Most of the peptides acted as activators of PKC, and a few peptides acted as inhibitors. PKC-dependent myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate phosphorylation in epsilonPKC knock-out cells revealed that only a subset of the peptides were selective for epsilonPKC over other PKC isozymes. These epsilonPKC-selective peptides were also protective of the myocardium from ischemic injury, an epsilonPKC-dependent function (Liu, G. S., Cohen, M. V., Mochly-Rosen, D., and Downey, J. M. (1999) J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 31, 1937-1948), and caused selective translocation of epsilonPKC over other isozymes when injected systemically into mice. Examination of the structure of the C2 domain from epsilonPKC revealed that peptides with similar activities clustered into discrete regions within the domain. We propose that these regions represent surfaces of protein-protein interactions within epsilonPKC and/or between epsilonPKC and other partner proteins; some of these interactions are unique to epsilonPKC, and others are common to other PKC isozymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M608521200DOI Listing
February 2007

The bi-directional translocation of MARCKS between membrane and cytosol regulates integrin-mediated muscle cell spreading.

J Cell Sci 2004 Sep 17;117(Pt 19):4469-79. Epub 2004 Aug 17.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5235, USA.

The regulation of the cytoskeleton is critical to normal cell function during tissue morphogenesis. Cell-matrix interactions mediated by integrins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics, but the signaling cascades that control these processes remain largely unknown. Here we show that myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) a specific substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), is regulated by alpha5beta1 integrin-mediated activation of PKC and is critical to the regulation of actin stress fiber formation during muscle cell spreading. Using MARCKS mutants that are defective in membrane association or responsiveness to PKC-dependent phosphorylation, we demonstrate that the translocation of MARCKS from the membrane to the cytosol in a PKC-dependent manner permits the initial phases of cell adhesion. The dephosphorylation of MARCKS and its translocation back to the membrane permits the later stages of cell spreading during the polymerization and cross-linking of actin and the maturation of the cytoskeleton. All of these processes are directly dependent on the binding of alpha5beta1 integrin to its extracellular matrix receptor, fibronectin. These results demonstrate a direct biochemical pathway linking alpha5beta1 integrin signaling to cytoskeletal dynamics and involving bi-directional translocation of MARCKS during the dramatic changes in cellular morphology that occur during cell migration and tissue morphogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.01309DOI Listing
September 2004

A caveolin-3 mutant that causes limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C disrupts Src localization and activity and induces apoptosis in skeletal myotubes.

J Cell Sci 2003 Dec;116(Pt 23):4739-49

Department of Neurology and Neurological Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5235, USA.

Caveolins are membrane proteins that are the major coat proteins of caveolae, specialized lipid rafts in the plasma membrane that serve as scaffolding sites for many signaling complexes. Among the many signaling molecules associated with caveolins are the Src tyrosine kinases, whose activation regulates numerous cellular functions including the balance between cell survival and cell death. Several mutations in the muscle-specific caveolin, caveolin-3, lead to a form of autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy referred to as limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C (LGMD-1C). One of these mutations (here termed the 'TFT mutation') results in a deletion of a tripeptide (DeltaTFT(63-65)) that affects the scaffolding and oligomerization domains of caveolin-3. This mutation causes a 90-95% loss of caveolin-3 protein levels and reduced formation of caveolae in skeletal muscle fibers. However, the effects of this mutation on the specific biochemical processes and cellular functions associated with caveolae have not been elucidated. We demonstrate that the TFT caveolin-3 mutation in post-mitotic skeletal myotubes causes severely reduced localization of caveolin-3 to the plasma membrane and to lipid rafts, and significantly inhibits caveolar function. The TFT mutation reduced the binding of Src to caveolin-3, diminished targeting of Src to lipid rafts, and caused abnormal perinuclear accumulation of Src. Along with these alterations of Src localization and targeting, there was elevated Src activation in myotubes expressing the TFT mutation and an increased incidence of apoptosis in those cells compared with control myotubes. The results of this study demonstrate that caveolin-3 mutations associated with LGMD-1C disrupt normal cellular signal transduction pathways associated with caveolae and cause apoptosis in muscle cells, all of which may reflect pathogenetic pathways that lead to muscle degeneration in these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.00806DOI Listing
December 2003

Sequential activation of individual PKC isozymes in integrin-mediated muscle cell spreading: a role for MARCKS in an integrin signaling pathway.

J Cell Sci 2002 May;115(Pt 10):2151-63

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA.

To understand how muscle cell spreading and survival are mediated by integrins, we studied the signaling events initiated by the attachment of muscle cells to fibronectin (FN). We have previously demonstrated that muscle cell spreading on FN is mediated by alpha5beta1 integrin, is associated with rapid phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and is dependent on activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Here we investigated the role of individual PKC isozymes in these cellular processes. We show that alpha, delta and epsilonPKC are expressed in muscle cells and are activated upon integrin engagement with different kinetics - epsilonPKC was activated early, whereas alpha and deltaPKC were activated later. Using isozyme-specific inhibitors, we found that the activation of epsilonPKC was necessary for cell attachment to FN. However, using isozyme-specific activators, we found that activation of each of three isozymes was sufficient to promote the spreading of alpha5-integrin-deficient cells on FN. To investigate further the mechanism by which integrin signaling and PKC activation mediate cell spreading, we studied the effects of these processes on MARCKS, a substrate of PKC and a protein known to regulate actin dynamics. We found that MARCKS was localized to focal adhesion sites soon after cell adhesion and that MARCKS translocated from the membrane to the cytosol during the process of cell spreading. This translocation correlated with different phases of PKC activation and with reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Using MARCKS-antisense cDNA, we show that alpha5-expressing cells in which MARCKS expression is inhibited fail to spread on FN, providing evidence for the crucial role of MARCKS in muscle cell spreading. Together, the data suggest a model in which early activation of epsilonPKC is necessary for cell attachment; the later activation of alpha or deltaPKC may be necessary for the progression from attachment to spreading. The mechanism of PKC-mediated cell spreading may be via the phosphorylation of signaling proteins, such as MARCKS, that are involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.
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May 2002