Publications by authors named "Marie-Agnès Collonge-Rame"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The CADM1 tumor suppressor gene is a major candidate gene in MDS with deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels, Belgium.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem-cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis leading to peripheral cytopenias and in a substantial proportion of cases to acute myeloid leukemia. The deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11, del(11q), is a rare but recurrent clonal event in MDS. Here, we detail the largest series of 113 cases of MDS and myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) harboring a del(11q) analyzed at clinical, cytological, cytogenetic and molecular levels. Female predominance, a survival prognosis similar to other MDS, a low monocyte count and dysmegakaryopoiesis were the specific clinical and cytological features of del(11q) MDS. In most cases, del(11q) was isolated, primary and interstitial encompassing the 11q22-23 region containing ATM, KMT2A and CBL genes. The common deleted region at 11q23.2 is centered on an intergenic region between CADM1 (also known as TSLC1, Tumour Suppressor in Lung Cancer 1) and NXPE2. CADM1 was expressed in all myeloid cells analyzed in contrast to NXPE2. At the functional level, the deletion of Cadm1 in murine Lineage-Sca1+Kit+ cells modifies the lymphoid to myeloid ratio in bone marrow although not altering their multi-lineage hematopoietic reconstitution potential after syngenic transplantation. Together with the frequent simultaneous deletions of KMT2A, ATM and CBL and mutations of ASXL1, SF3B1 and CBL, we show that CADM1 may be important in the physiopathology of the del(11q) MDS, extending its role as tumor-suppressor gene from solid tumors to hematopoietic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005311DOI Listing
October 2021

Classification of 101 BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants of uncertain significance by cosegregation study: A powerful approach.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Oct 30;108(10):1907-1923. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Service de Génétique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris 75015, France.

Up to 80% of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic variants remain of uncertain clinical significance (VUSs). Only variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic can guide breast and ovarian cancer prevention measures and treatment by PARP inhibitors. We report the first results of the ongoing French national COVAR (cosegregation variant) study, the aim of which is to classify BRCA1/2 VUSs. The classification method was a multifactorial model combining different associations between VUSs and cancer, including cosegregation data. At this time, among the 653 variants selected, 101 (15%) distinct variants shared by 1,624 families were classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic or benign/likely benign by the COVAR study. Sixty-six of the 101 (65%) variants classified by COVAR would have remained VUSs without cosegregation data. Of note, among the 34 variants classified as pathogenic by COVAR, 16 remained VUSs or likely pathogenic when following the ACMG/AMP variant classification guidelines. Although the initiation and organization of cosegregation analyses require a considerable effort, the growing number of available genetic tests results in an increasing number of families sharing a particular variant, and thereby increases the power of such analyses. Here we demonstrate that variant cosegregation analyses are a powerful tool for the classification of variants in the BRCA1/2 breast-ovarian cancer predisposition genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.09.003DOI Listing
October 2021

TUMOSPEC: A Nation-Wide Study of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Families with a Predicted Pathogenic Variant Identified through Multigene Panel Testing.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 21;13(15). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centre Hospitalier de Troyes, Hôpital S. Veil, F-10000 Troyes, France.

Assessment of age-dependent cancer risk for carriers of a predicted pathogenic variant (PPV) is often hampered by biases in data collection, with a frequent under-representation of cancer-free PPV carriers. TUMOSPEC was designed to estimate the cumulative risk of cancer for carriers of a PPV in a gene that is usually tested in a hereditary breast and ovarian cancer context. Index cases are enrolled consecutively among patients who undergo genetic testing as part of their care plan in France. First- and second-degree relatives and cousins of PPV carriers are invited to participate whether they are affected by cancer or not, and genotyped for the familial PPV. Clinical, family and epidemiological data are collected, and all data including sequencing data are centralized at the coordinating centre. The three-year feasibility study included 4431 prospective index cases, with 19.1% of them carrying a PPV. When invited by the coordinating centre, 65.3% of the relatives of index cases (5.7 relatives per family, on average) accepted the invitation to participate. The study logistics were well adapted to clinical and laboratory constraints, and collaboration between partners (clinicians, biologists, coordinating centre and participants) was smooth. Hence, TUMOSPEC is being pursued, with the aim of optimizing clinical management guidelines specific to each gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345200PMC
July 2021

Clinical and biological features of B-cell neoplasms with CDK6 translocations: an association with a subgroup of splenic marginal zone lymphomas displaying frequent CD5 expression, prolymphocytic cells, and TP53 abnormalities.

Br J Haematol 2021 04 13;193(1):72-82. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France.

A translocation involving the cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) gene [t(CDK6)] is a rare but recurrent abnormality in B-cell neoplasms. To further characterise this aberration, we studied 57 cases; the largest series reported to date. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis confirmed the involvement of CDK6 in all cases, including t(2;7)(p11;q21) immunoglobulin kappa locus (IGK)/CDK6 (n = 51), t(7;14)(q21;q32) CDK6/immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH) (n = 2) and the previously undescribed t(7;14)(q21;q11) CDK6/T-cell receptor alpha locus (TRA)/T-cell receptor delta locus (TRD) (n = 4). In total, 10 patients were diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis or small lymphocytic lymphoma, and 47 had small B-cell lymphoma (SmBL) including 36 cases of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL; 34 splenic MZLs, one nodal MZL and one bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma). In all, 18 of the 26 cytologically reviewed cases of MZL (69%) had an atypical aspect with prolymphocytic cells. Among the 47 patients with MZL/SmBL, CD5 expression was found in 26 (55%) and the tumour protein p53 (TP53) deletion in 22 (47%). The TP53 gene was mutated in 10/30 (33%); the 7q deletion was detected in only one case, and no Notch receptor 2 (NOTCH2) mutations were found. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (IGHV) locus sequencing revealed that none harboured an IGHV1-02*04 gene. Overall survival was 82% at 10 years and not influenced by TP53 aberration. Our present findings suggest that most t(CDK6)+ neoplasms correspond to a particular subgroup of indolent marginal zone B-cell lymphomas with distinctive features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17141DOI Listing
April 2021

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells proliferation associated with acute myeloid leukemia: phenotype profile and mutation landscape.

Haematologica 2020 10 13;Online ahead of print. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Service de Biologie Médicale, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles A. Mignot, Le Chesnay.

Neoplasms involving plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs) include Blastic pDC Neoplasms (BPDCN) and other pDC proliferations, where pDCs are associated with myeloid malignancies: most frequently Chronic MyeloMonocytic Leukemia (CMML) but also Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), hereafter named pDC-AML. We aimed to determine the reactive or neoplastic origin of pDCs in pDC-AML, and their link with the CD34+ blasts, monocytes or conventional DCs (cDCs) associated in the same sample, by phenotypic and molecular analyses (targeted NGS, 70 genes). We compared 15 pDC-AML at diagnosis with 21 BPDCN and 11 normal pDCs from healthy donors. CD45low CD34+ blasts were found in all cases (10-80% of medullar cells), associated with pDCs (4-36%), monocytes in 14 cases (1-10%) and cDCs (2 cases, 4.8-19%). pDCs in pDC-AML harbor a clearly different phenotype from BPDCN: CD4+ CD56- in 100% of cases, most frequently CD303+, CD304+ and CD34+; lower expression of cTCL1 and CD123 with isolated lymphoid markers (CD22/CD7/CD5) in some cases, suggesting a pre-pDC stage. In all cases, pDCs, monocytes and cDC are neoplastic since they harbor the same mutations as CD34+ blasts. RUNX1 is the most commonly mutated gene: detected in all AML with minimal differentiation (M0-AML) but not in the other cases. Despite low number of cases, the systematic association between M0-AML, RUNX1 mutations and an excess of pDC is puzzling. Further evaluation in a larger cohort is required to confirm RUNX1 mutations in pDC-AML with minimal differentiation and to investigate whether it represents a proliferation of blasts with macrophage and DC progenitor potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.253740DOI Listing
October 2020

Polygenic risk scores and breast and epithelial ovarian cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 10 15;22(10):1653-1666. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital, Department of Clinical Genetics, Exeter, UK.

Purpose: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.

Methods: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort.

Results: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar.

Conclusion: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0862-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521995PMC
October 2020

Post-Essential Thrombocythemia Myelofibrosis and Multiple Isodicentric Y Chromosomes: A Unique Case among a Rare Association.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2020 1;160(1):18-21. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Multiple isodicentric Y chromosomes [idic(Y)] is a rare cytogenetic abnormality, most exclusively described in constitutional karyotypes. Only recently has this entity been reported in hematologic neoplasms such as myeloid disorders, albeit these cases remain very scarce. The possible involvement of increasing copies of potential proto-oncogenes located on the multiple idic(Y) led to consider one of them, CRLF2, as a target for kinase inhibitors. We report here, to our knowledge, the first case of multiple idic(Y) in a patient with myelofibrosis secondary to essential thrombocythemia. The patient received ruxolitinib therapy with initial good clinical response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505844DOI Listing
April 2020

Genetic characterization of B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia: a prognostic model involving MYC and TP53.

Blood 2019 11;134(21):1821-1831

Service de Génétique Biologique-Histologie, CHU Besançon, Besançon, France.

B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is a rare hematological disorder whose underlying oncogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Our cytogenetic and molecular assessments of 34 patients with B-PLL revealed several disease-specific features and potential therapeutic targets. The karyotype was complex (≥3 abnormalities) in 73% of the patients and highly complex (≥5 abnormalities) in 45%. The most frequent chromosomal aberrations were translocations involving MYC [t(MYC)] (62%), deletion (del)17p (38%), trisomy (tri)18 (30%), del13q (29%), tri3 (24%), tri12 (24%), and del8p (23%). Twenty-six (76%) of the 34 patients exhibited an MYC aberration, resulting from mutually exclusive translocations or gains. Whole-exome sequencing revealed frequent mutations in TP53, MYD88, BCOR, MYC, SF3B1, SETD2, CHD2, CXCR4, and BCLAF1. The majority of B-PLL used the IGHV3 or IGHV4 subgroups (89%) and displayed significantly mutated IGHV genes (79%). We identified 3 distinct cytogenetic risk groups: low risk (no MYC aberration), intermediate risk (MYC aberration but no del17p), and high risk (MYC aberration and del17p) (P = .0006). In vitro drug response profiling revealed that the combination of a B-cell receptor or BCL2 inhibitor with OTX015 (a bromodomain and extra-terminal motif inhibitor targeting MYC) was associated with significantly lower viability of B-PLL cells harboring a t(MYC). We concluded that cytogenetic analysis is a useful diagnostic and prognostic tool in B-PLL. Targeting MYC may be a useful treatment option in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019001187DOI Listing
November 2019

Mendelian randomisation study of height and body mass index as modifiers of ovarian cancer risk in 22,588 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Br J Cancer 2019 07 19;121(2):180-192. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Chris O'Brien Lifehouse and The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Background: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown.

Methods: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models.

Results: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0492-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738050PMC
July 2019

First description of a double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants in a French metastatic breast cancer patient: A case report.

Oncol Rep 2017 Mar 3;37(3):1573-1578. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital, 25000 Besançon, France.

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease caused primarily by germline mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Rare cases of double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been reported quite exceptionally in non-Ashkenazi individuals. We describe the case of a woman who developed a bilateral breast cancer, discovered concomitantly, at 46 years old. Biopsies confirmed the presence of two breast cancers with distinct histology. BRCA analysis was tested due to a positive family history of breast cancer, and two pathogenic monoallelic mutations were detected, one in the BRCA1 gene and one in the BRCA2 gene. There is no known Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. We report the first description of a never described double heterozygosity for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants in a French metastatic breast cancer patient, with two distinct histology, and two distinct mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2017.5422DOI Listing
March 2017

Pregnancy outcomes in prenatally diagnosed 47, XXX and 47, XYY syndromes: a 30-year French, retrospective, multicentre study.

Prenat Diagn 2016 Jun 10;36(6):523-9. Epub 2016 May 10.

Laboratoire d'Histologie, Embryologie, Biologie de la Reproduction, Cytogénétique et Génétique médicale, CHI Poissy Saint Germain, Poissy, France.

Objective: Sex chromosome aneuploidies are frequently detected fortuitously in a prenatal diagnosis. Most cases of 47, XXX and 47, XYY syndromes are diagnosed in this context, and parents are thus faced with an unexpected situation. The objective of the present study was to characterize a French cohort of prenatally diagnosed cases of 47, XXX and 47, XYY and to evaluate the termination of pregnancy (TOP) rate before and after France's implementation of multidisciplinary centres for prenatal diagnosis in 1997.

Methods: This retrospective study identified respectively 291 and 175 cases of prenatally diagnosed 47, XXX and 47, XYY between 1976 and 2012. For each case, the indication, maternal age, karyotype and outcome were recorded.

Results: Most diagnoses of the two conditions were fortuitous. The occurrence of 47, XXX was associated with advanced maternal age. The overall TOP rate was higher for 47, XXX (22.9%) than for 47, XYY (14.6%), although this difference was not statistically significant. However, the TOP rates fell significantly after 1997 (from 41.1% to 11.8% for 47, XXX and from 25.8% to 6.7% for 47, XYY).

Conclusion: The TOP rates after prenatal diagnoses of 47, XXX and 47, XYY fell significantly after 1997, following France's implementation of multidisciplinary centres for prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.4817DOI Listing
June 2016

GENESIS: a French national resource to study the missing heritability of breast cancer.

BMC Cancer 2016 Jan 12;16:13. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.

Background: Less than 20% of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation.

Methods: The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center.

Results: Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98% of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97% provided a blood sample, and 76% were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified.

Conclusions: The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-2028-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711059PMC
January 2016

Clinical relevance of 8q23, 15q13 and 18q21 SNP genotyping to evaluate colorectal cancer risk.

Eur J Hum Genet 2016 Jan 15;24(1):99-105. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Department of Genetics, University Hospital, Angers, France.

To determine if the at-risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles for colorectal cancer (CRC) could contribute to clinical situations suggestive of an increased genetic risk for CRC, we performed a prospective national case-control study based on highly selected patients (CRC in two first-degree relatives, one before 61 years of age; or CRC diagnosed before 51 years of age; or multiple primary CRCs, the first before 61 years of age; exclusion of Lynch syndrome and polyposes) and controls without personal or familial history of CRC. SNPs were genotyped using SNaPshot, and statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's χ(2) test, Cochran-Armitage test of trend and logistic regression. We included 1029 patients and 350 controls. We confirmed the association of CRC risk with four SNPs, with odds ratio (OR) higher than previously reported: rs16892766 on 8q23.3 (OR: 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-2.72; P=0.0007); rs4779584 on 15q13.3 (OR: 1.42, CI: 1.11-1.83; P=0.0061) and rs4939827 and rs58920878/Novel 1 on 18q21.1 (OR: 1.49, CI: 1.13-1.98; P=0.007 and OR: 1.49, CI: 1.14-1.95; P=0.0035). We found a significant (P<0.0001) cumulative effect of the at-risk alleles or genotypes with OR at 1.62 (CI: 1.10-2.37), 2.09 (CI: 1.43-3.07), 2.87 (CI: 1.76-4.70) and 3.88 (CI: 1.72-8.76) for 1, 2, 3 and at least 4 at-risk alleles, respectively, and OR at 1.71 (CI: 1.18-2.46), 2.29 (CI: 1.55-3.38) and 6.21 (CI: 2.67-14.42) for 1, 2 and 3 at-risk genotypes, respectively. Combination of SNPs may therefore explain a fraction of clinical situations suggestive of an increased risk for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2015.72DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795220PMC
January 2016

Association of type and location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

JAMA 2015 Apr;313(13):1347-61

Department of Medicine and Genetics, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists.

Objective: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Observational study of women who were ascertained between 1937 and 2011 (median, 1999) and found to carry disease-associated BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The international sample comprised 19,581 carriers of BRCA1 mutations and 11,900 carriers of BRCA2 mutations from 55 centers in 33 countries on 6 continents. We estimated hazard ratios for breast and ovarian cancer based on mutation type, function, and nucleotide position. We also estimated RHR, the ratio of breast vs ovarian cancer hazard ratios. A value of RHR greater than 1 indicated elevated breast cancer risk; a value of RHR less than 1 indicated elevated ovarian cancer risk.

Exposures: Mutations of BRCA1 or BRCA2.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Breast and ovarian cancer risks.

Results: Among BRCA1 mutation carriers, 9052 women (46%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 2317 (12%) with ovarian cancer, 1041 (5%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 7171 (37%) without cancer. Among BRCA2 mutation carriers, 6180 women (52%) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 682 (6%) with ovarian cancer, 272 (2%) with breast and ovarian cancer, and 4766 (40%) without cancer. In BRCA1, we identified 3 breast cancer cluster regions (BCCRs) located at c.179 to c.505 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.22-1.74; P = 2 × 10(-6)), c.4328 to c.4945 (BCCR2; RHR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; P = .04), and c. 5261 to c.5563 (BCCR2', RHR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.22-1.55; P = 6 × 10(-9)). We also identified an ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) from c.1380 to c.4062 (approximately exon 11) with RHR = 0.62 (95% CI, 0.56-0.70; P = 9 × 10(-17)). In BRCA2, we observed multiple BCCRs spanning c.1 to c.596 (BCCR1; RHR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06-2.78; P = .03), c.772 to c.1806 (BCCR1'; RHR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.10-2.40; P = .01), and c.7394 to c.8904 (BCCR2; RHR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.69-3.16; P = .00002). We also identified 3 OCCRs: the first (OCCR1) spanned c.3249 to c.5681 that was adjacent to c.5946delT (6174delT; RHR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60; P = 6 × 10(-17)). The second OCCR spanned c.6645 to c.7471 (OCCR2; RHR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.41-0.80; P = .001). Mutations conferring nonsense-mediated decay were associated with differential breast or ovarian cancer risks and an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Conclusions And Relevance: Breast and ovarian cancer risks varied by type and location of BRCA1/2 mutations. With appropriate validation, these data may have implications for risk assessment and cancer prevention decision making for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.5985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537700PMC
April 2015

14q deletions are associated with trisomy 12, NOTCH1 mutations and unmutated IGHV genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2014 Aug 12;53(8):657-66. Epub 2014 Apr 12.

INSERM U872, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris 6, France.

Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 14 [del(14q)] are rare but recurrently observed in mature B-cell neoplasms, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To further characterize this aberration, we studied 81 cases with del(14q): 54 of CLL and 27 of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), the largest reported series to date. Using karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most frequent additional abnormality was trisomy 12 (tri12), observed in 28/79 (35%) cases, followed by del13q14 (12/79, 15%), delTP53 (11/80, 14%) delATM (5/79, 6%), and del6q21 (3/76, 4%). IGHV genes were unmutated in 41/53 (77%) patients, with a high frequency of IGHV1-69 (21/52, 40%). NOTCH1 gene was mutated in 14/45 (31%) patients. There was no significant difference in cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities between CLL and SLL. Investigations using FISH and SNP-array demonstrated the heterogeneous size of the 14q deletions. However, a group with the same del(14)(q24.1q32.33) was identified in 48% of cases. In this group, tri12 (P = 0.004) and NOTCH1 mutations (P = 0.02) were significantly more frequent than in the other patients. In CLL patients with del(14q), median treatment-free survival (TFS) was 27 months. In conclusion, del(14q) is associated with tri12 and with pejorative prognostic factors: unmutated IGHV genes (with over-representation of the IGHV1-69 repertoire), NOTCH1 mutations, and a short TFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22176DOI Listing
August 2014

Patterns of genomic aberrations suggest that Burkitt lymphomas with complex karyotype are distinct from other aggressive B-cell lymphomas with MYC rearrangement.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2013 Jan 25;52(1):81-92. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Center for Human Genetics, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

We previously showed that complex karyotypes (CK) and chromosome 13q abnormalities have an adverse prognostic impact in childhood Burkitt lymphomas/leukemias (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). The aim of our study was to identify recurrent alterations associated with MYC rearrangements in aggressive B-cell lymphomas with CK. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) was performed in 84 patient samples (59 adults and 25 children), including 37 BL (13 lymphomas and 24 acute leukemias), 12 DLBCL, 28 B-cell lymphomas with intermediate features (DLBCL/BL), 4 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (BCP-ALL), and 3 unclassifiable B-cell lymphomas. New (cytogenetically undetected) abnormalities were identified in 80% of patients. We also refined one-third of the chromosomal aberrations detected by karyotyping. M-FISH proved to be more useful in identifying chromosomal partners involved in unbalanced translocations and in revealing greater complexity of 13q rearrangements. Most of the newly identified or refined recurrent alterations involved 1q, 13q and 3q (gains/losses), 7q and 18q (gains), or 6q (losses), suggesting that these secondary aberrations may play a role in lymphomagenesis. Several patterns of genomic aberrations were identified: 1q gains in BL, trisomies 7 in DLBCL, and 18q-translocations in adult non-BL. BCP-ALL usually displayed an 18q21 rearrangement. BL karyotypes were less complex and aneuploid than those of other MYC-rearranged lymphomas. BCP-ALL and DLBCL/BL were associated with a higher rate of early death than BL and DLBCL. These findings support the categorization of DLBCL/BL as a distinct entity and suggest that BL with CK are indeed different from other aggressive MYC-rearranged lymphomas, which usually show greater genetic complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22008DOI Listing
January 2013

A nonsynonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012 Aug 22;21(8):1362-70. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010, USA.

Background: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Methods: IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers.

Results: Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 (HR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.92; P = 0.019) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.52, P = 0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class II mutations than class I mutations (class II HR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.28-2.70; class I HR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.69-1.09; P(difference), 0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class II mutation carriers (HR, 2.42; P = 0.03).

Conclusion: The IRS1 Gly972Arg single-nucleotide polymorphism, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class II mutation carriers.

Impact: These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3415567PMC
August 2012

Systematic donor blood qualification by flow cytometry would have been able to avoid CLL-type MBL transmission after unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Eur J Haematol 2012 Mar 10;88(3):269-72. Epub 2012 Jan 10.

INSERM UMR645, IFR133, Etablissement Français du sang Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

The current screening for eligibility of unrelated volunteer marrow donors comprises a complete clinical check-up, a blood CBC and serum protein immunoelectrophoresis. This allows to eliminate acute leukemias, myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders, myelomas and MGUS. To date, the risk of transmission of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) disease is only evaluated by the clinical evaluation and CBC. We report here the case of a CLL-type MBL disease occurring in a 12-year-old boy after unrelated BMT. Deep biological investigations, as Immunophenotyping, cytogenetic and molecular biology allow us to determine the donor origin of the CLL clone. In 2010, 14.2% donor (105/737) for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were over 45y. It is currently estimated (USA) that 1 in 210 men and women will be diagnosed with CLL during their lifetime. Given the long asymptomatic phase of CLL, this raises the case for a detection strategy analog to that used for MGUS and myeloma through serum protein electrophoresis. This case-report, to our knowledge, of a CLL-type MBL unrelated donor-to-recipient transmission through BMT raises ethical and practical questions, such as the proper information about disease transmission risk. The cost-effectiveness of a systematic peripheral blood Immunophenotyping in donors elder than 40y at time of stem cell donation should be evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2011.01741.xDOI Listing
March 2012

Interplay between BRCA1 and RHAMM regulates epithelial apicobasal polarization and may influence risk of breast cancer.

PLoS Biol 2011 Nov 15;9(11):e1001199. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

Translational Research Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet, Catalonia, Spain.

Differentiated mammary epithelium shows apicobasal polarity, and loss of tissue organization is an early hallmark of breast carcinogenesis. In BRCA1 mutation carriers, accumulation of stem and progenitor cells in normal breast tissue and increased risk of developing tumors of basal-like type suggest that BRCA1 regulates stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the function of BRCA1 in this process and its link to carcinogenesis remain unknown. Here we depict a molecular mechanism involving BRCA1 and RHAMM that regulates apicobasal polarity and, when perturbed, may increase risk of breast cancer. Starting from complementary genetic analyses across families and populations, we identified common genetic variation at the low-penetrance susceptibility HMMR locus (encoding for RHAMM) that modifies breast cancer risk among BRCA1, but probably not BRCA2, mutation carriers: n = 7,584, weighted hazard ratio ((w)HR) = 1.09 (95% CI 1.02-1.16), p(trend) = 0.017; and n = 3,965, (w)HR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.94-1.16), p(trend) = 0.43; respectively. Subsequently, studies of MCF10A apicobasal polarization revealed a central role for BRCA1 and RHAMM, together with AURKA and TPX2, in essential reorganization of microtubules. Mechanistically, reorganization is facilitated by BRCA1 and impaired by AURKA, which is regulated by negative feedback involving RHAMM and TPX2. Taken together, our data provide fundamental insight into apicobasal polarization through BRCA1 function, which may explain the expanded cell subsets and characteristic tumor type accompanying BRCA1 mutation, while also linking this process to sporadic breast cancer through perturbation of HMMR/RHAMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3217025PMC
November 2011

Exploring the link between MORF4L1 and risk of breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2011 Apr 5;13(2):R40. Epub 2011 Apr 5.

Translational Research Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), Gran Via 199, L'Hospitalet del Llobregat 08908, Spain.

Introduction: Proteins encoded by Fanconi anemia (FA) and/or breast cancer (BrCa) susceptibility genes cooperate in a common DNA damage repair signaling pathway. To gain deeper insight into this pathway and its influence on cancer risk, we searched for novel components through protein physical interaction screens.

Methods: Protein physical interactions were screened using the yeast two-hybrid system. Co-affinity purifications and endogenous co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to corroborate interactions. Biochemical and functional assays in human, mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans models were carried out to characterize pathway components. Thirteen FANCD2-monoubiquitinylation-positive FA cell lines excluded for genetic defects in the downstream pathway components and 300 familial BrCa patients negative for BRCA1/2 mutations were analyzed for genetic mutations. Common genetic variants were genotyped in 9,573 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers for associations with BrCa risk.

Results: A previously identified co-purifying protein with PALB2 was identified, MRG15 (MORF4L1 gene). Results in human, mouse and C. elegans models delineate molecular and functional relationships with BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51 and RPA1 that suggest a role for MRG15 in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Mrg15-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts showed moderate sensitivity to γ-irradiation relative to controls and reduced formation of Rad51 nuclear foci. Examination of mutants of MRG15 and BRCA2 C. elegans orthologs revealed phenocopy by accumulation of RPA-1 (human RPA1) nuclear foci and aberrant chromosomal compactions in meiotic cells. However, no alterations or mutations were identified for MRG15/MORF4L1 in unclassified FA patients and BrCa familial cases. Finally, no significant associations between common MORF4L1 variants and BrCa risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers were identified: rs7164529, Ptrend = 0.45 and 0.05, P2df = 0.51 and 0.14, respectively; and rs10519219, Ptrend = 0.92 and 0.72, P2df = 0.76 and 0.07, respectively.

Conclusions: While the present study expands on the role of MRG15 in the control of genomic stability, weak associations cannot be ruled out for potential low-penetrance variants at MORF4L1 and BrCa risk among BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr2862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3219203PMC
April 2011

Common genetic variation at BARD1 is not associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011 May 10;20(5):1032-8. Epub 2011 Mar 10.

QueenslanInstitute for Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia.

Background: Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve breast cancer risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may improve personalized cancer prevention strategies.

Methods: A cohort of 5,546 BRCA1 and 2,865 BRCA2 mutation carriers was used to evaluate risk of breast cancer associated with BARD1 Cys557Ser. In a second nonindependent cohort of 1,537 of BRCA1 and 839 BRCA2 mutation carriers, BARD1 haplotypes were also evaluated.

Results: The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant was not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer from single SNP analysis, with a pooled effect estimate of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.71-1.15) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.59-1.29) in BRCA2 carriers. Further analysis of haplotypes at BARD1 also revealed no evidence that additional common genetic variation not captured by Cys557Ser was associated with breast cancer risk.

Conclusion: Evidence to date does not support a role for BARD1 variation, including the Cy557Ser variant, as a modifier of risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

Impact: Interactors of BRCA1/2 have been implicated as modifiers of BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk. Our finding that BARD1 does not contribute to this risk modification may focus research on other genes that do modify BRCA1/2-associated cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089675PMC
May 2011

Specific chromosomal IG translocations have different prognoses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Am J Blood Res 2011 15;1(1):13-21. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Background: Chromosomal translocations are usually analyzed as a single entity, and are associated with a poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Translocations involving immunoglobulin genes are recurrent, but uncommon (<5%), and their individual prognosis is not clear. The two most frequent partners are BCL2 (18q21) and BCL3 (19q13).

Designs And Methods: Herein, 75 cases are reported of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and t(14;18) (BCL2-CLLs). Our series benefits from morphological, immunological and cytogenetical reviews. The IGHV status analyses were performed by referring laboratories. Comparison was made with our previously published series of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with t(14;19) (BCL3-CLLs, n=29).

Results: Compared with BCL3-CLLs, lymphocytosis was lower in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.008), and splenomegaly was less frequent (p<0.0001). There were more "typical" morphologies (p<0.005) and Matutes scores >4 (p<0.001) in the BCL2-CLLs group, and less CD38 expression (p<0.04). More variant BCL2-translocations were observed (t(18;22), n=11; 2t(2;18), n=2; p<0.02), and BCL2-translocation was frequently single (p<0.002). Complex karyotypes (p<0.02), trisomy 12 (p<0.03), 6q deletion (p<0.002) and TP53 deletion (p<0.02) were less frequent in BCL2-CLLs, whereas 13q deletion was more frequent (p<0.005). The IGHV gene was frequently mutated in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.0001). Treatment-free survival was longer in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: BCL2-CLL.S express CD5 and lack expression of CD38, and have a Matutes score ≥4, frequent trisomy 12, no ATM and 6q deletions, and a mutated IGHV status. Compared to BCL3-CLLs, BCL2-CLLs are much less aggressive; indicating that identifying individual translocations and cytogenetic partners would allow improved patient stratification.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3301415PMC
August 2012

Genetic variation at 9p22.2 and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2011 Jan 17;103(2):105-16. Epub 2010 Dec 17.

Department of Gynaecological Oncology, UCL EGA Institute for Women's Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between the rare allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3814113 (ie, the C allele) at 9p22.2 and decreased risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated the association of this SNP with ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers by use of data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

Methods: We genotyped rs3814113 in 10,029 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 5837 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Associations with ovarian and breast cancer were assessed with a retrospective likelihood approach. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: The minor allele of rs3814113 was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.85; P = 4.8 × 10(-9)) and BRCA2 mutation carriers (hazard ratio of ovarian cancer = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 0.90; P = 5.5 × 10(-4)). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk among either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. BRCA1 mutation carriers with the TT genotype at SNP rs3814113 were predicted to have an ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years of 48%, and those with the CC genotype were predicted to have a risk of 33%.

Conclusion: Common genetic variation at the 9p22.2 locus was associated with decreased risk of ovarian cancer for carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djq494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3107565PMC
January 2011

Chromosomal abnormalities in transformed Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms are associated to the transformation subtype and independent of JAK2 and the TET2 mutations.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2010 Oct;49(10):919-27

Hématologie biologique, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, APHP, Paris, France.

Evolution to myelofibrosis (MF), acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (AML/MDS) may occur over time in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients most likely due to the acquisition of additional mutations. The Groupe Francophone de cytogenetique hematologique (GFCH) has collected and reviewed 82 patients with transformation of MPN (66 AML/MDS and 16 MF). JAK2V617F and TET2 mutations were searched for in 40 and 32 patients, respectively. Significantly more -7/del(7q) (P = 0.004) and -5/del(5q) (P = 0.03) were found in AML/MDS with a higher incidence of dup1q (P = 0.01) in MF. Some specific chromosomal abnormalities occurred together, for example -5/del(5q) and -17/del(17p) (P = 0.0007). In multivariate analysis, two factors were independently associated with an inferior overall survival (OS); AML/MDS transformation (P < 0.0001) and -5/del(5q) abnormality (P = 0.02). Although both giving rise to loss of 7q, der(1;7) differed from other 7q deletions in terms of distribution (lower frequency of AML/MDS, P = 0.02), association with chromosomal abnormalities (absence of -5/del(5q), P = 0.003; increased del(20q), P = 0.05), and longer OS (P = 0.0007). We detected 24/40 (60%) JAK2V617F and 8/25 (32%) TET2 mutations in samples following transformation, ranging from wild-type to mutated forms of both genes. The mutated and wild-type forms of the genes were not found to be associated with a specific chromosomal abnormality. There was no evidence that JAK2 or TET2 mutations were associated with the type of MPN transformation, whereas the type of cytogenetic abnormalities were strongly linked, perhaps indicating that they play a specific role in the transformation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.20802DOI Listing
October 2010

Abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 21 in 107 patients with hematopoietic disorders: a collaborative retrospective study of the Groupe Français de Cytogénétique Hématologique.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2006 Apr;166(1):1-11

Laboratoire de Génétique, Centre Hospitalier de Mulhouse, 20 rue du Docteur Laennec, BP130, 68070, Mulhouse Cedex, France.

Chromosome 21 is frequently rearranged in hematopoietic malignancies. In order to detect new chromosomal aberrations, the Groupe Français de Cytogénétique Hématologique collected a series of 107 patients with various hematologic disorders and acquired structural abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 21. The abnormalities were subclassified into 10 groups, according to the location of the 21q breakpoint and the type of abnormality. Band 21q22 was implicated in 72 patients (excluding duplications, triplications, and amplifications). The involvement of the RUNX1 gene was confirmed in 10 novel translocations, but the gene partners were not identified. Eleven novel translocations rearranging band 21q22 with bands 1q25, 2p21, 2q37, 3p21, 3p23, 4q31, 6p24 approximately p25, 6p12, 7p15, 16p11, and 18q21 were detected. Rearrangements of band 21q11 and 21q21 were detected in six novel translocations with 5p15, 6p21, 15q21, 16p13, and 20q11 and with 1p33, 3q27, 5p14, 11q11, and 14q11, respectively. Duplications, triplications, amplifications, and isodicentric chromosomes were detected in eight, three, eight, and three patients, respectively. The present study shows both the wide distribution of the breakpoints on the long arm of chromosome 21 in hematopoietic malignancy and the diversity of the chromosomal rearrangements and the hematologic disorders involved. The findings invite further investigation of the 21q abnormalities to detect their associated molecular rearrangements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2005.08.005DOI Listing
April 2006

[Neurectodermal differentiation of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a classical feature?].

Ann Pathol 2003 Jun;23(3):244-8

Service d'Anatomie et Cytologie Pathologiques, CHU Jean Minjoz, Boulevard du Dr Fleming, 25030 Besançon cedex. univ-fcomte.fr

Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a phenotypically and genotypically distinct entity with a protracted course. A documented case of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma characterized by a t(9; 17) (q22; q11) translocation with a neuroendocrine and neural differentiation is reported.
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June 2003

Identical abnormality of the short arm of chromosome 18 in two Philadelphia-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia patients with erythroblastic transformation, resulting in duplication of BCR-ABL1 fusion.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2002 Oct;138(1):22-6

Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Two patients with Ph-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia in erythroblastic transformation and rearrangement of the short arm of chromosome 18 are reported. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies showed that the 18p rearrangement resulted from translocation of the main part of chromosome 22 long arm to 18p, including BCR-ABL1 fusion. The 18p abnormality resulted, thus, in loss of 18p and duplication of BCR-ABL1 in both patients. The possible relation to the erythroblastic type of blastic phase is briefly discussed. In addition an apparently intact germline ABL1 gene was duplicated and inserted into chromosome 6 at band p21 in one of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-4608(02)00574-5DOI Listing
October 2002
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