Publications by authors named "Marie Moinet"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Disappearance of TBEV Circulation among Rodents in a Natural Focus in Alsace, Eastern France.

Pathogens 2020 Nov 10;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), CS 40009, 54220 Malzéville, France.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) depends mainly on a fragile mode of transmission, the co-feeding between infected nymphs and larvae on rodents, and thus persists under a limited set of biotic and abiotic conditions. If these conditions change, natural TBEV foci might be unstable over time. We conducted a longitudinal study over seven years in a mountain forest in Alsace, Eastern France, located at the western border of known TBEV distribution. The objectives were (i) to monitor the persistence of TBEV circulation between small mammals and ticks and (ii) to discuss the presence of TBEV circulation in relation to the synchronous activity of larvae and nymphs, to the densities of questing nymphs and small mammals, and to potential changes in meteorological conditions and deer densities. Small mammals were trapped five times per year from 2012 to 2018 to collect blood samples and record the presence of feeding ticks, and were then released. Questing nymphs were collected twice a year. Overall, 1344 different small mammals ( and ) were captured and 2031 serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against TBEV using an in-house ELISA. Seropositive rodents (2.1%) were only found from 2012 to 2015, suggesting that the virus disappeared afterwards. In parallel, we observed unusual variations in inter-annual nymph abundance and intra-annual larval activity that could be related to exceptional meteorological conditions. Changes in the densities of questing nymphs and deer associated with the natural stochastic variations in the frequency of contacts between rodents and infected ticks may have contributed to the endemic fadeout of TBEV on the study site. Further studies are needed to assess whether such events occur relatively frequently in the area, which could explain the low human incidence of TBE in Alsace and even in other areas of France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697581PMC
November 2020

Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: Seasonal and Annual Variation of Epidemiological Parameters Related to Nymph-to-Larva Transmission and Exposure of Small Mammals.

Pathogens 2020 Jun 27;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), 54220 Malzéville, France.

A greater knowledge of the ecology of the natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is essential to better assess the temporal variations of the risk of tick-borne encephalitis for humans. To describe the seasonal and inter-annual variations of the TBEV-cycle and the epidemiological parameters related to TBEV nymph-to-larva transmission, exposure of small mammals to TBEV, and tick aggregation on small mammals, a longitudinal survey in ticks and small mammals was conducted over a 3-year period in a mountain forest in Alsace, eastern France. TBEV prevalence in questing nymphs was lower in 2013 than in 2012 and 2014, probably because small mammals ( and ) were more abundant in 2012, which reduced tick aggregation and co-feeding transmission between ticks. The prevalence of TBEV in questing nymphs was higher in autumn than spring. Despite these variations in prevalence, the density of infected questing nymphs was constant over time, leading to a constant risk for humans. The seroprevalence of small mammals was also constant over time, although the proportion of rodents infested with ticks varied between years and seasons. Our results draw attention to the importance of considering the complex relationship between small mammal densities, tick aggregation on small mammals, density of infected questing nymphs, and prevalence of infected nymphs in order to forecast the risk of TBEV for humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400523PMC
June 2020

Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1): Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 17;11(11):e0006048. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

ANSES, Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife-WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Management in Zoonoses Control, OIE Reference Laboratory for Rabies, European Union Reference Laboratory for Rabies, European Union Reference Laboratory for Rabies Serology-Bâtiment H, Technopôle Agricole et Vétérinaire, CS, France.

This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status) and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status). Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers of the rabies virus dynamics, hypothesis have been addressed but their exact role in the EBLV-1 transmission still need to be specified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693283PMC
November 2017

Spatio-temporal dynamics of tularemia in French wildlife: 2002-2013.

Prev Vet Med 2016 Aug 31;130:33-40. Epub 2016 May 31.

University Paris Est, Anses, Laboratoire de Santé Animale, Unité Zoonoses Bactériennes, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Tularemia, caused by Francisella tularensis, is endemic in France. The surveillance of this disease in wildlife is operated by the SAGIR Network and by the National Reference Laboratory for Tularemia. Wild animals found dead or dying collected by the SAGIR network are necropsied and when tularemia is suspected culture and/or PCR are performed to confirm the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to present the results of tularemia surveillance in wildlife and to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of tularemia observed between the 2002-2003 and 2012-2013 hunting seasons in French wildlife. Fourty-one to 121 cases were collected each hunting season for a total of 693 confirmed cases and 46 additional suspected cases. The main species affected was the European Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) but 4 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 2 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and one wild boar (Sus scrofa) were also found positive. The Standard Mortality Ratio was mapped and Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistic was implemented and allowed the detection of several clusters: the nationwide outbreak of 2007-2008; 2 clusters in northern and central-western France in high hare-abundance areas and another in North-eastern France where the abundance of hares is low. Our results confirm the usefulness of brown hare as a sentinel of environmental risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.05.015DOI Listing
August 2016

Toxoplasmosis in natural populations of ungulates in France: prevalence and spatiotemporal variations.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2014 Jun 18;14(6):403-13. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

1 Université de Lyon , Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, Villeurbanne, France .

Toxoplasmosis is characterized by a complex epidemiology. The risk of infection for humans depends on their contact with infective oocysts in a contaminated environment and on the amount of tissue cysts located within consumed meat. Unfortunately, the prevalence of tissue cysts is largely unknown for game species. Although herbivorous game species are a source of infection for humans, the level of infection found in wildlife can also be used to estimate environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and analyze its temporal dynamics in one population of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), one of mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon), and two of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in France, surveyed during a period of 6 to 28 years. Taking into account individual risk factors, we specifically analyzed the relationship between T. gondii prevalence and meteorological conditions that may influence oocyst survival. Serum samples from 101 chamois, 143 mouflons, and 1155 roe deer were tested for antibodies against T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, or both. Using MAT with a threshold of 1:6, seroprevalence was 14.7% in mouflon, 16.8% in chamois, and 43.7% in roe deer. In mouflon and roe deer, seroprevalence was positively correlated with age and/or body mass, in accordance with the hypothesis that antibodies have long-term persistence. In roe deer, seropositivity differed between the two populations and changed linearly over time between 1983 and 2010, increasing by a factor 1.75 every 10 years. Moreover, in this species, the highest prevalences were found during dry and cold years or during warm and moist years, depending on the population. Our results suggest that the risk for people to acquire infection through game meat increases over time, but with high variability according to the population of origin and meteorological conditions of the year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2013.1304DOI Listing
June 2014

Isolation of Bokeloh bat lyssavirus in Myotis nattereri in France.

Arch Virol 2013 Nov 12;158(11):2333-40. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Anses, Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies, European Union Reference Laboratory for rabies serology, OIE Reference Laboratory for rabies, WHO Collaborating centre for research and management in zoonoses control, Technopole agricole et veterinaire, BP 40009, 54 220, Malzéville Cedex, France,

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) was found in Myotis nattereri for the first time in northeastern France in July 2012. The complete genome sequence of the virus from the infected Natterer's bat was determined by whole-genome sequencing and compared to that of the first BBLV strain isolated in 2010 in Germany and with those of all currently identified lyssaviruses. The French isolate [KC169985] showed 98.7 % nucleotide sequence identity to the German BBLV strain [JF311903]. Several organs of the infected French bat were examined by classical rabies diagnostic methods: fluorescent antibody test, cell culture inoculation test and RT-qPCR. Antigen, infectious virus and high viral RNA levels were found in both the brain and salivary glands. Traces of genomic RNA were detected in the bladder, kidney and lung tissue. The results of an investigation of the distribution of lyssaviruses with the detection of infectious virus in the salivary glands suggest a possible mode of transmission of the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-013-1747-yDOI Listing
November 2013

Active surveillance of bat rabies in France: a 5-year study (2004-2009).

Vet Microbiol 2011 Aug 12;151(3-4):390-5. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

ANSES Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety, European Union Reference Laboratories for Rabies and Serology, WHO Collaborating Centre, OIE Reference Laboratory for Rabies Technopole Agricole et Vétérinaire, BP 40 009, 54220 Malzeville, France.

Active surveillance of bats in France started in 2004 with an analysis of 18 of the 45 bat species reported in Europe. Rabies antibodies were detected in six indigenous species, mainly in Eptesicus serotinus and Myotis myotis, suggesting previous contact with the EBLV-1 rabies virus. Nineteen of the 177 tested bats were shown serologically positive in seven sites, particularly in central and south-western France. Neither infectious viral particles nor viral genomes were detected in 173 and 308 tested oral swabs, respectively. The presence of neutralising antibodies in female bats (18.6%) was significantly higher than in males (5.6%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.03.034DOI Listing
August 2011

Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

J Wildl Dis 2010 Oct;46(4):1141-51

Groupe de Recherche et d'Etude pour la Gestion de l'Environnement, route de Préchac, 33730 Villandraut, France.

To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to measure its impact on the population dynamics of these rodent predators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-46.4.1141DOI Listing
October 2010