Publications by authors named "Marie Kunesova"

45 Publications

Parental Perceptions of Children's Weight Status in 22 Countries: The WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: COSI 2015/2017.

Obes Facts 2021 Nov 5:1-17. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Observatory of Nutrition and Study of Obesity, Spanish Agency for Food Safety & Nutrition, Ministry of Health, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Parents can act as important agents of change and support for healthy childhood growth and development. Studies have found that parents may not be able to accurately perceive their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to measure parental perceptions of their child's weight status and to identify predictors of potential parental misperceptions.

Methods: We used data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative and 22 countries. Parents were asked to identify their perceptions of their children's weight status as "underweight," "normal weight," "a little overweight," or "extremely overweight." We categorized children's (6-9 years; n = 124,296) body mass index (BMI) as BMI-for-age Z-scores based on the 2007 WHO-recommended growth references. For each country included in the analysis and pooled estimates (country level), we calculated the distribution of children according to the WHO weight status classification, distribution by parental perception of child's weight status, percentages of accurate, overestimating, or underestimating perceptions, misclassification levels, and predictors of parental misperceptions using a multilevel logistic regression analysis that included only children with overweight (including obesity). Statistical analyses were performed using Stata version 15 1.

Results: Overall, 64.1% of parents categorized their child's weight status accurately relative to the WHO growth charts. However, parents were more likely to underestimate their child's weight if the child had overweight (82.3%) or obesity (93.8%). Parents were more likely to underestimate their child's weight if the child was male (adjusted OR [adjOR]: 1.41; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.28-1.55); the parent had a lower educational level (adjOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.26-1.57); the father was asked rather than the mother (adjOR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.98-1.33); and the family lived in a rural area (adjOR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99-1.24). Overall, parents' BMI was not strongly associated with the underestimation of children's weight status, but there was a stronger association in some countries.

Discussion/conclusion: Our study supplements the current literature on factors that influence parental perceptions of their child's weight status. Public health interventions aimed at promoting healthy childhood growth and development should consider parents' knowledge and perceptions, as well as the sociocultural contexts in which children and families live.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517586DOI Listing
November 2021

Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio in 7-year-old children-WHO Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative.

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 17;22 Suppl 6:e13208. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

World Health Organization (WHO) European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Division of Country Health Programmes, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Childhood obesity is a serious global health problem. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) reflect body fat distribution in children. The objectives of this study were to assess WC and WHtR in 7-year-old children and to determine body mass index (BMI), WC, and WHtR differences in children from 10 selected countries across Europe (Bulgaria, Czechia, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Norway, Spain, and Sweden) participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Europe Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). The 50th and 90th percentile of WC (according to COSI and "Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS" (IDEFICS) cutoff values) and WHtR above 0.5 were used as measures of abdominal obesity in a unique sample of 38,975 children aged 7.00-7.99 years. Southern European countries, including Greece and Spain, showed significantly higher BMI, WC, and WHtRin both genders (p < 0.0001) than Eastern and Northern Europe. The highest values for WC were observed in Greece (60.8 ± 7.36 cm boys; 60.3 ± 7.48 cm girls), North Macedonia (60.4 ± 7.91 cm boys; 59.0 ± 8.01 cm girls), and Spain (59.7 ± 6.96 cm boys; 58.9 ± 6.77 cm girls). WC and WHtRin may add an information about the occurrence of central obesity in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13208DOI Listing
November 2021

Childhood overweight and obesity in Europe: Changes from 2007 to 2017.

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 10;22 Suppl 6:e13226. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

World Health Organization (WHO) European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Division of Country Health Programmes, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) routinely measures height and weight of primary school children aged 6-9 years and calculates overweight and obesity prevalence within the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region using a standard methodology. This study examines the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity from the first round of COSI carried out in 2007/2008 to the latest of 2015/2017 in 11 European countries in which data were collected for at least three rounds. In total 303,155 children were measured. In general, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among boys and girls decreased in countries with high prevalence (Southern Europe) and remained stable or slightly increased in Northern European and Eastern European countries included in the analysis. Among boys, the highest decrease in overweight (including obesity) was observed in Portugal (from 40.5% in 2007/2008 to 28.4 in 2015/2017) and in Greece for obesity (from 30.5% in 2009/2010 to 21.7% in 2015/2017). Lithuania recorded the strongest increase in the proportion of boys with overweight (from 24.8% to 28.5%) and obesity (from 9.4% to 12.2%). The trends were similar for boys and girls in most countries. Several countries in Europe have successfully implemented policies and interventions to counteract the increase of overweight and obesity, but there is still much to be done.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13226DOI Listing
November 2021

Thinness, overweight, and obesity in 6- to 9-year-old children from 36 countries: The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative-COSI 2015-2017.

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 7;22 Suppl 6:e13214. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Center for Health Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Podgorica, Montenegro.

In 2015-2017, the fourth round of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) was conducted in 36 countries. National representative samples of children aged 6-9 (203,323) were measured by trained staff, with similar equipment and using a standardized protocol. This paper assesses the children's body weight status and compares the burden of childhood overweight, obesity, and thinness in Northern, Eastern, and Southern Europe and Central Asia. The results show great geographic variability in height, weight, and body mass index. On average, the children of Northern Europe were the tallest, those of Southern Europe the heaviest, and the children living in Central Asia the lightest and the shortest. Overall, 28.7% of boys and 26.5% of girls were overweight (including obesity) and 2.5% and 1.9%, respectively, were thin according to the WHO definitions. The prevalence of obesity varied from 1.8% of boys and 1.1% of girls in Tajikistan to 21.5% and 19.2%, respectively, in Cyprus, and tended to be higher for boys than for girls. Levels of thinness, stunting, and underweight were relatively low, except in Eastern Europe (for thinness) and in Central Asia. Despite the efforts to halt it, unhealthy weight status is still an important problem in the WHO European Region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13214DOI Listing
November 2021

Urban and rural differences in frequency of fruit, vegetable, and soft drink consumption among 6-9-year-old children from 19 countries from the WHO European region.

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 7;22 Suppl 6:e13207. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic.

In order to address the paucity of evidence on the association between childhood eating habits and urbanization, this cross-sectional study describes urban-rural differences in frequency of fruit, vegetable, and soft drink consumption in 123,100 children aged 6-9 years from 19 countries participating in the fourth round (2015-2017) of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). Children's parents/caregivers completed food-frequency questionnaires. A multivariate multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed and revealed wide variability among countries and within macroregions for all indicators. The percentage of children attending rural schools ranged from 3% in Turkey to 70% in Turkmenistan. The prevalence of less healthy eating habits was high, with between 30-80% and 30-90% children not eating fruit or vegetables daily, respectively, and up to 45% consuming soft drinks on >3 days a week. For less than one third of the countries, children attending rural schools had higher odds (OR-range: 1.1-2.1) for not eating fruit or vegetables daily or consuming soft drinks >3 days a week compared to children attending urban schools. For the remainder of the countries no significant associations were observed. Both population-based interventions and policy strategies are necessary to improve access to healthy foods and increase healthy eating behaviors among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13207DOI Listing
November 2021

Socioeconomic differences in food habits among 6- to 9-year-old children from 23 countries-WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI 2015/2017).

Obes Rev 2021 Nov 7;22 Suppl 6:e13211. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

World Health Organization (WHO) European Office for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Division of Country Health Programmes, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Background: Socioeconomic differences in children's food habits are a key public health concern. In order to inform policy makers, cross-country surveillance studies of dietary patterns across socioeconomic groups are required. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and children's food habits.

Methods: The study was based on nationally representative data from children aged 6-9 years (n = 129,164) in 23 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Multivariate multilevel analyses were used to explore associations between children's food habits (consumption of fruit, vegetables, and sugar-containing soft drinks) and parental education, perceived family wealth and parental employment status.

Results: Overall, the present study suggests that unhealthy food habits are associated with lower SES, particularly as assessed by parental education and family perceived wealth, but not parental employment status. We found cross-national and regional variation in associations between SES and food habits and differences in the extent to which the respective indicators of SES were related to children's diet.

Conclusion: Socioeconomic differences in children's food habits exist in the majority of European and Asian countries examined in this study. The results are of relevance when addressing strategies, policy actions, and interventions targeting social inequalities in children's diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13211DOI Listing
November 2021

FADS1 gene polymorphism(s) and fatty acid composition of serum lipids in adolescents.

Lipids 2021 Sep 30;56(5):499-508. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, The Czech Republic.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence many physiological functions. Associations have been found between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the FADS1 (Fatty acid desaturase 1) gene and the relative abundance of PUFA in serum lipids. This study examines the relationship between two SNPs in the FADS1 gene (rs174546, rs174537) and the fatty acid (FA) composition of serum lipids in adolescents (13-18 years). We used DNA samples (670 children; 336 girls and 334 boys) from the Childhood Obesity Prevalence and Treatment (COPAT) project. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes in whole blood samples. For genotype analysis, TaqMan SNP Genotyping assays (Applied Biosystems) were used. Fatty acid composition of serum lipids was assessed using gas chromatography. The T-statistic and regression were used for statistical evaluations. Minor allele T carriers in both SNPs had significant lower level of palmitic acid (16:0, phospholipids) and arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6], phospholipids) in both sexes. In girls, we found a significant positive association between minor allele T carriers and eicosadienoic acid (20:2[n-6], cholesteryl esters) in both SNPs. Being a minor allele T carrier was significantly positively associated with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3[n-6], phospholipids) in boys in both SNPs. SNPs (including rs174546, rs174537) in the FADS gene cluster should have impacted desaturase activity, which may contribute to different efficiency of PUFA synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lipd.12317DOI Listing
September 2021

Adult obese patient in primary care.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(3-4):104-110

Overweight and obesity prevalence in middle aged subjects in the Czech Republic is more than 50 per cent, obesity is found in around 26 per cent of population. Obesity management is a long-term and time-consuming process. Early start of the treatment can prevent continuous weight gain and development of co-morbidities. General practitioners see obese patients usually as the first and they represent the first point of contact for adults with obesity. The basis of obesity management is a change of the lifestyle with added pharmacotherapy and/or bariatric/metabolic surgery. The paper presents overview of methods in obesity diagnostics and management and possibilities of their use in GPs daily practice.
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December 2020

A Snapshot of European Children's Eating Habits: Results from the Fourth Round of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI).

Nutrients 2020 Aug 17;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department for Organization of Health Services to Children, Mothers, Adolescents and Family Planning, Ministry of Health and Social Protection of Population, 734025 Dushanbe, Tajikistan.

Consuming a healthy diet in childhood helps to protect against malnutrition and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This cross-sectional study described the diets of 132,489 children aged six to nine years from 23 countries participating in round four (2015-2017) of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). Children's parents or caregivers were asked to complete a questionnaire that contained indicators of energy-balance-related behaviors (including diet). For each country, we calculated the percentage of children who consumed breakfast, fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks or soft drinks "every day", "most days (four to six days per week)", "some days (one to three days per week)", or "never or less than once a week". We reported these results stratified by country, sex, and region. On a daily basis, most children (78.5%) consumed breakfast, fewer than half (42.5%) consumed fruit, fewer than a quarter (22.6%) consumed fresh vegetables, and around one in ten consumed sweet snacks or soft drinks (10.3% and 9.4%, respectively); however, there were large between-country differences. This paper highlights an urgent need to create healthier food and drink environments, reinforce health systems to promote healthy diets, and continue to support child nutrition and obesity surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468747PMC
August 2020

Prevalence of Severe Obesity among Primary School Children in 21 European Countries.

Obes Facts 2019 26;12(2):244-258. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) was established more than 10 years ago to estimate prevalence and monitor changes in overweight and obesity in children aged 6-9 years. Since then, there have been five rounds of data collection in more than 40 countries involving more than half a million children. To date, no comparative studies with data on severe childhood obesity from European countries have been published.

Objectives: The aim of this work was to present the prevalence of severe obesity in school-aged children from 21 countries participating in COSI.

Method: The data are from cross-sectional studies in 21 European WHO member states that took part in the first three COSI rounds of data collection (2007/2008, 2009/2010, 2012/2013). School-aged children were measured using standardized instruments and methodology. Children were classified as severely obese using the definitions provided by WHO and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Analyses overtime, by child's age and mother's educational level, were performed in a select group of countries.

Results: A total of 636,933 children were included in the analysis (323,648 boys and 313,285 girls). The prevalence of severe obesity varied greatly among countries, with higher values in Southern Europe. According to the WHO definition, severe obesity ranged from 1.0% in Swedish and Moldovan children (95% CI 0.7-1.3 and 0.7-1.5, respectively) to 5.5% (95% CI 4.9-6.1) in Maltese children. The prevalence was generally higher among boys compared to girls. The IOTF cut-offs lead to lower estimates, but confirm the differences among countries, and were more similar for both boys and girls. In many countries 1 in 4 obese children were severely obese. Applying the estimates of prevalence based on the WHO definition to the whole population of children aged 6-9 years in each country, around 398,000 children would be expected to be severely obese in the 21 European countries. The trend between 2007 and 2013 and the analysis by child's age did not show a clear pattern. Severe obesity was more common among children whose mother's educational level was lower.

Conclusions: Severe obesity is a serious public health issue which affects a large number of children in Europe. Because of the impact on educational, health, social care, and economic systems, obesity needs to be addressed via a range of approaches from early prevention of overweight and obesity to treatment of those who need it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6547273PMC
February 2020

Association between Characteristics at Birth, Breastfeeding and Obesity in 22 Countries: The WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative - COSI 2015/2017.

Obes Facts 2019 26;12(2):226-243. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

NCD Office, WHO European Office for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Background: In Europe, although the prevalence of childhood obesity seems to be plateauing in some countries, progress on tackling this important public health issue remains slow and inconsistent. Breastfeeding has been described as a protective factor, and the more exclusively and the longer children are breastfed, the greater their protection from obesity. Birth weight has been shown to have a positive association with later risk for obesity.

Objectives: It was the aim of this paper to investigate the association of early-life factors, namely breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and birth weight, with obesity among children.

Method: Data from 22 participating countries in the WHO European COSI study (round 4: 2015/2017) were collected using cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 6- to 9-year-olds (n = 100,583). The children's standardized weight and height measurements followed a common WHO protocol. Information on the children's birth weight and breastfeeding practice and duration was collected through a family record form. A multivariate multilevel logistic regression analysis regarding breastfeeding practice (both general and exclusive) and characteristics at birth was performed.

Results: The highest prevalence rates of obesity were observed in Spain (17.7%), Malta (17.2%) and Italy (16.8%). A wide between-country disparity in breastfeeding prevalence was found. Tajikistan had the highest percentage of children that were breastfed for ≥6 months (94.4%) and exclusively breastfed for ≥6 months (73.3%). In France, Ireland and Malta, only around 1 in 4 children was breastfed for ≥6 months. Italy and Malta showed the highest prevalence of obesity among children who have never been breastfed (21.2%), followed by Spain (21.0%). The pooled analysis showed that, compared to children who were breastfed for at least 6 months, the odds of being obese were higher among children never breastfed or breastfed for a shorter period, both in case of general (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] [95% CI] 1.22 [1.16-1.28] and 1.12 [1.07-1.16], respectively) and exclusive breastfeeding (adjOR [95% CI] 1.25 [1.17-1.36] and 1.05 [0.99-1.12], respectively). Higher birth weight was associated with a higher risk of being overweight, which was reported in 11 out of the 22 countries. Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Italy, Poland and Romania showed that children who were preterm at birth had higher odds of being obese, compared to children who were full-term babies.

Conclusion: The present work confirms the beneficial effect of breastfeeding against obesity, which was highly increased if children had never been breastfed or had been breastfed for a shorter period. Nevertheless, adoption of exclusive breastfeeding is below global recommendations and far from the target endorsed by the WHO Member States at the World Health Assembly Global Targets for Nutrition of increasing the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months up to at least 50% by 2025.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6547266PMC
February 2020

FADS1 genotype is distinguished by human subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acids, but not inflammatory gene expression.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2019 08 6;43(8):1539-1548. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS1/FADS2 genes are associated with changes in serum and tissue polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. PUFA regulate inflammatory signaling pathways in adipose tissue; however, the effect of SNPs in FADS1/FADS2 on adipose tissue inflammation is equivocal. The present study examined if SNPs in FADS1/FADS2 modify human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) fatty acid profiles and the expression of genes associated with inflammation/immune function, lipid metabolism, and cellular differentiation.

Methods: SAT fatty acids and the expression of 117 genes were measured in 174 men and women from the DiOGenes Study using gas chromatography and qRT-PCR, respectively. Associations between fatty acids, gene expression, and SNPs in FADS1/FADS2 were investigated by linear regression and multivariate analysis.

Results: Four SNPs (rs174537, rs174546, rs174556, rs174601) in FADS1/FADS2 were significantly associated with SAT fatty acids. All SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium with the commonly reported rs174537 SNP in FADS1. Minor allele carriers for rs174537 (GT+TT) had reduced 20:4n-6 (p = 1.74E-5), lower delta-5 desaturase enzyme activity (p = 2.09E-9), and lower FADS1 gene expression (p = 0.03) compared to major GG carriers. Multivariate analysis revealed that 20:4n-6 and 20:3n-6 explained ~19% of the variance between rs174537 genotypes, while gene expression explained <7%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that rs174537 genotype can be distinguished with SAT fatty acids (AUC = 0.842), but not gene expression (AUC = 0.627). No differences in SAT inflammatory gene expression were observed between rs174537 genotypes. SAT 20:3n-6 levels were positively correlated with the expression of several inflammatory genes, and inversely correlated with FADS1 expression.

Conclusion: This study showed that FADS1 genotype is distinguished by SAT fatty acid profiles, but not inflammatory gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0169-zDOI Listing
August 2019

Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences in overweight and obese adults: Observational data from the DiOGenes study.

Appetite 2018 06 19;125:314-322. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy, overweight and obese volunteers. A subgroup of adult participants (n = 123) from the Diet Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (subgroup A) was recruited from across six European countries. Participants lost ≥8% of initial body weight during an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD). Subjective appetite and food preferences were measured before and after the LCD, in response to a standardized meal test, using visual analogue rating scales (VAS) and the Leeds Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). After the LCD, participants reported increased fullness (p < 0.05), decreased desire to eat (p < 0.05) and decreased prospective consumption (p < 0.05) after consuming the test meal. An interaction effect (visit x time) was found for hunger ratings (p < 0.05). Area under the curve (AUC) for hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption was decreased by 18.1%, 20.2% and 21.1% respectively whereas AUC for fullness increased by 13.9%. Preference for low-energy products measured by the Food Preference Checklist (FPC) decreased by 1.9% before the test meal and by 13.5% after the test meal (p < 0.05). High-carbohydrate and high-fat preference decreased by 11.4% and 16.2% before the test meal and by 17.4% and 22.7% after the meal (p < 0.05). No other effects were observed. These results suggest that LCD induced weight loss decreases the appetite perceptions of overweight volunteers whilst decreasing their preference for high-fat-, high-carbohydrate-, and low-energy products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.02.016DOI Listing
June 2018

Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study.

Nutrients 2017 Dec 6;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9121326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5748776PMC
December 2017

Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Women after Various Bariatric Operations.

Obes Facts 2016 13;9(6):410-423. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Institute of Endocrinology, Clinical Department, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objective: To compare the effects of biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB) on insulin sensitivity and secretion with the effects of laparoscopic gastric plication (P).

Methods: A total of 52 obese women (age 30-66 years) suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were prospectively recruited into three study groups: 16 BPD; 16 LAGB, and 20 P. Euglycemic clamps and mixed meal tolerance tests were performed before, at 1 month and at 6 months after bariatric surgery. Beta cell function derived from the meal test parameters was evaluated using mathematical modeling.

Results: Glucose disposal per kilogram of fat free mass (a marker of peripheral insulin sensitivity) increased significantly in all groups, especially after 1 month. Basal insulin secretion decreased significantly after all three types of operations, with the most marked decrease after BPD compared with P and LAGB. Total insulin secretion decreased significantly only following the BPD. Beta cell glucose sensitivity did not change significantly post-surgery in any of the study groups.

Conclusion: We documented similar improvement in insulin sensitivity in obese T2DM women after all three study operations during the 6-month postoperative follow-up. Notably, only BPD led to decreased demand on beta cells (decreased integrated insulin secretion), but without increasing the beta cell glucose sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000453000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5644812PMC
September 2017

A common variant near BDNF is associated with dietary calcium intake in adolescents.

Nutr Res 2015 Sep 16;35(9):766-73. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

Institute of Endocrinology, Národní 8, CZ-116 94 Prague, Czech Republic.

Specific targets for most obesity candidate genes discovered by genomewide association studies remain unknown. Such genes are often highly expressed in the hypothalamus, indicating their role in energy homeostasis. We aimed to evaluate the associations of selected gene variants with adiposity and dietary traits. Anthropometric parameters, fat mass, dietary intake (total energy, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, and calcium) and 10 gene variants (in/near TMEM18, SH2B1, KCTD15, PCSK1, BDNF, SEC16B, MC4R and FTO) were analyzed in 1953 Czech individuals aged 10.0 to 18.0 years (1035 nonoverweight and 918 overweight: body mass index [BMI] ≥90th percentile). Obesity risk alleles of TMEM18 rs7561317, SEC16B rs10913469, and FTO rs9939609 were related to increased body weight and BMI (P < .005). The FTO variant also showed a significant positive association with waist circumference and fat mass (P < .001). Overweight adolescents had a lower total energy intake (P < .001) but a higher percentage of fat (P = .009) and protein intake (P < .001) than the nonoverweight subjects. There was also a lower calcium intake in the overweight group (P < .001). An association with at least one component of dietary intake was found in 3 of 10 studied gene variants. The MC4R rs17782313 was associated negatively with protein (P = .012) and positively associated with fiber (P = .032) intakes. The obesity risk alleles of BDNF rs925946 and FTO rs9939609 were related to a lower calcium intake (P = .001 and .037). The effects of FTO and MC4R variants, however, disappeared after corrections for multiple testing. Our results suggest that the common BDNF variant may influence dietary calcium intake independent of BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2015.06.004DOI Listing
September 2015

WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: health-risk behaviours on nutrition and physical activity in 6-9-year-old schoolchildren.

Public Health Nutr 2015 Dec 1;18(17):3108-24. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

1Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course,WHO Regional Office for Europe,UN City,Marmorvej 51,DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø,Denmark.

Objective: To assess to what extent eight behavioural health risks related to breakfast and food consumption and five behavioural health risks related to physical activity, screen time and sleep duration are present among schoolchildren, and to examine whether health-risk behaviours are associated with obesity.

Design: Cross-sectional design as part of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (school year 2007/2008). Children's behavioural data were reported by their parents and children's weight and height measured by trained fieldworkers. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed.

Setting: Primary schools in Bulgaria, Lithuania, Portugal and Sweden; paediatric clinics in the Czech Republic.

Subjects: Nationally representative samples of 6-9-year-olds (n 15 643).

Results: All thirteen risk behaviours differed statistically significantly across countries. Highest prevalence estimates of risk behaviours were observed in Bulgaria and lowest in Sweden. Not having breakfast daily and spending screen time ≥2 h/d were clearly positively associated with obesity. The same was true for eating 'foods like pizza, French fries, hamburgers, sausages or meat pies' >3 d/week and playing outside <1 h/d. Surprisingly, other individual unhealthy eating or less favourable physical activity behaviours showed either no or significant negative associations with obesity. A combination of multiple less favourable physical activity behaviours showed positive associations with obesity, whereas multiple unhealthy eating behaviours combined did not lead to higher odds of obesity.

Conclusions: Despite a categorization based on international health recommendations, individual associations of the thirteen health-risk behaviours with obesity were not consistent, whereas presence of multiple physical activity-related risk behaviours was clearly associated with higher odds of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015001937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642225PMC
December 2015

WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: associations between sleep duration, screen time and food consumption frequencies.

BMC Public Health 2015 Apr 30;15:442. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Marmorvej 51, DK-2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Background: Both sleep duration and screen time have been suggested to affect children's diet, although in different directions and presumably through different pathways. The present cross-sectional study aimed to simultaneously investigate the associations between sleep duration, screen time and food consumption frequencies in children.

Methods: The analysis was based on 10 453 children aged 6-9 years from five European countries that participated in the World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Logistic multilevel models were used to assess associations of parent-reported screen time as well as sleep duration (exposure variables) with consumption frequencies of 16 food items (outcome variables). All models were adjusted for age, sex, outdoor play time, maximum educational level of parents and sleep duration or screen time, depending on the exposure under investigation.

Results: One additional hour of screen time was associated with increased consumption frequencies of 'soft drinks containing sugar' (1.28 [1.19;1.39]; odds ratio and 99% confidence interval), 'diet/light soft drinks' (1.21 [1.14;1.29]), 'flavoured milk' (1.18 [1.08;1.28]), 'candy bars or chocolate' (1.31 [1.22;1.40]), 'biscuits, cakes, doughnuts or pies' (1.22 [1.14;1.30]), 'potato chips (crisps), corn chips, popcorn or peanuts' (1.32 [1.20;1.45]), 'pizza, French fries (chips), hamburgers'(1.30 [1.18;1.43]) and with a reduced consumption frequency of 'vegetables (excluding potatoes)' (0.89 [0.83;0.95]) and 'fresh fruits' (0.91 [0.86;0.97]). Conversely, one additional hour of sleep duration was found to be associated with increased consumption frequencies of 'fresh fruits' (1.11 [1.04;1.18]) and 'vegetables (excluding potatoes)' (1.14 [1.07;1.23]).

Conclusion: The results suggest a potential relation between high screen time exposure and increased consumption frequencies of foods high in fat, free sugar or salt whereas long sleep duration may favourably be related to children's food choices. Both screen time and sleep duration are modifiable behaviours that may be tackled in childhood obesity prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1793-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440513PMC
April 2015

System model network for adipose tissue signatures related to weight changes in response to calorie restriction and subsequent weight maintenance.

PLoS Comput Biol 2015 Jan 15;11(1):e1004047. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), UMR1048, Obesity Research Laboratory, Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases (I2MC), Toulouse, France; University of Toulouse, UMR1048, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France.

Nutrigenomics investigates relationships between nutrients and all genome-encoded molecular entities. This holistic approach requires systems biology to scrutinize the effects of diet on tissue biology. To decipher the adipose tissue (AT) response to diet induced weight changes we focused on key molecular (lipids and transcripts) AT species during a longitudinal dietary intervention. To obtain a systems model, a network approach was used to combine all sets of variables (bio-clinical, fatty acids and mRNA levels) and get an overview of their interactions. AT fatty acids and mRNA levels were quantified in 135 obese women at baseline, after an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) and after 6 months of ad libitum weight maintenance diet (WMD). After LCD, individuals were stratified a posteriori according to weight change during WMD. A 3 steps approach was used to infer a global model involving the 3 sets of variables. It consisted in inferring intra-omic networks with sparse partial correlations and inter-omic networks with regularized canonical correlation analysis and finally combining the obtained omic-specific network in a single global model. The resulting networks were analyzed using node clustering, systematic important node extraction and cluster comparisons. Overall, AT showed both constant and phase-specific biological signatures in response to dietary intervention. AT from women regaining weight displayed growth factors, angiogenesis and proliferation signaling signatures, suggesting unfavorable tissue hyperplasia. By contrast, after LCD a strong positive relationship between AT myristoleic acid (a fatty acid with low AT level) content and de novo lipogenesis mRNAs was found. This relationship was also observed, after WMD, in the group of women that continued to lose weight. This original system biology approach provides novel insight in the AT response to weight control by highlighting the central role of myristoleic acid that may account for the beneficial effects of weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295881PMC
January 2015

[Overweight, obesity and underweight prevalence in 7-year-old children in the Czech Republic since 1951].

Cas Lek Cesk 2014 ;153(6):271-6

Background: Childhood overweight prevalence increases worldwide. The aim of the study was to clarify the change in underweight, overweight and obesity in seven year old Czech children since 1951.

Methods: Data on underweight, overweight and obesity prevalence were obtained using repeated cross-sectional surveys. In 1951-2001 six Czech National Anthropological Surveys were conducted. In years 2008 and 2010 the data were collected as a part of the WHO Europe initiated Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). The data were evaluated according to WHO references (2007), in 2010 results were assessed also according to the Czech reference standards (1991).

Results: From 1951, overweight and obesity prevalence increased in both genders up to 2001. In 2008, a modest decrease in obesity and stable overweight prevalence in girls and in boys a slight increase in obesity and decrease in overweight were found. In 2010, a modest increase in obesity prevalence in girls achieving the levels assessed in 2001 and stable level of overweight were found; in boys the levels remained as in 2008. BMI z score increased significantly between 1951 and 2001.

Conclusion: These results suggest stabilisation of obesity and overweight prevalence in the Czech Republic in 7 years old children during the last 10 years. Underweight prevalence has remained low.
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October 2015

Glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance: prevalence, gender differences and predictors in adolescents.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2014 16;6(1):100. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Institute of Endocrinology, Obesity Management Center, Národní 8, 116 94 Prague 1, Czech Republic.

Background: Adolescence, due to transient pubertal insulin resistance (IR), is associated with a higher risk for disturbances of glucose metabolism. The aim of our study was 1) to investigate the prevalence of disturbances of glucose metabolism, 2) to define gender specific homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) thresholds associated with increased cardiometabolic risks and 3) to provide predictors of HOMA-IR.

Methods: The studied cohort consisted of Czech adolescents aged 13.0-17.9 years: 1,518 individuals of general population and three studied groups according weight category (615 normal weight, 230 overweight and 683 obese). The prevalence of IR, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes was assessed. Risky HOMA-IR thresholds based on components of metabolic syndrome were investigated. HOMA-IR prediction was calculated taking into account age, blood pressure, multiple anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal parameters.

Results: In general population cohort, the prevalence of IFG and type 2 diabetes was 7.0% and <0.5%, respectively. Boys regardless of weight presented significantly higher levels of blood glucose and higher prevalence of IFG than girls. Obese boys were found more insulin resistant than obese girls. HOMA-IR thresholds of 3.6 for girls and 4.4 for boys were associated with increased cardiometabolic risks. For both genders, the model of HOMA-IR prediction was composed of age, BMI, ratio of free triiodthyronine to free thyroxine, gamma-glutamyltransferase activity and levels of triglycerides and sex hormone-binding globulin.

Conclusions: The type 2 diabetes in adolescents, including those who were obese, was rarely diagnosed. Obese adolescent boys were at greater risk for IR and for IFG than obese girls. In adolescence, thresholds of HOMA-IR in contrast to predictors were found gender specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1758-5996-6-100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4240882PMC
November 2014

WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School nutrition environment and body mass index in primary schools.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014 Oct 30;11(11):11261-85. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Marmorvej 51, DK-2100 Copenhagen ø, Denmark.

Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention.

Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated.

Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z-score was not observed.

Conclusions: Some European countries have implemented more school policies that are supportive to a healthy nutrition environment than others. However, most countries with low school nutrition environment scores also host schools with supportive school environment policies, suggesting that a uniform school policy to tackle the "unhealthy" school nutrition environment has not been implemented at the same level throughout a country and may underline the need for harmonized school policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111111261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4245612PMC
October 2014

[Genetic background in common forms of obesity - from studies on identical twins to candidate genes of obesity].

Cas Lek Cesk 2014 ;153(4):193-9

Common obesity is a result of interaction between genes and environmental/lifestyle factors, with heritability estimates 40-70%. Not only the susceptibility to obesity but also the success of weight management depends on the genetic background of each individual. This paper summarizes the up-to-date knowledge on genetic causes of common obesities. Introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) led to an identification of a total of 32 variants associated with obesity/BMI and 14 with body fat distribution. Further, a great progress in revealing the mechanisms regulating the energy balance was also noted. However, the proportion of explained variance for BMI is still low, suggesting other mechanisms such as gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, rare gene variants, copy number variants polymorphisms, or epigenetic modifications and microRNAs regulating gene transcription. In summary, we present results of our studies on obesity risk variants in Czech adults, children and adolescents including those evaluating the influence of selected gene variants on the outcomes of weight management.
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October 2015

WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

BMC Public Health 2014 Aug 7;14:806. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Life-course, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Marmorvej 51, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Ø, Denmark.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007/2008 to 2009/2010.

Methods: Using cross-sectional nationally representative samples of 6-9-year-olds, BMI, anthropometric Z-scores and overweight prevalence were derived from measured weight and height. Significant changes between rounds were assessed using variance and t-tests analyses.

Results: At Round 2, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity; WHO definitions) ranged from 18% to 57% among boys and from 18% to 50% among girls; 6 - 31% of boys and 5 - 21% of girls were obese. Southern European countries had the highest overweight prevalence. Between rounds, the absolute change in mean BMI (range: from -0.4 to +0.3) and BMI-for-age Z-scores (range: from -0.21 to +0.14) varied statistically significantly across countries. The highest significant decrease in BMI-for-age Z-scores was found in countries with higher absolute BMI values and the highest significant increase in countries with lower BMI values. The highest significant decrease in overweight prevalence was observed in Italy, Portugal and Slovenia and the highest significant increase in Latvia and Norway.

Conclusions: Changes in BMI and prevalence of overweight over a two-year period varied significantly among European countries. It may be that countries with higher prevalence of overweight in COSI Round 1 have implemented interventions to try to remedy this situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4289284PMC
August 2014

Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome.

Nutrition 2014 Apr 23;30(4):410-7. Epub 2013 Dec 23.

Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine & Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Objectives: We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.

Methods: Secondary analyses were performed within the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (2006-2008), a randomized controlled dietary intervention. Nine hundred and thirty-eight overweight and obese adults from eight European countries entered an 8-wk low-calorie-diet period. Seven hundred and seventy-three adults who lost at least 8% of their body weights were randomized to one of five ad libitum diets for 6 mo: 1) low-protein (LP)/low-GI (LGI); 2) LP/high-GI (HGI); 3) high-protein (HP)/LGI; 4) HP/HGI; and 5) control diet. MetSyn prevalence and a standardized MetSyn score were assessed at baseline, after the low-calorie diet, and after the intervention.

Results: Weight loss among participants while on the low-calorie diet significantly reduced MetSyn prevalence (33.9% versus 15.9%; P < 0.001) and MetSyn score (-1.48 versus -4.45; P < 0.001). During weight maintenance, significant changes in MetSyn score were observed between the groups, with the highest increase detected in the LP/HGI group (P = 0.039, partial η(2) = 0.023). Protein, GI, and their interaction did not have isolated effects on study outcomes.

Conclusions: Neither protein nor GI affected MetSyn status in this sample of European overweight and obese adults. However, a diet with a combination of an increased protein-to-carbohydrate ratio with low-GI foods had beneficial effects on MetSyn factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2013.09.001DOI Listing
April 2014

Laparoscopic greater curvature plication in morbidly obese women with type 2 diabetes: effects on glucose homeostasis, postprandial triglyceridemia and selected gut hormones.

Obes Surg 2014 May;24(5):718-26

Institute of Endocrinology, Narodni 8, Prague 1, 116 94, Czech Republic,

Background: Laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP) is an emerging bariatric procedure that reduces the gastric volume without implantable devices or gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to explore changes in glucose homeostasis, postprandial triglyceridemia, and meal-stimulated secretion of selected gut hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, and obestatin] in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at 1 and 6 months after the procedure.

Methods: Thirteen morbidly obese T2DM women (mean age, 53.2 ± 8.76 years; body mass index, 40.1 ± 4.59 kg/m2) were prospectively investigated before the LGCP and at 1- and 6-month follow-up. At these time points, all study patients underwent a standardized liquid mixed-meal test, and blood was sampled for assessment of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, triglycerides, GIP, GLP-1, ghrelin, and obestatin.

Results: All patients had significant weight loss both at 1 and 6 months after the LGCP (p ≤ 0.002), with mean percent excess weight loss (%EWL) reaching 29.7 ± 2.9% at the 6-month follow-up. Fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia improved significantly at 6 months after the LGCP (p < 0.05), with parallel improvement in insulin sensitivity and HbA1c levels (p < 0.0001). Meal-induced glucose plasma levels were significantly lower at 6 months after the LGCP (p < 0.0001), and postprandial triglyceridemia was also ameliorated at the 6-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Postprandial GIP plasma levels were significantly increased both at 1 and 6 months after the LGCP (p < 0.0001), whereas the overall meal-induced GLP-1 response was not significantly changed after the procedure (p > 0.05). Postprandial ghrelin plasma levels decreased at 1 and 6 months after the LGCP (p < 0.0001) with no significant changes in circulating obestatin levels.

Conclusion: During the initial 6-month postoperative period, LGCP induces significant weight loss and improves the metabolic profile of morbidly obese T2DM patients, while it also decreases circulating postprandial ghrelin levels and increases the meal-induced GIP response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-013-1143-4DOI Listing
May 2014

Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

Br J Nutr 2014 Mar 30;111(5):944-53. Epub 2013 Oct 30.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513003322DOI Listing
March 2014

Lifestyle intervention discloses an association of the Eating Inventory-51 factors with cardiometabolic health risks.

Eat Weight Disord 2013 Mar 29;18(1):83-6. Epub 2013 Mar 29.

Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Národní 8, Prague 1, 116 94, Czech Republic,

Factors of the Eating Inventory-51 (EI) were revealed as significant predictors of health risks. Associations of EI factors (restraint, disinhibition, hunger) with cardiometabolic risk parameters and selected hormones were analysed before and after an in-patient weight reduction programme. Sixty-seven women (age: 48.7 ± 12.2 years; body mass index: 32.4 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)), who exhibited stable weight on a 7 MJ/day diet during the first week, obtained a 4.5 MJ/day diet over the subsequent 3-week period. No significant relations were observed before the weight reduction. After weight loss, restraint score negatively correlated with total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, C peptide, insulin and neuropeptide Y. Hunger score was positively related to insulin and neuropeptide Y. Disinhibition score correlated positively with lipid profile and neuropeptide Y, while negatively with adiponectin. An implementation of a standard dietary and lifestyle pattern for 3 weeks revealed significant associations between EI factors and metabolic risks in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-013-0001-7DOI Listing
March 2013

A multicentre weight loss study using a low-calorie diet over 8 weeks: regional differences in efficacy across eight European cities.

Swiss Med Wkly 2013 21;143:w13721. Epub 2013 Jan 21.

Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine & Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Principles: The efficacy of low-calorie diets (LCDs) has not been investigated in large-scale studies or among people from different regions, who are perhaps unaccustomed to such methods of losing weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in obesity measures among overweight/obese adults from eight European cities (from Northern, Central and Southern Europe) during the 8-week LCD phase of the DiOGenes study (2006-2007), a family-based, randomised, controlled dietary intervention.

Methods: 938 overweight/obese adults completed baseline examinations and underwent an 8-week LCD, providing 3.3-4.2 MJ/day to replace all meals. Anthropometric measurements and body composition were assessed at baseline and post-LCD.

Results: 773 (82.4%) adults (mean age, 43.1 y) completed the LCD successfully. The highest drop-out rate was observed in Southern (24.9%) and the lowest in Northern (13.3%) European cities. Overall, the LCD induced favourable changes in all outcomes, including an approximate 11.0% reduction in body weight and body fat percentage. Changes in outcomes differed significantly between regions, with North- and Central-European cities generally achieving higher percentage reductions in most anthropometric measurements assessed. Nonetheless, participants in Southern Europe reduced their body fat percentage significantly more than participants in Northern Europe (-11.8 vs. -9.5%, P = 0.017).

Conclusions: The LCD significantly improved anthropometric and body composition measurements in all cities participating in DiOGenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2013.13721DOI Listing
July 2013

TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

PLoS One 2012 27;7(8):e43212. Epub 2012 Aug 27.

Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Background: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.

Methods And Findings: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (

Registration: ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat%) in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6) greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1) greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007). The replication study showed a similar (non-significant) interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i) the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii) the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii) the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i) the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii) the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii) some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed.

Conclusions: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0043212PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428346PMC
February 2013
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