Publications by authors named "Marie Jaksch"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Ischemia-reperfusion injury and pregnancy initiate time-dependent and robust signs of up-regulation of cardiac progenitor cells.

PLoS One 2012 9;7(5):e36804. Epub 2012 May 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

To explore how cardiac regeneration and cell turnover adapts to disease, different forms of stress were studied for their effects on the cardiac progenitor cell markers c-Kit and Isl1, the early cardiomyocyte marker Nkx2.5, and mast cells. Adult female rats were examined during pregnancy, after myocardial infarction and ischemia-reperfusion injury with/out insulin like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Different cardiac sub-domains were analyzed at one and two weeks post-intervention, both at the mRNA and protein levels. While pregnancy and myocardial infarction up-regulated Nkx2.5 and c-Kit (adjusted for mast cell activation), ischemia-reperfusion injury induced the strongest up-regulation which occurred globally throughout the entire heart and not just around the site of injury. This response seems to be partly mediated by increased endogenous production of IGF-1 and HGF. Contrary to c-Kit, Isl1 was not up-regulated by pregnancy or myocardial infarction while ischemia-reperfusion injury induced not a global but a focal up-regulation in the outflow tract and also in the peri-ischemic region, correlating with the up-regulation of endogenous IGF-1. The addition of IGF-1 and HGF did boost the endogenous expression of IGF and HGF correlating to focal up-regulation of Isl1. c-Kit expression was not further influenced by the exogenous growth factors. This indicates that there is a spatial mismatch between on one hand c-Kit and Nkx2.5 expression and on the other hand Isl1 expression. In conclusion, ischemia-reperfusion injury was the strongest stimulus with both global and focal cardiomyocyte progenitor cell marker up-regulations, correlating to the endogenous up-regulation of the growth factors IGF-1 and HGF. Also pregnancy induced a general up-regulation of c-Kit and early Nkx2.5+ cardiomyocytes throughout the heart. Utilization of these pathways could provide new strategies for the treatment of cardiac disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0036804PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3348899PMC
September 2012

Generation of hepatocyte-like cells from in vitro transdifferentiated human fetal pancreas.

Cell Transplant 2009 ;18(2):183-93

Division of Transplantation Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Although the appearance of hepatic foci in the pancreas has been described in animal experiments and in human pathology, evidence for the conversion of human pancreatic cells to liver cells is still lacking. We therefore investigated the developmental plasticity between human embryonic pancreatic cells and liver cells. Cells were isolated and expanded from 7-8-week-old human fetal pancreata (HFP) and were characterized for the absence and presence of pancreatic and hepatic markers. In vitro expanded HFP were treated with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and dexamethasone (DX) to induce a liver phenotye in the cells. These treated cells in various passages were further studied for their capacity to be functional in hepatic parenchyma following retrorsine-induced injury in nude C57 black mice. Amylase- and EPCAM-positive-enriched cells isolated from HFP and treated with FGF2 and DX lost expression of pancreatic markers and gained a liver phenotype. Hepatic differentiation was based on the expression (both at the mRNA and protein level) of liver markers albumin and cytokeratin 19. When transplanted in vivo into nude mice treated with retrorsine, both cell types successfully engrafted and functionally differentiated into hepatic cells expressing human albumin, glycogen, dipeptidyl peptidase, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. These data indicate that human fetal pancreatic cells have a capacity to alter their gene expression profile in response to exogenous treatment with FGF2 and DX. It may be possible to generate an unlimited supply of hepatocytes in vitro for cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096368909788341333DOI Listing
August 2009

Evidence for no relevance of anti-major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain a antibodies in liver transplantation.

Liver Transpl 2008 Dec;14(12):1793-802

Division of Clinical Immunology, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) antigen is being increasingly recognized as a potential target molecule for immune cells during allograft rejection. Here we studied whether MICA is a target antigen for antibodies in liver transplant patients. Eighty-four patients were investigated for the presence of MICA antibodies before and after liver transplantation with MICA-transfected cells and flow cytometry. MICA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Expression of MICA in liver cells was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. Liver biopsy specimens from liver transplant patients were examined for MICA expression. A total of 22 of 84 (26%) patients had MICA antibodies either pre-transplant (8/84, 9.5%) or post-transplant (14/84, 17%). No correlation between rejection frequencies (14/22, 63%) or other clinical parameters was observed in patients with MICA antibody versus those without MICA antibody (29/62, 47% P = not significant). We found weak messenger RNA expression for MICA in liver cells but no protein or cell surface expression. In addition, no MICA expression in liver biopsy sections from liver transplant patients was observed at any time point, including rejections. Thus, our preliminary results demonstrate no causal relationship between the presence of MICA antibodies and liver allograft rejections. Therefore, it is likely that MICA may not be an important target antigen during liver allograft rejections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.21620DOI Listing
December 2008

Cell cycle-dependent variation of a CD133 epitope in human embryonic stem cell, colon cancer, and melanoma cell lines.

Cancer Res 2008 Oct;68(19):7882-6

Tumor Development Program, Cancer Research Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92035, USA.

CD133 (Prominin1) is a pentaspan transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in several stem cell populations and cancers. Reactivity with an antibody (AC133) to a glycoslyated form of CD133 has been widely used for the enrichment of cells with tumor-initiating activity in xenograph transplantation assays. We have found by fluorescence-activated cell sorting that increased AC133 reactivity in human embryonic stem cells, colon cancer, and melanoma cells is correlated with increased DNA content and, reciprocally, that the least reactive cells are in the G(1)-G(0) portion of the cell cycle. Continued cultivation of cells sorted on the basis of high and low AC133 reactivity results in a normalization of the cell reactivity profiles, indicating that cells with low AC133 reactivity can generate highly reactive cells as they resume proliferation. The association of AC133 with actively cycling cells may contribute to the basis for enrichment for tumor-initiating activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2561223PMC
October 2008

Biliary epithelial cell antibodies link adaptive and innate immune responses in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Gastroenterology 2007 Apr 25;132(4):1504-14. Epub 2007 Jan 25.

Division of Transplantation Surgery, Division of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background & Aims: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an autoimmune liver disease with destruction of hepatic bile ducts. A high frequency of biliary epithelial cell antibodies (BEC-Ab) is present in PSC. Here, we studied the mechanisms and signaling pathways used by these Ab in causing BEC dysfunction.

Methods: Immunoassays were performed using freshly isolated BECs to study the signaling capacity of purified immunoglobulin (Ig) G and F(ab)'(2) fractions from 33 patients with PSC with anti-BEC-Ab.

Results: We provide evidence that stimulation of BECs with PSC IgG, but not control IgG, induced expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR9 and specific phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 as well as the transcription factors ELK-1 and nuclear factor kappaB. A specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 abrogated phosphorylation of ELK-1 and protein expression of TLR4 but not TLR9 on BECs. TLR-expressing BECs, when further stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and CpG DNA, produced high levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-8, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor beta. Bile ducts stained positively for TLR4 and TLR9 in 58% of liver specimens taken from patients with PSC with BEC-Ab, as compared with 14% in those without BEC-Ab and also less frequently in diseased control livers.

Conclusions: Our data show that binding of PSC BEC-Ab initiates ERK1/2 signaling and up-regulation of TLR, which upon ligation induces BECs to produce cytokines/chemokines, leading to the possible recruitment of inflammatory cells. Thus, in PSC, BECs are not only targets of the immune attack but may also be active participants and mediators of their own destruction. BEC-Ab may be critical regulators of cholangitis in PSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2007.01.039DOI Listing
April 2007

Characterization of cells in the developing human liver.

Differentiation 2005 Jun;73(5):249-60

Division of Transplantation Surgery B56, Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, S-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.

Human hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) have been shown to co-express the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) markers, CD117 and CD34. These cells differentiate not only into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes but also into pancreatic ductal and acinar cells under certain conditions. The fetal liver (FL) is rich in precursor/stem cells; however, little is known about (i) the markers expressed by liver cells during fetal development and (ii) whether an equivalent to the adult liver stem-like progenitors exists in the FL. Here, (i) FL tissue obtained from human 5-18-week-old fetuses were evaluated by means of flow cytometry, immunocyto-, and histochemistry for the emergence of cells expressing and co-expressing known hematopoietic, hepatic, and pancreatic cell markers, and (ii) isolated putative HPCs were phenotypically and molecularly characterized. We report that (i) red blood and endothelial cell precursors were most abundant in early gestation. Cells expressing HSC and pancreatic markers were found in the first trimester, while cells expressing hepatic markers appeared in the second trimester. Very few committed cells were present in FLs obtained early in the first trimester. In addition, cells expressing pancreatic markers co-expressed the HSC marker CD117. (ii) Isolated CD117+/CD34+/CD90- cells in vitro expressed both the genes and proteins for the hepatic markers such as albumin, alpha feto protein (AFP), alpha1-antitrypsin, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19). Our study suggests that hepatoblast and ductal plate/bile duct development mainly occurs during the second trimester. FLs in gestation weeks 5-9 had the highest numbers of precursor cells and the least committed cells. Cells that differentiate into Alb+ or CK19+ can be isolated from early FLs and may be appropriate progenitors for establishing novel systems to investigate basic mechanisms for cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-0436.2005.00019.xDOI Listing
June 2005

Molecular monitoring of T-cell chimerism early after allogeneic stem cell transplantation may predict the occurrence of acute GVHD grades II-IV.

Clin Transplant 2005 Jun;19(3):346-9

Division of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Mixed chimerism (MC) within CD4+ and CD8+ T cell days 7 and 10 after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) was compared with the occurrence of acute graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) in 34 patients after SCT. Acute GVHD was diagnosed in 22 patients within the first 3 months after SCT, 15 of these developed acute GVHD grades II-IV. The difference in the clearance rate of host T cell between the two days were compared. We found a significantly higher risk (p = 0.005) for developing acute GVHD grades II-IV in patients with complete donor CD4+ T-cell chimerism day 7 after SCT together with patients who increased 50% or more in donor CD4+ T cells between days 7 and 10 after SCT. Our data suggest that molecular monitoring of MC early after transplantation may be useful as a diagnostic tool in predicting the occurrence of moderate to severe acute GVHD after SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-0012.2005.00345.xDOI Listing
June 2005

Increased gene expression of chemokine receptors is correlated with acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2005 Apr;11(4):280-7

Division of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still a major complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is initiated by infiltrating donor T cells specific against the host antigens. Because T-cell migration is largely controlled by the expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors, we investigated the relation of acute GVHD and chemokine receptor expression in peripheral blood in 50 patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The gene expression of the chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR3 was monitored by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among the 36 patients diagnosed with acute GVHD, 10 developed a second episode of acute GVHD. Therefore, gene-expression levels could be analyzed in 46 occasions of acute GVHD. When all 4 markers were evaluated at the same time, increased gene-expression levels of at least 1 of the 4 markers were seen in 44 of 46 episodes of acute GVHD. The median increase of the 4 markers ranged from 3x to 12x in connection with acute GVHD. It is interesting to note that we saw increasing gene-expression levels a few days before acute GVHD was diagnosed clinically at 17, 15, 22, and 19 occasions for CCR5, CXCR3, CCR1, and CCR2, respectively. The median number of days before diagnosis ranged from 3 to 5. Although they are not specific for acute GVHD, quantitative monitoring of the gene expression of chemokine receptors may be a valuable molecular method to monitor and diagnose acute GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.01.004DOI Listing
April 2005

Increased immune transcript levels are correlated with acute graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus response after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Transplantation 2004 Jan;77(2):195-200

Division of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska Institutet at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Donor T cells are primarily responsible for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Three effector pathways have been described for T-cell cytotoxicity: granzyme B/perforin, Fas/Fas ligand (FasL), and secreted molecules such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Therefore, this study evaluates the gene expression pattern in the peripheral blood of patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and correlates the results to acute GVHD.

Methods: Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the gene expression of granzyme B, perforin, FasL, and TNF-alpha in peripheral blood from 53 patients.

Results: Samples were available from 27 of the 38 patients with acute GVHD diagnoses. Increased gene expression (>50%) during acute GVHD was detected in 23 of 27, 26 of 27, and 24 of 27 patients for granzyme B, perforin, and FasL, respectively. TNF-alpha showed a diffuse correlation. The median increases were as follows: granzyme B, 7.2x (1.6-183.2); perforin, 5.8x (1.6-254.9); and FasL, 8.5x (1.5-895.6). We also showed that all of the 10 patients with increasing levels of granzyme B, perforin, and FasL during steroid treatment demonstrated persistent or deteriorating GVHD. Patients with increasing transcription levels during cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation responded significantly better to therapy than those with declining levels. A total of 13 of 17 patients with increasing levels versus 0 of 11 patients with decreasing levels responded well to CMV treatment (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Although not specific for acute GVHD, quantitative assessment of immune transcripts may be of value in diagnosing and monitoring acute GVHD. It may also serve as a guide for the clinician in detecting patients who respond poorly to CMV therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.TP.0000100465.83529.42DOI Listing
January 2004

Minimal residual disease detection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is correlated to relapse in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2003 Sep;122(5):788-94

Department of Clinical Immunology and Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska Institutet at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessments were performed retrospectively after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in 32 patients (23 children and nine adults) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Using immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor rearrangements as clonal markers, MRD was detected after SCT in nine patients, eight of whom have relapsed. The median time between first MRD detection and relapse was 5.5 (range 0.5-30) months. In 23 patients without MRD, six have relapsed to date: lower sensitivity, central nervous system relapse and clonal exchange of the leukaemic clone were factors that may explain the failure to detect MRD before relapse in these patients. In univariate analysis, factors associated with decreased risk of relapse were transplantation in first remission (P=0.02), the combination of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.03) and absence of MRD after SCT (P=0.005). In multivariate analysis, only MRD detection after SCT was significantly associated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.05). In conclusion, MRD detection after SCT is correlated with relapse and provides the opportunity for initiating immunotherapeutic intervention at an early stage when the tumour cell burden is still low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04495.xDOI Listing
September 2003

Serum levels of cytokines correlate to donor chimerism and acute graft-vs.-host disease after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Eur J Haematol 2003 Jun;70(6):384-91

Department of Clinical Immunology and Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Some patients become full donor chimeras (DC) early after stem-cell transplantation (SCT), while others remain mixed chimeras for a longer time. Little is known about the mechanism behind these phenomena.

Methods: Serum cytokine levels during conditioning and during the first month after SCT were analysed in 30 patients. Of the 21 patients who became full T-cell DC from the first analysed sample, 12 developed grade II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and the other nine, mild or no acute GVHD. Another nine patients were T-cell mixed chimeras (MC). All MC patients had no or mild acute GVHD.

Results: During the pretransplant conditioning, DC patients had higher levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and lower levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and interleukin (IL)-10, compared with MC patients. During the first week after SCT, lower levels of TGF-beta and IL-10 and higher levels of soluble Fas (sFas) were found in DC patients compared with MC patients. During the second and third weeks after SCT, increased levels of TNF-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma and sFas were found among DC patients compared with MC patients. Patients who developed moderate-to-severe acute GVHD had higher levels of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-10 and sFas at 2 weeks post-SCT than in those with less GVHD. Patients homozygous for the TNFd microsatellite alleles 3 or 4 had significantly higher TNF-alpha levels during conditioning and more often developed acute GVHD grades II-IV.

Conclusion: These results indicate that an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and immune- modulating cytokines are involved in the development of chimerism and acute GVHD after allo-SCT. The Fas/FasL pathway is probably involved in the elimination of recipient cells leading to full donor chimerism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0609.2003.00078.xDOI Listing
June 2003