Publications by authors named "Marie J M Vanhoof"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional signals and covariation in triquetrum and hamate shape of extant primates using 3D geometric morphometrics.

J Morphol 2021 Sep 20;282(9):1382-1401. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Development & Regeneration, Biomedical Sciences Group, KU Leuven Campus Kulak, Kortrijk, Belgium.

In this study, we want to investigate the covariation in the shape of two carpal bones, the triquetrum and hamate, and the possible association with locomotor behavior in a broad range of primate taxa. We applied 3D Geometric Morphometrics on a large data set comprising 309 anthropoid primates of 12 different genera. Principal component analyses were performed on the covariance matrix of 18 (triquetrum) and 23 (hamate) Procrustes-aligned surface landmarks. A two-block partial least square analysis was done to test the covariance between triquetrum and hamate shape, without relying on the predictive models implicit in regression analyses. The results show that the carpal shape of quadrupedal anthropoids, which mainly use their wrist under compressive conditions, differs from that of suspensory primates as their wrist is possibly subjected to tensile and torsional forces. Within the hominids, differences in shape also distinguish more terrestrial from more arboreal species. Even within the great apes, we are able to capture shape differences between species of the same genus. In combination with behavioral and biomechanical studies, the results of this research can be used to establish form-function relationships of the primate hand which will aid the functional interpretation of primate fossil remains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.21393DOI Listing
September 2021

The forearm and hand musculature of semi-terrestrial rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and arboreal gibbons (fam.Hylobatidae). Part II. Quantitative analysis.

J Anat 2021 02 4;238(2):321-337. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Muscles & Movement, Biomedical Sciences Group, KU Leuven Campus Kulak, Kortrijk, Belgium.

Nonhuman primates have a highly diverse locomotor repertoire defined by an equally diverse hand use. Based on how primates use their hands during locomotion, we can distinguish between terrestrial and arboreal taxa. The 'arboreal' hand is likely adapted towards high wrist mobility and grasping, whereas the 'terrestrial' hand will show adaptations to loading. While the morphology of the forearm and hand bones have been studied extensively, functional adaptations in the forearm and hand musculature to locomotor behaviour have been documented only scarcely. In this paper, we investigate the forelimb musculature of the highly arboreal gibbons (including Hylobates lar,Hylobates pileatus,Nomascus leucogenys,Nomascus concolor and Symphalangus syndactylus) and compare this with the musculature of the semi-terrestrial rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Anatomical data from previous dissections on knuckle-walking bonobos (Pan paniscus) and bipedal humans (Homo sapiens) are also included to further integrate the analyses in the scope of catarrhine hand adaptation. This study indicates that the overall configuration of the arm and hand musculature of these primates is very similar but there are some apparent differences in relative size which can be linked to differences in forelimb function and which might be related to their specific locomotor behaviour. In macaques, there is a large development of wrist deviators, wrist and digital flexors, and m. triceps brachii, as these muscles are important during the different phases of palmi- and digitigrade quadrupedal walking to stabilize the wrist and elbow. In addition, their m. flexor carpi ulnaris is the most important contributor to the total force-generating capacity of the wrist flexors and deviators, and is needed to counteract the adducting torque at the elbow joint during quadrupedal walking. Gibbons show a relatively high force-generating capacity in their forearm rotators, wrist and digital flexors, which are important muscles in brachiation to actively regulate forward movement of the body. The results also stress the importance of the digital flexors in bonobos, during climbing and clambering, and in humans, which is likely linked to our advanced manipulation skills.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812139PMC
February 2021

The forearm and hand musculature of semi-terrestrial rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and arboreal gibbons (Fam. Hylobatidae). Part I. Description and comparison of the muscle configuration.

J Anat 2020 10 8;237(4):774-790. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Dept. of Development & Regeneration, Biomedical Sciences Group, KU Leuven Campus Kulak, Kortrijk, Belgium.

Primates live in very diverse environments and, as a consequence, show an equally diverse locomotor behaviour. During locomotion, the primate hand interacts with the superstrate and/or substrate and will therefore probably show adaptive signals linked with this locomotor behaviour. Whereas the morphology of the forearm and hand bones have been studied extensively, the functional adaptations in the hand musculature have been documented only scarcely. To evaluate whether there are potential adaptations in forelimb musculature to locomotor behaviour, we investigated the forearm and hand musculature of the highly arboreal gibbons (including Hylobates lar, Hylobates pileatus, Nomascus leucogenys, Nomascus concolor, Symphalangus syndactylus) and compared this with the musculature of the semi-terrestrial rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) by performing complete and detailed dissections on a sample of 15 unembalmed specimens. We found that the overall configuration of the upper arm and hand musculature is highly comparable between arboreal gibbons and semi-terrestrial macaques, and follows the general primate condition. Most of the identified differences in muscle configuration are located in the forearm. In macaques, a prominent m. epitrochleoanconeus is present, which potentially helps to extend the forearm and/or stabilize the elbow joint during quadrupedal walking. The m. flexor carpi radialis shows a more radial insertion in gibbons, which might be advantageous during brachiation, as it can aid radial deviation. The fingers of macaques are controlled in pairs by the m. extensor digiti secondi et tertii proprius and the m. extensor digiti quarti et quinti proprius-a similar organization can also be found in their flexors-which might aid in efficient positioning of the hand and fingers on uneven substrates during quadrupedal walking. In contrast, extension of the little finger in gibbons is controlled by a separate m. extensor digiti minimi, whereas digits 2 to 4 are extended by the m. extensor digitorum brevis, suggesting that simultaneous extension of digits 2-4 in gibbons might be important when reaching or grasping an overhead support during brachiation. In conclusion, the overall configuration of the forelimb and hand musculature is very similar in gibbons and macaques, with some peculiarities which can be linked to differences in forelimb function and which might be related to the specific locomotor behaviour of each group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495296PMC
October 2020

Insights into the musculature of the bonobo hand.

J Anat 2018 Jun 25. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Muscles & Movement, Biomedical Sciences Group, University of Leuven Campus Kulak, Kortrijk, Belgium.

The human hand is well known for its unique dexterity which is largely facilitated by a highly mobile, long and powerful thumb that enables both tool manufacturing and use, a key component of human evolution. The bonobo (Pan paniscus), the closest extant relative to modern humans together with the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also possesses good manipulative capabilities but with a lower level of dexterity compared with modern humans. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship between bonobos and humans, detailed quantitative data of the bonobo forelimb musculature remains largely lacking. To understand how morphology may influence dexterity, we investigated the functional anatomy of the bonobo hand using a unique sample of eight bonobo cadavers, along with one chimpanzee and one human (Homo sapiens) cadaver. We performed detailed dissections of unembalmed specimens to collect quantitative datasets of the extrinsic and intrinsic hand musculature, in addition to qualitative descriptions of the forelimb muscle configurations, allowing estimation of force-generating capacities for each functional group. Furthermore, we used medical imaging to quantify the articular surface of the trapeziometacarpal joint to estimate the intra-articular pressure. Our results show that the force-generating capacity for most functional groups of the extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles in bonobos is largely similar to that of humans, with differences in relative importance of the extensors and rotators. The bonobo thumb musculature has a lower force-generating capacity than observed in the human specimen, but the estimated maximal intra-articular pressure is higher in bonobos. Most importantly, bonobos show a higher degree of functional coupling between the muscles of the thumb, index and lateral fingers than observed in humans. It is conceivable that differentiation and individualization of the hand muscles rather than relative muscle development explain the higher level of dexterity of humans compared with that of bonobos.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081514PMC
June 2018
-->