Publications by authors named "Marie G Gantz"

66 Publications

Association between the urogenital microbiome and surgical treatment response in women undergoing midurethral sling operation for mixed urinary incontinence.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Background: The urogenital microbiome is associated with urgency and mixed urinary incontinence symptoms and differential treatment responses to pharmacotherapy for urgency urinary incontinence.

Objective: This study aimed to describe whether the preoperative urinary and vaginal microbiomes were associated with surgical treatment responses at 12 months after a midurethral sling operation in women with mixed urinary incontinence.

Study Design: This cohort study compared the preoperative microbiome compositions of urine and vaginal samples from a subset of women undergoing a midurethral sling operation in the Effects of Surgical Treatment Enhanced With Exercise for Mixed Urinary Incontinence trial (NCT01959347) and compared the microbiota in women who were surgical responders vs surgical nonresponders. Twelve-month objective response was defined as a ≥70% reduction from baseline urinary incontinence episodes on a 3-day diary. Subjective response was defined as a change from baseline in the Urogenital Distress Inventory scores. Bacterial abundance and beta diversity were assessed using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. The primary differential abundance analysis described predominant bacterial operational taxonomic units associated with responders vs nonresponders using unadjusted and age-adjusted linear models.

Results: Objective nonresponders (n=28) compared with responders (n=72) were older (58.5±10.7 vs 51.6±10.2 years) and more likely postmenopausal without hormone use (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-22.6). Vaginal and urinary microbiota beta diversities were associated with age (P<.05) for both responders and nonresponders. Overall, predominant operational taxonomic units (genera) were Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Tepidimonas, Escherichia, Streptococcus, and Prevotella. Operational taxonomic units from baseline urine samples were not significantly associated (P threshold=.05) with surgical treatment responses. A greater abundance of baseline vaginal Lactobacillus was associated with an objective response (P=.04) and Prevotella with an objective nonresponse (P=.01). Adjusting for age, only a greater abundance of baseline vaginal Prevotella was associated with an objective nonresponse (P=.01). Moreover, less abundant vaginal operational taxonomic units were associated with objective and subjective responses and persistent urinary incontinence symptoms (P<.05).

Conclusion: Women meeting a 70% reduction of urinary incontinence treatment episodes (objective responders) had greater vaginal Lactobacillus at the time of the surgical procedure; however, controlling for age diminished this association. Women not meeting a 70% reduction of urinary incontinence episodes 1 year after a midurethral sling operation had greater vaginal Prevotella at the time of the midurethral sling operation. Further research is needed to determine whether therapy altering the vaginal microbiome may impact surgical treatment responses in women with mixed urinary incontinence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.07.008DOI Listing
July 2021

Cost-effectiveness of behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy combined with midurethral sling surgery vs surgery alone among women with mixed urinary incontinence: results of the Effects of Surgical Treatment Enhanced With Exercise for Mixed Urinary Incontinence randomized trial.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Social, Statistical, and Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Background: Urinary incontinence is prevalent among women, and it has a substantial economic impact. Mixed urinary incontinence, with both stress and urgency urinary incontinence symptoms, has a greater adverse impact on quality of life and is more complex to treat than either stress or urgency urinary incontinence alone. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of treating both the stress and urgency urinary incontinence components simultaneously are lacking.

Objective: Cost-effectiveness was assessed between perioperative behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapies combined with midurethral sling surgery and midurethral sling surgery alone for the treatment of women with mixed urinary incontinence. The impact of baseline severe urgency urinary incontinence symptoms on cost-effectiveness was assessed.

Study Design: This prospective economic evaluation was performed concurrently with the Effects of Surgical Treatment Enhanced with Exercise for Mixed Urinary Incontinence randomized trial that was conducted from October 2013 to April 2016. Participants included 480 women with moderate-to-severe stress and urgency urinary incontinence symptoms and at least 1 stress urinary incontinence episode and 1 urgency urinary incontinence episode on a 3-day bladder diary. The primary within-trial analysis was from the healthcare sector and societal perspectives, with a 1-year time horizon. Costs were in 2019 US dollars. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life-years and reductions in urinary incontinence episodes per day. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of combined treatment vs midurethral sling surgery alone were calculated, and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were generated. Analysis was performed for the overall study population and subgroup of women with Urogenital Distress Inventory irritative scores of ≥50th percentile.

Results: The costs for combined treatment were higher than the cost for midurethral sling surgery alone from both the healthcare sector perspective ($5100 [95% confidence interval, $5000-$5190] vs $4470 [95% confidence interval, $4330-$4620]; P<.01) and the societal perspective ($9260 [95% confidence interval, $8590-$9940] vs $8090 [95% confidence interval, $7630-$8560]; P<.01). There was no difference between combined treatment and midurethral sling surgery alone in quality-adjusted life-years (0.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.89] vs 0.87 [95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.89]; P=.90) or mean reduction in urinary incontinence episodes per day (-4.76 [95% confidence interval, -4.51 to 5.00] vs -4.50 [95% confidence interval, -4.25 to 4.75]; P=.13). When evaluating the overall study population, from both the healthcare sector and societal perspectives, midurethral sling surgery alone was superior to combined treatment. The probability that combined treatment is cost-effective compared with midurethral sling surgery alone is ≤28% from the healthcare sector and ≤19% from the societal perspectives for a willingness-to-pay value of ≤$150,000 per quality-adjusted life-years. For women with baseline Urogenital Distress Inventory irritative scores of ≥50th percentile, combined treatment was cost-effective compared with midurethral sling surgery alone from both the healthcare sector and societal perspectives. The probability that combined treatment is cost-effective compared with midurethral sling surgery alone for this subgroup is ≥90% from both the healthcare sector and societal perspectives, at a willingness-to-pay value of ≥$150,000 per quality-adjusted life-years.

Conclusion: Overall, perioperative behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapies combined with midurethral sling surgery was not cost-effective compared with midurethral sling surgery alone for the treatment of women with mixed urinary incontinence. However, combined treatment was of good value compared with midurethral sling surgery alone for women with baseline severe urgency urinary incontinence symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.06.099DOI Listing
July 2021

Characteristics Associated With Treatment Failure 1 Year After Midurethral Sling in Women With Mixed Urinary Incontinence.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 Aug;138(2):199-207

Division of Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; the Division of Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; the Division of Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; the Division of Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kaiser Permanente, Downey, California; the Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; the Center for Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; the Department of Physical Therapy, Rangos School of Health Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland; and Social, Statistical, & Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Objective: To evaluate characteristics associated with treatment failure 1 year after midurethral sling in women with mixed urinary incontinence.

Methods: Four-hundred three women who participated in a randomized trial that compared midurethral sling and behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy (combined group) compared with midurethral sling alone for mixed incontinence with 1-year follow-up data were eligible for this planned secondary analysis. Overall treatment failure was defined as meeting criteria for subjective or objective failure or both. Subjective failure was defined as not meeting the minimal clinical important difference for improvement on the UDI (Urogenital Distress Inventory) total score (26.1 points). Objective failure was defined as not achieving 70% improvement on mean incontinence episodes of any type per day or having undergone any additional treatment for persistent urinary symptoms at 12 months postoperative. Logistic regression models for treatment failure were constructed. Independent variables included site and treatment group, and clinical and demographic variables based on bivariate comparisons (P<.2). Treatment group interaction effects were evaluated.

Results: One hundred twelve of 379 (29.6%) women had overall treatment failure, with 56 of 379 (14.7%) undergoing additional treatment but only two needing intervention for stress incontinence. Previous overactive bladder (OAB) medication (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.19, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.96, 95% CI 1.17-3.31); detrusor overactivity on cystometrogram (OR 2.25, aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.60-4.97); and higher volume at first urge (OR 1.03, aOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with overall failure. Worse UDI-urgency scores were associated with failure, with an added interaction effect in the midurethral sling-alone group.

Conclusions: Certain clinical and urodynamic variables are associated with treatment failure after midurethral sling in women with mixed urinary incontinence. Women with more severe urgency symptoms at baseline may benefit from perioperative behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy combined with midurethral sling. Overall, the need for additional urinary treatment was low and primarily for OAB.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01959347.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004444DOI Listing
August 2021

Subgroups of failure after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and associations with quality of life outcomes: a longitudinal cluster analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Rockville, MD.

Background: Treatment outcomes after pelvic organ prolapse surgery are often presented as dichotomous "success or failure" based on anatomic and symptom criteria. However, clinical experience suggests that some women with outcome "failures" are asymptomatic and perceive their surgery to be successful and that other women have anatomic resolution but continue to report symptoms. Characterizing failure types could be a useful step to clarify definitions of success, understand mechanisms of failure, and identify individuals who may benefit from specific therapies.

Objective: This study aimed to identify clusters of women with similar failure patterns over time and assess associations among clusters and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, Short-Form Six-Dimension health index, Patient Global Impression of Improvement, patient satisfaction item questionnaire, and quality-adjusted life-year.

Study Design: Outcomes were evaluated for up to 5 years in a cohort of participants (N=709) with stage ≥2 pelvic organ prolapse who underwent surgical pelvic organ prolapse repair and had sufficient follow-up in 1 of 4 multicenter surgical trials conducted by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. Surgical success was defined as a composite measure requiring anatomic success (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system points Ba, Bp, and C of ≤0), subjective success (absence of bothersome vaginal bulge symptoms), and absence of retreatment for pelvic organ prolapse. Participants who experienced surgical failure and attended ≥4 visits from baseline to 60 months after surgery were longitudinally clustered, accounting for similar trajectories in Ba, Bp, and C and degree of vaginal bulge bother; moreover, missing data were imputed. Participants with surgical success were grouped into a separate cluster.

Results: Surgical failure was reported in 276 of 709 women (39%) included in the analysis. Failures clustered into the following 4 mutually exclusive subgroups: (1) asymptomatic intermittent anterior wall failures, (2) symptomatic intermittent anterior wall failures, (3) asymptomatic intermittent anterior and posterior wall failures, and (4) symptomatic all-compartment failures. Each cluster had different bulge symptoms, anatomy, and retreatment associations with quality of life outcomes. Asymptomatic intermittent anterior wall failures (n=150) were similar to surgical successes with Ba values that averaged around -1 cm but fluctuated between anatomic success (Ba≤0) and failure (Ba>0) over time. Symptomatic intermittent anterior wall failures (n=82) were anatomically similar to asymptomatic intermittent anterior failures, but women in this cluster persistently reported bothersome bulge symptoms and the lowest quality of life, Short-Form Six-Dimension health index scores, and perceived success. Women with asymptomatic intermittent anterior and posterior wall failures (n=28) had the most severe preoperative pelvic organ prolapse but the lowest symptomatic failure rate and retreatment rate. Participants with symptomatic all-compartment failures (n=16) had symptomatic and anatomic failure early after surgery and the highest retreatment of any cluster.

Conclusion: In particular, the following 4 clusters of pelvic organ prolapse surgical failure were identified in participants up to 5 years after pelvic organ prolapse surgery: asymptomatic intermittent anterior wall failures, symptomatic intermittent anterior wall failures, asymptomatic intermittent anterior and posterior wall failures, and symptomatic all-compartment failures. These groups provide granularity about the nature of surgical failures after pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Future work is planned for predicting these distinct outcomes using patient characteristics that can be used for counseling women individually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.06.068DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative effectiveness of biofeedback and injectable bulking agents for treatment of fecal incontinence: Design and methods.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 08 15;107:106464. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Functional GI and Motility Disorders, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, United States of America.

Fecal incontinence (FI), the involuntary passage of stool, is common and can markedly impair the quality of life. Among patients who fail initial options (pads or protective devices, bowel modifying agents, and pelvic floor exercises), the options are pelvic floor biofeedback (BIO), perianal injection with bulking agents (INJ), and sacral nerve electrical stimulation (SNS), which have not been subjected to head-to-head comparisons. This study will compare the safety and efficacy of BIO and INJ for managing FI. The impact of these approaches on quality-of-life and psychological distress, cost effectiveness, and predictors of response to therapy will also be evaluated. Six centers in the United States will enroll approximately 285 patients with moderate to severe FI. Patients who have 4 or more FI episodes over 2 weeks proceed to a 4-week trial of enhanced medical management (EMM) (ie, education, bowel management, and pelvic floor exercises). Thereafter, 194 non-responders as defined by a less than 75% reduction in the frequency of FI will be randomized to BIO or INJ. Three months later, the efficacy, safety, and cost of therapy will be assessed; non-responders will be invited to choose to add the other treatment or SNS for the remainder of the study. Early EMM responders will be re-evaluated 3 months later and non-responders randomized to BIO or INJ. Standardized, and where appropriate validated approaches will be used for study procedures, which will be performed by trained personnel. Prospectively collected data on care costs and resource utilization will be used for cost effectiveness analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429255PMC
August 2021

Defining mechanisms of recurrence following apical prolapse repair based on imaging criteria.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Background: Prolapse recurrence after transvaginal surgical repair is common; however, its mechanisms are ill-defined. A thorough understanding of how and why prolapse repairs fail is needed to address their high rate of anatomic recurrence and to develop novel therapies to overcome defined deficiencies.

Objective: This study aimed to identify mechanisms and contributors of anatomic recurrence after vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension (native tissue repair) vs transvaginal mesh (VM) hysteropexy surgery for uterovaginal prolapse.

Study Design: This multicenter study was conducted in a subset of participants in a randomized clinical trial by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. Overall, 94 women with uterovaginal prolapse treated via native tissue repair (n=48) or VM hysteropexy (n=46) underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging at rest, maximal strain, and poststrain rest (recovery) 30 to 42 months after surgery. Participants who desired reoperation before 30 to 42 months were imaged earlier to assess the impact of the index surgery. Using a novel 3-dimensional pelvic coordinate system, coregistered midsagittal images were obtained to assess study outcomes. Magnetic resonance imaging-based anatomic recurrence (failure) was defined as prolapse beyond the hymen. The primary outcome was the mechanism of failure (apical descent vs anterior vaginal wall elongation), including the frequency and site of failure. Secondary outcomes included displacement of the vaginal apex and perineal body and change in the length of the anterior wall, posterior wall, vaginal perimeter, and introitus of the vagina from rest to strain and rest to recovery. Group differences in the mechanism, frequency, and site of failure were assessed using the Fisher exact tests, and secondary outcomes were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests.

Results: Of the 88 participants analyzed, 37 (42%) had recurrent prolapse (VM hysteropexy, 13 of 45 [29%]; native tissue repair, 24 of 43 [56%]). The most common site of failure was the anterior compartment (VM hysteropexy, 38%; native tissue repair, 92%). The primary mechanism of recurrence was apical descent (VM hysteropexy, 85%; native tissue repair, 67%). From rest to strain, failures (vs successes) had greater inferior displacement of the vaginal apex (difference, -12 mm; 95% confidence interval, -19 to -6) and perineal body (difference, -7 mm; 95% confidence interval, -11 to -4) and elongation of the anterior vaginal wall (difference, 12 mm; 95% confidence interval, 8-16) and vaginal introitus (difference, 11 mm; 95% confidence interval, 7-15).

Conclusion: The primary mechanism of prolapse recurrence following vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension or VM hysteropexy was apical descent. In addition, greater inferior descent of the vaginal apex and perineal body, lengthening of the anterior vaginal wall, and increased size of the vaginal introitus with strain were associated with anatomic failure. Further studies are needed to provide additional insight into the mechanism by which these factors contribute to anatomic failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.05.041DOI Listing
June 2021

Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Percutaneous Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Refractory Fecal Incontinence in Women: The NeurOmodulaTion for Accidental Bowel Leakage Study.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

From the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh/Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Women's & Infants Hospital, Providence, RI Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC Albany Medical College, Albany, NY University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.

Objectives: High-level evidence for second-line noninvasive treatments for fecal incontinence in women is limited. We present the rationale for and design of the NeuromOdulaTion for Accidental Bowel Leakage trial, a randomized controlled trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) and validated sham stimulation in women with refractory accidental bowel leakage.

Methods: The rationale and goals for a 2-part study with a run-in phase, use of a generic pulse generator for PTNS and sham stimulation, masking, participant inclusion, primary and secondary outcome measures, and adverse event collection are described. A superiority design will be used to compare change from baseline in St. Mark's score after 12 weekly stimulation sessions between PTNS and sham. Responders to initial treatment (PTNS or sham) will be assigned to scheduled or "as needed" intervention for up to 1 year. Secondary outcome measures include incontinence episodes and other bowel events recorded in a 14-day electronic bowel diary, general and condition-specific quality of life instruments, adaptive behavior, global impression of improvement, symptom control, and sexual function.

Results: Sample size calculations determined that 165 participants (110 PTNS and 55 sham) would provide 90% power to detect greater than or equal to 4-point difference between PTNS and sham in change from baseline in St. Mark's score at 12 weeks.

Conclusions: The methods for the NeuromOdulaTion for Accidental Bowel Leakage trial will provide high-level evidence of the effectiveness and optimal maintenance therapy schedule of a low-cost PTNS protocol in community-dwelling women seeking second-line intervention for refractory accidental bowel leakage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000001050DOI Listing
May 2021

Success and failure are dynamic, recurrent event states after surgical treatment for pelvic organ prolapse.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 04 8;224(4):362.e1-362.e11. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: The ideal measure of success after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse has long been debated. Historically, strict definitions based on anatomic perfection have dominated the literature. However, the importance of patient-centered perception of outcomes is equally or more important when comparing the success of various prolapse surgeries. Understanding the limitations of existing outcome definitions will guide surgical outcome reporting and comparisons of pelvic organ prolapse surgeries.

Objective: This study aimed to describe the relationships and overlap among the participants who met the anatomic, subjective, and retreatment definitions of success or failure after pelvic organ prolapse surgery; demonstrate rates of transition between success and failure over time; and compare scores from the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, Short-Form Six-Dimension health index, and quality-adjusted life years among these definitions.

Study Design: Definitions of surgical success were evaluated at 3 or 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after surgery for ≥stage II pelvic organ prolapse in a cohort of women (N=1250) from 4 randomized clinical trials conducted by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. Surgical failure was defined by a composite measure requiring 1 or more of (1) anatomic failure (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point Ba, Bp, or C of >0), (2) subjective failure (presence of bothersome vaginal bulge symptoms), or (3) pessary or surgical retreatment for pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, Short-Form Six-Dimension health index, and quality-adjusted life years were compared among participants who met a variety of definitions of success and failure including novel "intermittent" success and failure over time.

Results: Among the 433 of 1250 women (34.6%) who had surgical failure outcomes at ≥1 time point, 85.5% (370 of 433) met only 1 component of the composite outcome at the assessment of initial failure (anatomic failure, 46.7% [202 of 433]; subjective failure, 36.7% [159 of 433]; retreatment, 2.1% [9 of 433]). Only 12.9% (56 of 433) met the criteria for both for anatomic and subjective failure. Despite meeting the criteria for failure in primary study reporting, 24.2% of these (105 of 433) transitioned between success and failure during follow-up, of whom 83.8% (88 of 105) met the criteria for success at their last follow-up. There were associations between success or failure classification and the 1- and 2-year quality-adjusted life years and a time-varying group effect on Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory and Short-Form Six-Dimension health index scores.

Conclusion: True failure rates after prolapse surgery may be overestimated in the current literature. Only 13% of clinical trial subjects initially met both subjective and objective criteria for failure. Approximately one-quarter of failures were intermittent and transitioned between success and failure over time, with most intermittent failures being in a state of "surgical success" at their last follow-up. Current composite definitions of success or failure may result in the overestimation of surgical failure rates, potentially explaining, in part, the discordance with low retreatment rates after pelvic organ prolapse surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009767PMC
April 2021

Risk Factors for Surgical Failure and Worsening Pelvic Floor Symptoms Within 5 Years After Vaginal Prolapse Repair.

Obstet Gynecol 2020 11;136(5):933-941

Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kaiser Permanente Downey, Downey, California; the Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California; the Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; the Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; the Division of Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland; and Social, Statistical, & Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Objective: To assess independent risk factors for surgical failure and worsening pelvic floor symptoms within 5 years after vaginal prolapse surgery.

Methods: This secondary analysis includes OPTIMAL (Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss) (n=374) and E-OPTIMAL (Extended) (n=285) trial participants. Surgical failure was defined as apical descent greater than one third of the total vaginal length, anterior or posterior vaginal wall past the hymen, subsequent surgery or bothersome vaginal bulge. Worsening pelvic floor symptoms were defined as increases from baseline as large as the minimally important difference for subscale scores of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory: 11 for the Urinary Distress Inventory and Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory and 34.3 for the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory. Outcomes were measured at 6 months then 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. Chi-square and t test results from bivariate models and clinical relevance were used to inform final models.

Results: Baseline risk factors for surgical failure were Hispanic ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.15), perineal body (aOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.63), and pretreatment Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory score (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.28). Risk factors for worsening of pelvic floor symptoms were pretreatment Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory score (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.94) for worsening Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory score, vaginal deliveries (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.10-1.44) and pretreatment Urinary Distress Inventory score (aOR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93) for worsening Urinary Distress Inventory score, and age (aOR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and pretreatment Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory score (aOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) for worsening Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory score.

Conclusions: Hispanic ethnicity, larger preoperative perineal body, and higher pretreatment Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory scores were risk factors for surgical failure up to 5 years after vaginal prolapse repair. Participants with higher baseline Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory scores were less likely to worsen. Risk factors for worsening Urinary Distress Inventory and Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory scores included more vaginal deliveries and increased age, respectively.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT00597935, NCT01166373.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842362PMC
November 2020

Performance, acceptability, and validation of a phone application bowel diary.

Neurourol Urodyn 2020 11 22;39(8):2480-2489. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, RTI International, Durham, NC, USA.

Aims: To assess performance, acceptability, external validity, and reliability of a phone application electronic bowel diary (PFDN Bowel eDiary).

Methods: Women reporting refractory accidental bowel leakage (ABL) were enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial evaluating paper versus eDiary documentation of bowel movements (BM) and fecal incontinence episodes (FIE). Events were characterized by the presence or absence of urgency and Bristol stool scale consistency. The eDiary entries were date/time stamped and prompted by twice-daily phone notifications. Women were randomized to complete up to three consecutive 14-day diaries in two sequences. Diary events were compared between formats using the Pearson correlation. System usability scale (SUS) assessed eDiary usability. The eDiary test-retest reliability was assessed with intraclass correlations (ICCs).

Results: Paired diary data were available from 60/69 (87%) women 63.8 ± 9.8 years old with mean 13.2 BM per week and 6.5 FIE per week (nearly half with urgency). Among those providing diaries, adherence did not differ by paper or eDiary (93.3% vs. 95.0%). Notifications prompted 29.6% of eDiary entries, improving adherence from 70% to 95%. Paper and eDiaries were moderate to-strongly correlated for BMs per week (r = .61), urgency BMs per week (r = .76), FIE per week (r = .66), urgency FIE per week (r = .72). Test-retest reliability was good (ICC = .81 BMs per week, .79 urgency BMs per week, .74 FIE per week, and .62 urgency FIE per week). The mean SUS score was high, 82.3 ± 17.5 (range, 0-100) with 91.4% rating it easy to use, and 75.9% preferring the eDiary over paper.

Conclusion: The PFDN Bowel eDiary correlated well with paper diary was considered easy to use, preferred to paper diaries, had high rates of confirmed real-time diary completion that obviated staff data entry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.24520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680657PMC
November 2020

Immediate Postoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification Measures and 2-Year Risk of Prolapse Recurrence.

Obstet Gynecol 2020 10;136(4):792-801

Virginia Commonwealth University Health Center, Richmond, Virginia; Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; University of Pittsburgh, Magee-Women's Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Brown University/Women's and Infants Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island; Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Pasadena, California; UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland; and RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Objective: To assess whether resting genital hiatus, perineal body, and total vaginal length measured intraoperatively at the conclusion of surgery are associated with prolapse recurrence 2 years after native tissue pelvic organ prolapse reconstruction.

Methods: This ancillary analysis of the OPTIMAL (Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss) trial included women who had an immediate postoperative pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) examination and 2-year follow-up. Primary outcome was bothersome bulge symptoms. Secondary outcomes were anatomic failure, surgical failure (either anatomic failure or bothersome bulge symptoms), and sexual function. Descriptive statistics assessed relationships between postprocedure POP-Q measures and these four outcomes. Multivariable models were fit to the data to control for baseline differences in bivariate comparisons. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to identify an optimal genital hiatus cut point associated with bothersome bulge, and this threshold was explored.

Results: This analysis included 368 participants. Bivariate analyses identified age, body mass index, vaginal deliveries, baseline genital hiatus, perineal body, and advanced POP-Q stage (3 or higher vs 2) as clinically relevant variables to include in multivariable models. After adjusting for these variables, the association between immediate postoperative genital hiatus and bothersome bulge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4; 95% CI 0.9-2.1) was not significant at the P<.05 level; however, immediate postoperative genital hiatus was associated with anatomic (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.3) and surgical failure (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0-2.1). Immediate postoperative genital hiatus of 3.5 cm was the selected cutoff (area under the curve 0.58, 95% CI 0.50-0.66 from the bothersome bulge model). Women with genital hiatus 3.5 cm or greater were more likely to have anatomic and surgical failures at 2 years. No POP-Q measures were correlated with 2-year sexual function.

Conclusion: A larger immediate postoperative genital hiatus measurement of 3.5 cm or greater is not associated with bothersome bulge symptoms or sexual dysfunction but is associated with anatomic and surgical failures 2 years after native tissue vaginal reconstructive surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526641PMC
October 2020

Do Women Who Self-report More Exercise Have Increased Rates of Symptomatic Stress Urinary Incontinence After Midurethral Slings?

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2021 01;27(1):e202-e207

Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Objectives: There is a paucity of data on postoperative exercise and how it relates to surgical failure, specifically after midurethral sling (MUS) surgery. We aimed to assess if women with higher self-reported activity levels as measured by strenuous exercise are more likely to experience stress urinary incontinence (SUI) symptoms after MUS than women with lower self-reported activity.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis of Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss: the OPTIMAL Trial, a randomized trial comparing sacrospinous ligament suspension versus uterosacral ligament suspension, both with concomitant retropubic MUS. Participants completed a validated assessment of activity preoperatively and postoperatively. Women in the upper quartile for strenuous exercise (≥90 minutes per week) were compared with the remaining participants. Symptomatic SUI was defined as retreatment or reoperation for SUI and/or any positive response to Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory stress incontinence questions 20 to 22.

Results: A total of 351 participants in the OPTIMAL study received MUS along with their prolapse repair and had postoperative exercise and Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory data. At 2 years, 87 (29%) of 305 exercised strenuously for at least 90 minutes per week, and 63 (23%) of 277 experienced SUI. Women who were less active at 2 years were significantly more likely to experience SUI than women who were more active (26.6% vs 12.8%, P = 0.0138).

Conclusions: In this study, symptomatic SUI occurred more frequently in women with lower self-reported exercise levels 2 years after MUS surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000000893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793633PMC
January 2021

Methods for the defining mechanisms of anterior vaginal wall descent (DEMAND) study.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Apr 1;32(4):809-818. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC, USA.

Introduction And Hypothesis: The protocol and analysis methods for the Defining Mechanisms of Anterior Vaginal Wall Descent (DEMAND) study are presented. DEMAND was designed to identify mechanisms and contributors of prolapse recurrence after two transvaginal apical suspension procedures for uterovaginal prolapse.

Methods: DEMAND is a supplementary cohort study of a clinical trial in which women with uterovaginal prolapse randomized to (1) vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension or (2) vaginal mesh hysteropexy underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 30-42 months post-surgery. Standardized protocols have been developed to systematize MRI examinations across multiple sites and to improve reliability of MRI measurements. Anatomical failure, based on MRI, is defined as prolapse beyond the hymen. Anatomic measures from co-registered rest, maximal strain, and post-strain rest (recovery) sequences are obtained from the "true mid-sagittal" plane defined by a 3D pelvic coordinate system. The primary outcome is the mechanism of failure (apical descent versus anterior vaginal wall elongation). Secondary outcomes include displacement of the vaginal apex and perineal body and elongation of the anterior wall, posterior wall, perimeter, and introitus of the vagina between (1) rest and strain and (2) rest and recovery.

Results: Recruitment and MRI trials of 94 participants were completed by May 2018.

Conclusions: Methods papers which detail studies designed to evaluate anatomic outcomes of prolapse surgeries are few. We describe a systematic, standardized approach to define and quantitatively assess mechanisms of anatomic failure following prolapse repair. This study will provide a better understanding of how apical prolapse repairs fail anatomically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-020-04511-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917148PMC
April 2021

Characteristics Associated With Treatment Failure 1 Year After Midurethral Sling in Women With Mixed Urinary Incontinence.

Obstet Gynecol 2020 09;136(3):482-491

Division of Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; the Division of Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; the Division of Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; the Division of Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kaiser Permanente, Downey, California; the Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico; the Center for Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; the Department of Physical Therapy, Rangos School of Health Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland; and Social, Statistical, & Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Objective: To evaluate characteristics associated with treatment failure 1 year after midurethral sling in women with mixed urinary incontinence.

Methods: Four hundred three women who participated in a randomized trial that compared midurethral sling and behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy (combined group) against midurethral sling alone for mixed incontinence with 1 year of follow-up data were eligible for this planned secondary analysis. Overall treatment failure was defined as meeting criteria for subjective failure, objective failure, or both. Subjective failure was defined as not meeting the minimal clinically important difference for improvement on the UDI (Urogenital Distress Inventory)-total score (26.1 points). Objective failure was not achieving 70% improvement on mean incontinence episodes of any type per day or having undergone any additional treatment for urinary symptoms at 12 months postoperative. Logistic regression models for treatment failure were constructed. Independent variables included site and treatment group, and clinical and demographic variables based on bivariate comparisons (P<.2). Treatment group interaction effects were evaluated.

Results: Previous overactive bladder medication use (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.19, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25), detrusor overactivity on cystometrogram (OR 2.25, aOR 2.72, 95% CI 1.53-4.84), body mass index (OR 1.29, aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03-1.57), and Valsalva leak point pressure less than 60 cm H2O (OR 1.96, aOR 3.13, 95% CI 1.65-5.94) were associated with overall failure. Worse UDI urgency scores were associated with failure in the midurethral sling-alone group. Sling type (retropubic vs transobturator) was not associated with failure.

Conclusion: Certain clinical and urodynamic variables are associated with treatment failure after midurethral sling among women with mixed urinary incontinence. Women with more severe urgency symptoms at baseline may benefit from perioperative behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy combined with midurethral sling. This information is helpful for counseling women with mixed incontinence who are considering surgery.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01959347.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483953PMC
September 2020

Sexual Activity and Dyspareunia 1 Year After Surgical Repair of Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

Obstet Gynecol 2020 09;136(3):492-500

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, UC San Diego Health Systems, San Diego, California; Social, Statistical & Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; the Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Objective: To describe sexual activity and risks for dyspareunia after pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from four randomized trials conducted between 2002 and 2018. Standard assessments and validated measures of sexual function were assessed at baseline and at 12 months postoperatively. Anterior apical surgeries were grouped by approach: transvaginal native tissue repairs, transvaginal mesh or graft-augmented repairs, and abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Additional surgeries, which included posterior repair, hysterectomy, and slings, were analyzed. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models identified risk factors for postoperative dyspareunia.

Results: Of the 1,337 women enrolled in the trials, 932 had sufficient outcome data to determine dyspareunia status. Of these before surgery, 445 (47.8%) were sexually active without dyspareunia, 89 (9.6%) were sexually active with dyspareunia, 93 (10.0%) were not sexually active owing to fear of dyspareunia, and 305 (32.7%) were not sexually active for other reasons. At 12 months, dyspareunia or fear of dyspareunia was present in 63 of 627 (10.0%); occurred de novo in 17 of 445 (3.8%) and resolved in 136 of 182 (74.7%). Multivariable regression demonstrated baseline dyspareunia as the only factor associated with postoperative dyspareunia (adjusted odds ratio 7.8, 95% CI 4.2-14.4). No other factors, including surgical approach, were significantly associated with postoperative dyspareunia. Too few had de novo dyspareunia to perform modeling.

Conclusion: Dyspareunia is common in one in five women before undergoing prolapse surgery. Surgical repair resolves dyspareunia in three out of four women with low rates of de novo dyspareunia at less than 4%. Preoperative dyspareunia appears to be the only predictor of postoperative dyspareunia.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00065845, NCT00460434, NCT00597935, and NCT01802281.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483870PMC
September 2020

The Design of a Prospective Trial to Evaluate the Role of Preoperative Frailty Assessment in Older Women Undergoing Surgery for the Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse: The FASt Supplemental Trial.

Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2021 01;27(1):e106-e111

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Objective: We present the rationale for and the design of a prospective trial to evaluate the role of preoperative frailty and mobility assessments in older women undergoing surgery for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) as a planned prospective supplemental trial to the ASPIRe (Apical Suspension Repair for Vault Prolapse In a Three-Arm Randomized Trial Design) trial. The Frailty ASPIRe Study (FASt) examines the impact of preoperative frailty and mobility on surgical outcomes in older women (≥65 years) participating in the ASPIRe trial. The primary objective of FASt is to determine the impact of preoperative age, multimorbidity, frailty, and decreased mobility on postoperative outcomes in older women (≥65 years old) undergoing surgery for POP.

Methods: The selection of the preoperative assessments, primary outcome measures, and participant inclusion is described. Frailty and mobility measurements will be collected at the preoperative visit and include the 6 Robinson frailty measurements and the Timed Up and Go mobility test. The main outcome measure in the FASt supplemental study will be moderate to severe postoperative adverse events according to the Clavien-Dindo Severity Classification.

Conclusions: This trial will assess impact of preoperative age, multimorbidity, frailty, and decreased mobility on postoperative outcomes in older women (≥65 years old) undergoing surgical procedures for the correction of apical POP. Information from this trial may help both primary care providers and surgeons better advise/inform women on their individual risks of surgical complications and provide more comprehensive postoperative care to women at highest risk of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0000000000000833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381379PMC
January 2021

Outcomes of native tissue transvaginal apical approaches in women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence.

Int Urogynecol J 2020 10 7;31(10):2155-2164. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Division of Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th Street South, Birmingham, AL, 35249, USA.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Limited data exist comparing different surgical approaches in women with advanced vaginal prolapse. This study compared 2-year surgical outcomes of uterosacral ligament suspension (ULS) and sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF) in women with advanced prolapse (stage III-IV) and stress urinary incontinence.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter 2 × 2 factorial randomized trial comparing (1) ULS versus SSLF and (2) behavioral therapy with pelvic floor muscle training versus usual care. Of 374 subjects, 117/188 (62.7%) in the ULS and 113/186 (60.7%) in the SSLF group had advanced prolapse. Two-year surgical success was defined by the absence of (1) apical descent > 1/3 into the vaginal canal, (2) anterior/posterior wall descent beyond the hymen, (3) bothersome bulge symptoms, and (4) retreatment for prolapse. Secondary outcomes included individual success outcome components, symptom severity measured by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, and adverse events. Outcomes were also compared in women with advanced prolapse versus stage II prolapse.

Results: Success did not differ between groups (ULS: 58.2% [57/117] versus SSLF: 58.5% [55/113], aOR 1.0 [0.5-1.8]). No differences were detected in individual success components (p > 0.05 for all components). Prolapse symptom severity scores improved in both interventions with no intergroup differences (p = 0.82). Serious adverse events did not differ (ULS: 19.7% versus SSLF: 16.8%, aOR 1.2 [0.6-2.4]). Success was lower in women with advanced prolapse compared with stage II (58.3% versus 73.2%, aOR 0.5 [0.3-0.9]), with no retreatment in stage II.

Conclusions: Surgical success, symptom severity, and overall serious adverse events did not differ between ULS and SSLF in women with advanced prolapse. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01166373.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-020-04271-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483223PMC
October 2020

Food and Non-Food-Related Behavior across Settings in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

Genes (Basel) 2020 02 17;11(2). Epub 2020 Feb 17.

RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

This study sought to describe food- and non-food-related behaviors of children aged 3 to 18 years with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in home and school settings, as assessed by 86 parents and 63 teachers using 7 subscales of the Global Assessment of Individual's Behavior (GAIB). General Behavior Problem, Non-Food-Related Behavior Problem, and Non-Food-Related Obsessive Speech and Compulsive Behavior (OS/CB) scores did not differ significantly between parent and teacher reports. Food-Related Behavior Problem scores were higher in parent versus teacher reports when the mother had less than a college education (difference of 13.6 points, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5.1 to 22). Parents assigned higher Food-Related OS/CB scores than teachers (difference of 5.7 points, 95% CI 2.4 to 9.0). Although teachers reported fewer Food-Related OS/CB, they scored overall OS/CB higher for interfering with daily activities compared with parents (difference of 0.9 points, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.4). Understanding how behaviors manifest in home and school settings, and how they vary with socio-demographic and patient characteristics can help inform strategies to reduce behavior problems and improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11020204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074075PMC
February 2020

Measuring Clinical Importance in a Trial of Interventions for Mixed Urinary Incontinence-Reply.

JAMA 2020 02;323(5):479

Social, Statistical, & Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.19733DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparison of Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Rates of Individuals With and Without Prader-Willi Syndrome.

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 May/Jun;40(5):e362-e366

Faegre Baker Daniels, LLP, Indianapolis, IN.

Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic condition, affecting between 1:10,000 and 1:30,000. The prevalence of hip dysplasia in children with PWS is reportedly between 8% and 30%, but the long-term consequences of residual hip dysplasia remain largely unknown in this population. The purpose of this study was to comparatively estimate the number of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures performed on adults with and without PWS, using a national hospital discharge database, in an effort to elucidate long-term outcomes and guide clinicians treating orthopaedic concerns in younger individuals with PWS.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is the largest all-payer inpatient care database, containing annual data from >7 million hospital stays; sampling weights and stratification variables are provided for producing estimates of >35 million hospitalizations nationwide. THA and TKA procedures were identified, then stratified by whether or not the patient had a diagnosis of PWS. The ages of the 2 groups and sex mix were compared, as was the length of stay for the procedure, and discharge status.

Results: From 2004 to 2014, 9.4 million patients nationwide, by weighted estimate, underwent THA (3.1 million) or TKA (6.3 million). Sixty-five patients were identified as having the diagnosis of PWS (39 with THA, 26 with TKA); 7 patients per million having hip or knee arthroplasties had PWS. Sixty-eight percent of those with PWS were younger than 50 years, compared with only 7% of those without PWS (P<0.001). The female:male prevalence was 47:53 for patients with PWS and 60:40 for the total group. The mean length of stay was similar, but patients with PWS were more likely to be transferred to another facility after surgery (77% vs. 36%; P=0.008).

Conclusions: Hip dysplasia prevalence is higher in persons with PWS, but the rate of late treatment with THA is much lower than in the general population. We recommend only active observation for stable and improving hips in young children with PWS, as the consequences of overtreatment can be serious, including further delaying their neuromuscular development, and exposure to possibly unnecessary perioperative risks.

Level Of Evidence: Nation-wide database analysis, Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001490DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of treatment for fecal incontinence on constipation symptoms.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 06 23;222(6):590.e1-590.e8. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Objective: Defecatory symptoms, such as a sense of incomplete emptying and straining with bowel movements, are paradoxically present in women with fecal incontinence. Treatments for fecal incontinence, such as loperamide and biofeedback, can worsen or improve defecatory symptoms, respectively. The primary aim of this study was to compare changes in constipation symptoms in women undergoing treatment for fecal incontinence with education only, loperamide, anal muscle exercises with biofeedback or both loperamide and biofeedback. Our secondary aim was to compare changes in constipation symptoms among responders and nonresponders to fecal incontinence treatment.

Study Design: This was a planned secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing 2 first-line therapies for fecal incontinence in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Women with at least monthly fecal incontinence and normal stool consistency were randomized to 4 groups: (1) oral placebo plus education only, (2) oral loperamide plus education only, (3) placebo plus anorectal manometry-assisted biofeedback, and (4) loperamide plus biofeedback. Defecatory symptoms were measured using the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms questionnaire at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. The Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms consists of 12 items that contribute to a global score and 3 subscales: stool characteristics/symptoms (hardness of stool, size of stool, straining, inability to pass stool), rectal symptoms (burning, pain, bleeding, incomplete bowel movement), and abdominal symptoms (discomfort, pain, bloating, cramps). Scores for each subscale as well as the global score range from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (maximum score), with negative change scores representing improvement in defecatory symptoms. Responders to fecal incontinence treatment were defined as women with a minimally important clinical improvement of ≥5 points on the St Mark's (Vaizey) scale between baseline and 24 weeks. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed using a longitudinal mixed model, controlling for baseline scores, to estimate changes in Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scores from baseline through 24 weeks.

Results: At 24 weeks, there were small changes in Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms global scores in all 4 groups: oral placebo plus education (-0.3; 95% confidence interval, -0.5 to -0.1), loperamide plus education (-0.1, 95% confidence interval, -0.3 to0.0), oral placebo plus biofeedback (-0.3, 95% confidence interval, -0.4 to -0.2), and loperamide plus biofeedback (-0.3, 95% confidence interval, -0.4 to -0.2). No differences were observed in change in Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scores between women randomized to placebo plus education and those randomized to loperamide plus education (P = .17) or placebo plus biofeedback (P = .82). Change in Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scores in women randomized to combination loperamide plus biofeedback therapy was not different from that of women randomized to treatment with loperamide or biofeedback alone. Responders had greater improvement in Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptoms scores than nonresponders (-0.4; 95% confidence interval, -0.5 to -0.3 vs -0.2; 95% confidence interval, -0.3 to -0.0, P < .01, mean difference, 0.2, 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.4).

Conclusion: Change in constipation symptoms following treatment of fecal incontinence in women are small and are not significantly different between groups. Loperamide treatment for fecal incontinence does not worsen constipation symptoms among women with normal consistency stool. Women with clinically significant improvement in fecal incontinence symptoms report greater improvement in constipation symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.11.1256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242126PMC
June 2020

Effect of Behavioral and Pelvic Floor Muscle Therapy Combined With Surgery vs Surgery Alone on Incontinence Symptoms Among Women With Mixed Urinary Incontinence: The ESTEEM Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2019 09;322(11):1066-1076

Social, Statistical, & Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Importance: Mixed urinary incontinence, including both stress and urgency incontinence, has adverse effects on a woman's quality of life. Studies evaluating treatments to simultaneously improve both components are lacking.

Objective: To determine whether combining behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy with midurethral sling is more effective than sling alone for improving mixed urinary incontinence symptoms.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized clinical trial involving women 21 years or older with moderate or severe stress and urgency urinary incontinence symptoms for at least 3 months, and at least 1 stress and 1 urgency incontinence episode on a 3-day bladder diary. The trial was conducted across 9 sites in the United States, enrollment between October 2013 and April 2016; final follow-up October 2017.

Interventions: Behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy (included 1 preoperative and 5 postoperative sessions through 6 months) combined with midurethral sling (n = 209) vs sling alone (n = 207).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was change between baseline and 12 months in mixed incontinence symptoms measured by the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) long form; range, 0 to 300 points; minimal clinically important difference, 35 points, with higher scores indicating worse symptoms.

Results: Among 480 women randomized (mean [SD] age, 54.0 years [10.7]), 464 were eligible and 416 (86.7%) had postbaseline outcome data and were included in primary analyses. The UDI score in the combined group significantly decreased from 178.0 points at baseline to 30.7 points at 12 months, adjusted mean change -128.1 points (95% CI, -146.5 to -109.8). The UDI score in the sling-only group significantly decreased from 176.8 to 34.5 points, adjusted mean change -114.7 points (95% CI, -133.3 to -96.2). The model-estimated between-group difference (-13.4 points; 95% CI, -25.9 to -1.0; P = .04) did not meet the minimal clinically important difference threshold. Related and unrelated serious adverse events occurred in 10.2% of the participants (8.7% combined and 11.8% sling only).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among women with mixed urinary incontinence, behavioral and pelvic floor muscle therapy combined with midurethral sling surgery compared with surgery alone resulted in a small statistically significant difference in urinary incontinence symptoms at 12 months that did not meet the prespecified threshold for clinical importance.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01959347.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.12467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6749544PMC
September 2019

Association between adjuvant posterior repair and success of native tissue apical suspension.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 02 23;222(2):161.e1-161.e8. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Background: Posterior repairs and perineorrhaphies are often performed in prolapse surgery to reduce the size of the genital hiatus. The benefit of an adjuvant posterior repair at the time of sacrospinous ligament fixation or uterosacral ligament suspension is unknown.

Objective: We aimed to determine whether an adjuvant posterior repair at transvaginal apical suspension is associated with improved surgical success.

Materials And Methods: This secondary analysis of Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss (OPTIMAL) trial compared 24-month outcomes in 190 participants who had a posterior repair (posterior repair group) and 184 who did not (no posterior repair group) at the time of sacrospinous ligament fixation or uterosacral ligament suspension. Concomitant posterior repair was performed at the surgeon's discretion. Primary composite outcome of "surgical success" was defined as no prolapse beyond the hymen, point C ≤ -2/3 total vaginal length, no bothersome bulge symptoms, and no retreatment at 24 months. The individual components were secondary outcomes. Propensity score methods were used to build models that balanced posterior repair group and the no posterior repair group for ethnographic factors and preoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification values. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to predict surgical success based on the performance of a posterior repair. Groups were also compared with unadjusted χ analyses. An unadjusted probability curve was created for surgical success as predicted by preoperative genital hiatus.

Results: Women in the posterior repair group were less likely to be Hispanic or Latina, and were more likely to have had a prior hysterectomy and to be on estrogen therapy. The groups did not differ with respect to preoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification stage; however, subjects in the posterior repair group had significantly greater preoperative posterior wall prolapse. There were no group differences in surgical success using propensity score methods (66.7% posterior repair vs 62.0% no posterior repair; adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-2.07; P = 0.83) or unadjusted test (66.2% posterior repair vs 61.7% no posterior repair; P = 0.47). Individual outcome measures of prolapse recurrence (bothersome bulge symptoms, prolapse beyond the hymen, or retreatment for prolapse) also did not differ by group. Similarly, there were no differences between groups in anatomic outcomes of any individual compartment (anterior, apical, or posterior) at 24 months. There was high variation in performance of posterior repair by surgeon (interquartile range, 15-79%). The unadjusted probability of overall success at 24 months, regardless of posterior repair, decreased with increasing genital hiatus, such that a genital hiatus of 4.5 cm was associated with 65.8% success (95% confidence interval, 60.1-71.1%).

Conclusion: Concomitant posterior repair at sacrospinous ligament fixation or uterosacral ligament suspension was not associated with surgical success after adjusting for baseline covariates using propensity scores or unadjusted comparison. Posterior repair may not compensate for the pathophysiology that leads to enlarged preoperative genital hiatus, which remains prognostic of prolapse recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.08.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995410PMC
February 2020

Defining the relationship between vaginal and urinary microbiomes.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020 02 14;222(2):154.e1-154.e10. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Social, Statistical & Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Background: Although the vaginal and urinary microbiomes have been increasingly well-characterized in health and disease, few have described the relationship between these neighboring environments. Elucidating this relationship has implications for understanding how manipulation of the vaginal microbiome may affect the urinary microbiome and treatment of common urinary conditions.

Objective: To describe the relationship between urinary and vaginal microbiomes using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We hypothesized that the composition of the urinary and vaginal microbiomes would be significantly associated, with similarities in predominant taxa.

Study Design: This multicenter study collected vaginal swabs and catheterized urine samples from 186 women with mixed urinary incontinence enrolled in a parent study and 84 similarly aged controls. Investigators decided a priori that if vaginal and/or urinary microbiomes differed between continent and incontinent women, the groups would be analyzed separately; if similar, samples from continent and incontinent women would be pooled and analyzed together. A central laboratory sequenced variable regions 1-3 (v1-3) and characterized bacteria to the genus level. Operational taxonomic unit abundance was described for paired vaginal and urine samples. Pearson's correlation characterized the relationship between individual operational taxonomic units of paired samples. Canonical correlation analysis evaluated the association between clinical variables (including mixed urinary incontinence and control status) and vaginal and urinary operational taxonomic units, using the Canonical correlation analysis function in the Vegan package (R version 3.5). Linear discriminant analysis effect size was used to find taxa that discriminated between vaginal and urinary samples.

Results: Urinary and vaginal samples were collected from 212 women (mean age 53±11 years) and results from 197 paired samples were available for analysis. As operational taxonomic units in mixed urinary incontinence and control samples were related in canonical correlation analysis and since taxa did not discriminate between mixed urinary incontinence or controls in either vagina or urine, mixed urinary incontinence and control samples were pooled for further analysis. Canonical correlation analysis of vaginal and urinary samples indicated that that 60 of the 100 most abundant operational taxonomic units in the samples largely overlapped. Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus in both urine and vagina (contributing on average 53% to an individual's urine sample and 64% to an individual's vaginal sample) (Pearson correlation r=0.53). Although less abundant than Lactobacillus, other bacteria with high Pearson correlation coefficients also commonly found in vagina and urine included: Gardnerella (r=0.70), Prevotella (r=0.64), and Ureaplasma (r=0.50). Linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis identified Tepidimonas and Flavobacterium as bacteria that distinguished the urinary environment for both mixed urinary incontinence and controls as these bacteria were absent in the vagina (Tepidimonas effect size 2.38, P<.001, Flavobacterium effect size 2.15, P<.001). Although Lactobacillus was the most abundant bacteria in both urine and vagina, it was more abundant in the vagina (linear discriminant analysis effect size effect size 2.72, P<.001).

Conclusion: Significant associations between vaginal and urinary microbiomes were demonstrated, with Lactobacillus being predominant in both urine and vagina. Abundance of other bacteria also correlated highly between the vagina and urine. This inter-relatedness has implications for studying manipulation of the urogenital microbiome in treating conditions such as urgency urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995424PMC
February 2020

Recruitment and retention: A randomized controlled trial of video-enhanced versus standard consent processes within the E-OPTIMAL study.

Clin Trials 2019 10 26;16(5):481-489. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background/aims: In this study, we compared two research consent techniques: a standardized video plus usual consent and usual consent alone.

Methods: Individuals who completed 24-month outcomes (completers) in the Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss study were invited to participate in an extended, longitudinal follow-up study (extended Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss). Potential participants who were (1) able to provide consent and (2) not in long-term care facilities were randomized 1:1 to a standardized video detailing the importance of long-term follow-up studies of pelvic floor disorders followed by the usual institutional consent process versus the usual consent process alone. Randomization, stratified by site, used randomly permuted blocks. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who enrolled in the extended study completed data collection events 5 years after surgery. Secondary outcomes included the proportion enrolled in the extended study, completion of follow-up at each study year, completion of data collection points, completion of in-person visits, and completion of quality of life calls. Motivation and barriers to enrollment (study-level and personal-level) and satisfaction with the study consent process were measured by questionnaire prior to recruitment into extended Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss. Groups were compared using an intention-to-treat principle, using unadjusted Student's t-test (continuous) and chi-square or Fisher's exact (categorical) test. A sample size of 340 (170/group) was estimated to detect a 15% difference in enrollment and study completion between groups with p < 0.05.

Results: Of the 327 Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss completers, 305 were randomized to the consent process study (153 video vs 152 no video). Groups were similar in demographics, surgical treatment, and outcomes. The overall rate of extended study enrollment was high, without significant differences between groups (video 92.8% vs no video 94.1%, p = 0.65). There were no significant differences in the primary outcome (video 79.1% vs no video 75.7%, p = 0.47) or in any secondary outcomes. Being "very satisfied" overall with study information (97.7% vs 88.5%, p = 0.01); "strong agreement" for feeling informed about the study (81.3% vs 70.8%, p = 0.06), understanding the study purpose (83.6% vs 71.0%, p = 0.02), nature and extent (82.8% vs 70.2%, p = 0.02), and potential societal benefits (82.8% vs 67.9%, p = 0.01); and research coordinator/study nurse relationship being "very important" (72.7% vs 63.4%, p = 0.03) were better in the video compared to the no video consent group.

Conclusion: The extended study had high enrollment; most participants completed most study tasks during the 3-year observational extension, regardless of the use of video to augment research consent. The video was associated with a higher proportion of participants reporting improved study understanding and relationship with study personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1740774519865541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197014PMC
October 2019

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Infants With Retinopathy of Prematurity by Treatment.

Pediatrics 2019 08 23;144(2). Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Objective: Among extremely preterm infants, we evaluated whether bevacizumab therapy compared with surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with adverse outcomes in early childhood.

Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on preterm (22-26 + 6/7 weeks' gestational age) infants admitted to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers who received bevacizumab or surgery exclusively for ROP. The primary outcome was death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18 to 26 months' corrected age (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition cognitive or motor composite score <70, Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale level ≥2, bilateral blindness or hearing impairment).

Results: The cohort ( = 405; 214 [53%] boys; median [interquartile range] gestational age: 24.6 [23.9-25.3] weeks) included 181 (45%) infants who received bevacizumab and 224 (55%) who underwent ROP surgery. Infants treated with bevacizumab had a lower median (interquartile range) birth weight (640 [541-709] vs 660 [572.5-750] g; = .02) and longer durations of conventional ventilation (35 [21-58] vs 33 [18-49] days; = .04) and supplemental oxygen (112 [94-120] vs 105 [84.5-120] days; = .01). Death or severe NDI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 2.14) and severe NDI (aOR 1.14; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.70) did not differ between groups. Odds of death (aOR 2.54 [95% CI 1.42 to 4.55]; = .002), a cognitive score <85 (aOR 1.78 [95% CI 1.09 to 2.91]; = .02), and a Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale level ≥2 (aOR 1.73 [95% CI 1.04 to 2.88]; = .04) were significantly higher with bevacizumab therapy.

Conclusions: In this multicenter cohort of preterm infants, ROP treatment modality was not associated with differences in death or NDI, but the bevacizumab group had higher mortality and poor cognitive outcomes in early childhood. These data reveal the need for a rigorous appraisal of ROP therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-3537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6855825PMC
August 2019

Controlling faecal incontinence in women by performing anal exercises with biofeedback or loperamide: a randomised clinical trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 09 15;4(9):698-710. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Background: Well designed, large comparative effectiveness trials assessing the efficacy of primary interventions for faecal incontinence are few in number. The objectives of this study were to compare different combinations of anorectal manometry-assisted biofeedback, loperamide, education, and oral placebo.

Methods: In this randomised factorial trial, participants were recruited from eight clinical sites in the USA. Women with at least one episode of faecal incontinence per month in the past 3 months were randomly assigned 0·5:1:1:1 to one of four groups: oral placebo plus education only, placebo plus anorectal manometry-assisted biofeedback, loperamide plus education only, and loperamide plus anorectal manometry-assisted biofeedback. Participants received 2 mg per day of loperamide or oral placebo with the option of dose escalation or reduction. Women assigned to biofeedback received six visits, including strength and sensory biofeedback training. All participants received a standardised faecal incontinence patient education pamphlet and were followed for 24 weeks after starting treatment. The primary endpoint was change in St Mark's (Vaizey) faecal incontinence severity score between baseline and 24 weeks, analysed by intention-to-treat using general linear mixed modelling. Investigators, interviewers, and outcome evaluators were masked to biofeedback assignment. Participants and all study staff other than the research pharmacist were masked to medication assignment. Randomisation took place within the electronic data capture system, was stratified by site using randomly permuted blocks (block size 7), and the sizes of the blocks and the allocation sequence were known only to the data coordinating centre. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02008565.

Findings: Between April 1, 2014, and Sept 30, 2015, 377 women were enrolled, of whom 300 were randomly assigned to placebo plus education (n=42), placebo plus biofeedback (n=84), loperamide plus education (n=88), and the combined intervention of loperamide plus biofeedback (n=86). At 24 weeks, there were no differences between loperamide versus placebo (model estimated score change -1·5 points, 95% CI -3·4 to 0·4, p=0·12), biofeedback versus education (-0·7 points, -2·6 to 1·2, p=0·47), and loperamide and biofeedback versus placebo and biofeedback (-1·9 points, -4·1 to 0·3, p=0·092) or versus loperamide plus education (-1·1 points, -3·4 to 1·1, p=0·33). Constipation was the most common grade 3 or higher adverse event and was reported by two (2%) of 86 participants in the loperamide and biofeedback group and two (2%) of 88 in the loperamide plus education group. The percentage of participants with any serious adverse events did not differ between the treatment groups. Only one serious adverse event was considered related to treatment (small bowel obstruction in the placebo and biofeedback group).

Interpretation: In women with normal stool consistency and faecal incontinence bothersome enough to seek treatment, we were unable to find evidence against the null hypotheses that loperamide is equivalent to placebo, that anal exercises with biofeedback is equivalent to an educational pamphlet, and that loperamide and biofeedback are equivalent to oral placebo and biofeedback or loperamide plus an educational pamphlet. Because these are common first-line treatments for faecal incontinence, clinicians could consider combining loperamide, anal manometry-assisted biofeedback, and a standard educational pamphlet, but this is likely to result in only negligible improvement over individual therapies and patients should be counselled regarding possible constipation.

Funding: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30193-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708078PMC
September 2019

Achieved oxygen saturations and retinopathy of prematurity in extreme preterms.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2020 Mar 22;105(2):138-144. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA.

Objective: To identify achieved oxygen saturations (SpO) associated with increased risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).

Design: This is a secondary analysis of the Surfactant Positive Airway Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Trial (SUPPORT)randomised controlled trial. SpO was recorded up to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Saturations through 9 postnatal weeks were explored graphically, and logistic regression models were created to predict severe ROP.

Setting: 20 centres of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network.

Patients: 984 surviving infants of 24-27 weeks' gestational age born in 2005-2009.

Interventions: SUPPORT targeted SpO to a lower (85%-89%) or higher (91%-95%) range through 36 weeks' postmenstrual age or off respiratory support.

Main Outcome Measures: Severe ROP defined as threshold ROP, ophthalmological surgery or bevacizumab treatment.

Results: There were statistically significant interactions between duration of oxygen supplementation and percentage of time in certain achieved saturation ranges. Specifically, for infants who spent at least 2 weeks on oxygen in postnatal weeks 1-5, a higher percentage of time at 91%-96% SpO was associated with increased odds of severe ROP. For infants who spent at least 3 weeks on oxygen in postnatal weeks 6-9, a higher percentage of time at 97%-100% SpO was associated with increased odds of severe ROP. Other significant risk factors were lower gestational age and birth weight, non-Hispanic white versus black race, prospectively defined severe illness, late-onset sepsis or meningitis, and clinical centre.

Conclusions: Among extremely preterm survivors to discharge, the association between SpO and severe ROP depended on the timing and duration of oxygen supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925651PMC
March 2020

Pain and activity after vaginal reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 09 12;221(3):233.e1-233.e16. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Social, Statistical, and Environmental Sciences, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Background: Little is known about short- and long-term pain and functional activity after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.

Objective: The objectives of the study were to describe postoperative pain and functional activity after transvaginal native tissue reconstructive surgery with apical suspension and retropubic synthetic midurethral sling and to compare these outcomes between patients receiving 2 common transvaginal prolapse repairs, uterosacral ligament, and sacrospinous ligament vaginal vault suspension.

Study Design: This planned secondary analysis of a 2 × 2 factorial randomized trial included 374 women randomized to receive uterosacral (n = 188) or sacrospinous (n = 186) vaginal vault suspension to treat both stages 2-4 apical vaginal prolapse and stress urinary incontinence between 2008 and 2013 at 9 medical centers. Participants were also randomized to receive perioperative pelvic muscle therapy or usual care. All patients received transvaginal native tissue repairs and a midurethral sling. Participants completed the Surgical Pain Scales (0-10 numeric rating scales; higher scores = greater pain) and Activity Assessment Scale (0-100; higher score = higher activity) prior to surgery and at 2 weeks, 4-6 weeks, and 3 months postoperatively. The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was completed at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery; the bodily pain, physical functioning, and role-physical subscales were used for this analysis (higher scores = less disability). Self-reported pain medication use was also collected.

Results: Before surgery, average pain at rest and during normal activity were (adjusted mean ± SE) 2.24 ± 0.23 and 2.76 ± 0.25; both increased slightly from baseline at 2 weeks (+0.65, P = .004, and +0.74, P = .007, respectively) and then decreased below baseline at 3 months (-0.87 and -1.14, respectively, P < .001), with no differences between surgical groups. Pain during exercise/strenuous activity and worst pain decreased below baseline levels at 4-6 weeks (-1.26, P = .014, and -0.95, P = .002) and 3 months (-1.97 and -1.50, P < .001) without differences between surgical groups. Functional activity as measured by the Activity Assessment Scale improved from baseline at 4-6 weeks (+9.24, P < .001) and 3 months (+13.79, P < .001). The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey Bodily Pain, Physical Functioning, and Role-Physical Scales demonstrated significant improvements from baseline at 6, 12, and 24 months (24 months: +5.62, +5.79, and +4.72, respectively, P < .001 for each) with no differences between groups. Use of narcotic pain medications was reported by 14.3% of participants prior to surgery and 53.7% at 2 and 26.1% at 4-6 weeks postoperatively; thereafter use was similar to baseline rates until 24 months when it decreased to 6.8%. Use of nonnarcotic pain medication was reported by 48.1% of participants prior to surgery, 68.7% at 2 weeks, and similar to baseline at 3 months; thereafter use dropped steadily to 26.6% at 2 years. Uterosacral ligament suspension resulted in less new or worsening buttock pain than sacrospinous suspension at 4-6 weeks postoperatively (4.6% vs 10.5%, P = .043) but no difference in groin or thigh pain.

Conclusion: Pain and functional activity improve for up to 2 years after native tissue reconstructive surgery with uterosacral or sacrospinous vaginal vault suspension and midurethral sling for stages 2-4 pelvic organ prolapse. On average, immediate postoperative pain is low and improves to below baseline levels by 4-6 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250460PMC
September 2019

The Diagnosis of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Preterm Infants. An Evidence-based Approach.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 09;200(6):751-759

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Current diagnostic criteria for bronchopulmonary dysplasia rely heavily on the level and duration of oxygen therapy, do not reflect contemporary neonatal care, and do not adequately predict childhood morbidity. To determine which of 18 prespecified, revised definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia that variably define disease severity according to the level of respiratory support and supplemental oxygen administered at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age best predicts death or serious respiratory morbidity through 18-26 months' corrected age. We assessed infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation between 2011 and 2015 at 18 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Of 2,677 infants, 683 (26%) died or developed serious respiratory morbidity. The diagnostic criteria that best predicted this outcome defined bronchopulmonary dysplasia according to treatment with the following support at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, regardless of prior or current oxygen therapy: no bronchopulmonary dysplasia, no support ( = 773); grade 1, nasal cannula ≤2 L/min ( = 1,038); grade 2, nasal cannula >2 L/min or noninvasive positive airway pressure ( = 617); and grade 3, invasive mechanical ventilation ( = 249). These criteria correctly predicted death or serious respiratory morbidity in 81% of study infants. Rates of this outcome increased stepwise from 10% among infants without bronchopulmonary dysplasia to 77% among those with grade 3 disease. A similar gradient (33-79%) was observed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment. The definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia that best predicted early childhood morbidity categorized disease severity according to the mode of respiratory support administered at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, regardless of supplemental oxygen use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201812-2348OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6775872PMC
September 2019
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