Publications by authors named "Marie Furuta"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Family presence during resuscitation in paediatric and neonatal cardiac arrest: A systematic review.

Resuscitation 2021 05 9;162:20-34. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

North York General Hospital, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, 4001 Leslie Street, Toronto, Ontario M3K 3E1, Canada.

Context: Parent/family presence at pediatric resuscitations has been slow to become consistent practice in hospital settings and has not been universally implemented. A systematic review of the literature on family presence during pediatric and neonatal resuscitation has not been previously conducted.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the published evidence related to family presence during pediatric and neonatal resuscitation.

Data Sources: Six major bibliographic databases was undertaken with defined search terms and including literature up to June 14, 2020.

Study Selection: 3200 titles were retrieved in the initial search; 36 ultimately included for review.

Data Extraction: Data was double extracted independently by two reviewers and confirmed with the review team. All eligible studies were either survey or interview-based and as such we turned to narrative systematic review methodology.

Results: The authors identified two key sets of findings: first, parents/family members want to be offered the option to be present for their child's resuscitation. Secondly, health care provider attitudes varied widely (ranging from 15% to >85%), however, support for family presence increased with previous experience and level of seniority.

Limitations: English language only; lack of randomized control trials; quality of the publications.

Conclusions: Parents wish to be offered the opportunity to be present but opinions and perspectives on the family presence vary greatly among health care providers. This topic urgently needs high quality, comparative research to measure the actual impact of family presence on patient, family and staff outcomes.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020140363.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.01.017DOI Listing
May 2021

Evidence-based practice for third- and fourth-degree perineal tears during birth.

Authors:
Marie Furuta

Midwifery 2020 Nov 18;90:102800. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2020.102800DOI Listing
November 2020

2020 International Year of Midwifery-In the midst of a pandemic.

Authors:
Marie Furuta

Midwifery 2020 08 30;87:102739. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2020.102739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191279PMC
August 2020

Effectiveness of Trauma-Focused Psychological Therapies for Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Women Following Childbirth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2018 20;9:591. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Psychology & Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.

Approximately 3% of women in community samples develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. Higher prevalence rates are reported for high risk samples. Postpartum PTSD can adversely affect women's wellbeing, mother-infant relationships and child development. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPT), for postnatal women. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis including all clinical trials which reported post-traumatic stress symptoms for both the intervention and control groups or at least two time-points, pre- and post-intervention. We searched four databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and OpenGrey. Screening of search results, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were undertaken independently by two reviewers. Eleven studies, reported in 12 papers, involving 2,677 postnatal women were included. All were RCTs, bar one case series. Interventions varied in modality, duration and intensity, and included exposure therapy, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and other psychological approaches. Participants had experienced uncomplicated births, emergency cesarean sections and/or preterm births. Results suggest that TFPT are effective for reducing PTSD symptoms in the short term (up to 3 months postpartum [4 RCTs, = 301, SMD = -0.50, 95% CI = -0.73 to -0.27]), and medium term (i.e., 3-6 months postpartum [2 RCTs, = 174, SMD = -1.87, 95% CI = -2.60 to -1.13]). However, there is no robust evidence to suggest whether TFPT can also improve women's recovery from clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Further larger studies, distinguishing between low and high risk groups, and with adequate follow-up, are needed to establish which TFPT are most effective and acceptable for treating postnatal PTSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6255986PMC
November 2018

Interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and women in labour: A mixed-methods systematic review.

Midwifery 2018 Apr 27;59:4-16. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: the objectives of this review were (1) to assess whether interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and healthy women in labour with a term pregnancy could improve birth outcomes and experiences of care; and (2) to synthesize information related to the feasibility of implementation and resources required.

Design: a mixed-methods systematic review.

Setting And Participants: studies which reported on interventions aimed at improving communication between maternity care staff and healthy women during normal labour and birth, with no apparent medical or obstetric complications, and their family members were included. 'Maternity care staff' included medical doctors (e.g. obstetricians, anaesthetists, physicians, family doctors, paediatricians), midwives, nurses and other skilled birth attendants providing labour, birth and immediate postnatal care. Studies from all birth settings (any country, any facility including home birth, any resource level) were included.

Findings: two papers met the inclusion criteria. One was a step wedge randomised controlled trial conducted in Syria, and the other a sub-analysis of a randomised controlled trial from the United Kingdom. Both studies aimed to assess effects of communication training for maternity care staff on women's experiences of labour care. The study from Syria reported that a communication skills training intervention for resident doctors was not associated with higher satisfaction reported by women. In the UK study, patient-actors' (experienced midwives) perceptions of safety and communication significantly improved for postpartum haemorrhage scenarios after training with patient-actors in local hospitals, compared with training using manikins in simulation centres, but no differences were identified for other scenarios. Both studies had methodological limitations.

Key Conclusions And Implications For Practice: the review identified a lack of evidence on impact of interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and healthy women during labour and birth. Very low quality evidence was found on effectiveness of communication training of maternity care staff. Robust studies which are able to identify characteristics of interventions to support effective communication in maternity care are urgently needed. Consideration also needs to be given to how organisations prepare, monitor and sustain interventions to support effective communication, which reflect outcomes of priority for women, local culture and context of labour and birth care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2017.12.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852259PMC
April 2018

Efficacy and safety of pertussis vaccination for pregnant women - a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017 Nov 22;17(1):390. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Radcliffe Primary Care, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, University of Oxford, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK.

Background: Worldwide, pertussis remains a major health problem among children. During the recent outbreaks of pertussis, maternal antenatal immunisation was introduced in several industrial countries. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence for the efficacy and safety of the pertussis vaccination that was given to pregnant women to protect infants from pertussis infection.

Methods: We searched literature in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, and OpenGrey between inception of the various databases and 16 May 2016. The search terms included 'pertussis', 'whooping cough', 'pertussis vaccine,' 'tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccines' and 'pregnancy' and 'perinatal'.

Results: We included 15 articles in this review, which represented 12 study populations, involving a total of 203,835 mother-infant pairs from the US, the UK, Belgium, Israel, and Vietnam. Of the included studies, there were two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and the rest were observational studies. Existing evidence suggests that vaccinations administered during 19-37 weeks of gestation are associated with significantly increased antibody levels in the blood of both mothers and their newborns at birth compared to placebo or no vaccination. However, there is a lack of robust evidence to suggest whether these increased antibodies can also reduce the incidence of pertussis (one RCT, n = 48, no incidence in either group) and pertussis-related severe complications (one observational study) or mortality (no study) in infants. Meanwhile, there is no evidence of increased risk of serious complications such as stillbirth (e.g. one RCT, n = 103, RR = 0, meaning no case in the vaccine group), or preterm birth (two RCTs, n = 151, RR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.14-5.21) related to administration of the vaccine during pregnancy.

Conclusion: Given that pertussis infection is increasing in many countries and that newborn babies are at greatest risk of developing severe complications from pertussis, maternal vaccination in the later stages of pregnancy should continue to be supported while further research should fill knowledge gaps and strengthen evidence of its efficacy and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-017-1559-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700667PMC
November 2017

Family therapy for autism spectrum disorders.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 05 16;5:CD011894. Epub 2017 May 16.

MRC Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, 16 de Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London, UK, SE5 8AF.

Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterised by impairments in communication and reciprocal social interaction. These impairments can impact on relationships with family members, augment stress and frustration, and contribute to behaviours that can be described as challenging. Family members of individuals with ASD can experience high rates of carer stress and burden, and poor parental efficacy. While there is evidence to suggest that individuals with ASD and family members derive benefit from psychological interventions designed to reduce stress and mental health morbidity, and enhance coping, most studies to date have targeted the needs of either individuals with ASD, or family members. We wanted to examine whether family (systemic) therapy, aimed at enhancing communication, relationships or coping, is effective for individuals with ASD and their wider family network.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and acceptability of family therapy as a treatment to enhance communication or coping for individuals with ASD and their family members. If possible, we will also seek to establish the economic costs associated with family therapy for this clinical population.

Search Methods: On 16 January 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 10 other databases and three trials registers. We also handsearched reference lists of existing systematic reviews and contacted study authors in the field.

Selection Criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs investigating the effectiveness of family therapy for young people or adults with ASD or family members, or both, delivered via any modality and for an unspecified duration, compared with either standard care, a wait-list control, or an active intervention such as an alternative type of psychological therapy.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two authors independently screened each title and abstract and all full-text reports retrieved. To enhance rigour, 25% of these were independently screened by a third author.

Main Results: The search yielded 4809 records. Of these, we retrieved 37 full-text reports for further scrutiny, which we subsequently excluded as they did not meet the review inclusion criteria, and identified one study awaiting classification.

Authors' Conclusions: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of family therapy for ASD, and none of these are RCTs. Further research studies employing methodologically robust trial designs are needed to establish whether family therapy interventions are clinically beneficial for enhancing communication, strengthening relationships, augmenting coping and reducing mental health morbidity for individuals with ASD and family members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011894.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6484452PMC
May 2017

Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental illness.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 01 24;1:CD011464. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, King's College London, James Clark Maxwell Building, 57 Waterloo Road, London, UK, SE1 8WA.

Background: Increasing evidence indicates that individuals who develop severe mental illness (SMI) are also vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), due to increased risk of exposure to traumatic events and social adversity. The effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPIs) for PTSD in the general population is well-established. TFPIs involve identifying and changing unhelpful beliefs about traumatic experiences, processing of traumatic memories, and developing new ways of responding to cues associated with trauma. Little is known about the potential feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of TFPIs for individuals who have a SMI and PTSD.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for PTSD symptoms or other symptoms of psychological distress arising from trauma in people with SMI.

Search Methods: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Study-Based Register (up until March 10, 2016), screened reference lists of relevant reports and reviews, and contacted trial authors for unpublished and/or specific outcome data.

Selection Criteria: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which investigated TFPIs for people with SMI and PTSD, and reported useable data.

Data Collection And Analysis: Three review authors (DS, MF, IN) independently screened the titles and abstracts of all references identified, and read short-listed full text papers. We assessed risk of bias in each case. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for binary outcomes, and the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous data, on an intention-to-treat basis. We assessed quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and created 'Summary of findings' tables.

Main Results: Four trials involving a total of 300 adults with SMI and PTSD are included. These trials evaluated three active intervention therapies: trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), and brief psychoeducation for PTSD, all delivered via individual sessions. Our main outcomes of interest were PTSD symptoms, quality of life/well-being, symptoms of co-morbid psychosis, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, adverse events and health economic outcomes. 1. TF-CBT versus usual care/waiting list Three trials provided data for this comparison, however, continuous outcome data available were more often found to be skewed than unskewed, leading to the necessity of conducting analyses separately for the two types of continuous data. Using the unskewed data only, results showed no significant differences between TF-CBT and usual care in reducing clinician-rated PTSD symptoms at short term (1 RCT, n =13, MD 13.15, 95% CI -4.09 to 30.39,low-quality evidence). Limited unskewed data showed equivocal results between groups in terms of general quality of life (1 RCT, n = 39, MD -0.60, 95% CI -4.47 to 3.27, low-quality evidence), symptoms of psychosis (1 RCT, n = 9, MD -6.93, 95% CI -34.17 to 20.31, low-quality evidence), and anxiety (1 RCT, n = 9, MD 12.57, 95% CI -5.54 to 30.68, very low-quality evidence), at medium term. The only available data on depression symptoms were skewed and were equivocal across groups at medium term (2 RCTs, n = 48, MD 3.26, 95% CI -3.66 to 10.18, very low-quality evidence). TF-CBT was not associated with more adverse events (1 RCT, n = 100, RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.09 to 2.31, low-quality evidence) at medium term. No data were available for health economic outcomes. Very limited data for PTSD and other symptoms were available over the long term. 2. EMDR versus waiting listOne trial provided data for this comparison. Favourable effects were found for EMDR in terms of PTSD symptom severity at medium term but data were skewed (1 RCT, n = 83, MD -12.31, 95% CI -22.72 to -1.90, very low-quality evidence). EMDR was not associated with more adverse events (1 RCT, n = 102, RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.85, low-quality evidence). No data were available for quality of life, symptoms of co-morbid psychosis, depression, anxiety and health economics.3. TF-CBT versus EMDROne trial compared TF-CBT with EMDR. PTSD symptom severity, based on skewed data (1 RCT, n = 88, MD -1.69, 95% CI -12.63 to 9.23, very low-quality evidence) was similar between treatment groups. No data were available for the other main outcomes.4. TF-CBT versus psychoeducationOne trial compared TF-CBT with psychoeducation. Results were equivocal for PTSD symptom severity (1 RCT, n = 52, MD 0.23, 95% CI -14.66 to 15.12, low-quality evidence) and general quality of life (1 RCT, n = 49, MD 0.11, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.95, low-quality evidence) by medium term. No data were available for the other outcomes of interest.

Authors' Conclusions: Very few trials have investigated TFPIs for individuals with SMI and PTSD. Results from trials of TF-CBT are limited and inconclusive regarding its effectiveness on PTSD, or on psychotic symptoms or other symptoms of psychological distress. Only one trial evaluated EMDR and provided limited preliminary evidence favouring EMDR compared to waiting list. Comparing TF-CBT head-to-head with EMDR and brief psychoeducation respectively, showed no clear effect for either therapy. Both TF-CBT and EMDR do not appear to cause more (or less) adverse effects, compared to waiting list or usual care; these findings however, are mostly based on low to very low-quality evidence. Further larger scale trials are now needed to provide high-quality evidence to confirm or refute these preliminary findings, and to establish which intervention modalities and techniques are associated with improved outcomes, especially in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011464.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464771PMC
January 2017

Effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological therapies compared to usual postnatal care for treating post-traumatic stress symptoms in women following traumatic birth: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2016 11 24;6(11):e013697. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Maternal mental health has been largely neglected in the literature. Women, however, may be vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress symptoms or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), following traumatic birth. In turn, this may affect their capacity for child rearing and ability to form a secure bond with their baby and impact on the wider family. Trauma-focused psychological therapies (TFPT) are widely regarded as effective and acceptable interventions for PTSD in general and clinical populations. Relatively little is known about the effectiveness of TFPT for women postpartum who have post-traumatic stress symptoms.

Methods And Analysis: We will conduct a review to assess the effectiveness of TFPT, compared with usual postpartum care, as a treatment for post-traumatic stress symptoms or PTSD for women following traumatic birth. Using a priori search criteria, we will search for randomised controlled trials (RCT) in four databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO and OpenGrey. We will use search terms that relate to the population, TFPT and comparators. Screening of search results and data extraction will be undertaken by two reviewers, independently. Risk of bias will be assessed in RCTs which meet the review criteria. Data will be analysed using the following methods, as appropriate: narrative synthesis; meta-analysis; subgroup analysis and meta-regression.

Dissemination And Ethics: As this work comprises a synthesis of existing studies, ethical approvals are not required. Results will be disseminated at conferences and in publications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5168505PMC
November 2016

Spousal violence and receipt of skilled maternity care during and after pregnancy in Nepal.

Midwifery 2016 Dec 19;43:7-13. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Kings College London, Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, James Clerk Maxwell Building, 57 Waterloo Road, London SE18WA, UK.

Objectives: a substantial number of Nepali women experience spousal violence, which affects their health in many ways, including during and after pregnancy. This study aimed to examine associations between women's experiences of spousal violence and their receipt of skilled maternity care, using two indicators: (1) receiving skilled maternity care across a continuum from pregnancy to the early postnatal period and (2) receiving any skilled maternity care in pregnancy, childbirth, or postpartum.

Methods: data were analysed for married women aged 15-49 from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Data were included on women who completed an interview on spousal violence as part of the survey and had given birth within the five years preceding the survey (weighted n=1375). Logistic regression models were developed for analyses.

Results: the proportion of women who received skilled maternity care across the pregnancy continuum and those who received any skilled maternity care was 24.1% and 53.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that spousal violence was statistically significantly associated with receiving low levels of skilled maternity care, after adjusting for accessibility of health care. However, after controlling for women's sociodemographic backgrounds (age, number of children born, educational level, husband's education level, husband's occupation, region of residence, urban/rural residence, wealth index), these significant associations disappeared. Better-educated women, women whose husbands were professionals or skilled workers and women from well-off households were more likely to receive skilled maternity care either across the pregnancy continuum or at recommended points during or after pregnancy.

Conclusion: spousal violence and low uptake of skilled maternity care are deeply embedded in a society in which gender inequality prevails. Factors affecting the receipt of skilled maternity care are multidimensional; simply expanding geographical access to maternity services may not be sufficient to ensure that all women receive skilled maternity care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2016.10.005DOI Listing
December 2016

Predictors of birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms: secondary analysis of a cohort study.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2016 12 13;19(6):987-999. Epub 2016 May 13.

Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, King's College London, James Clerk Maxwell Building, 57 Waterloo Road, London, SE1 8WA, UK.

This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-016-0639-zDOI Listing
December 2016

Debriefing interventions for the prevention of psychological trauma in women following childbirth.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 Apr 10(4):CD007194. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Sergio Arouca National School of Public Health, Women, Children and Adolescent Research Group, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Background: Childbirth is a complex life event that can be associated with both positive and negative psychological responses. When giving birth is experienced as particularly traumatic this can have a negative impact on a woman's postnatal emotional well-being. There has been an increasing focus on women's psychological trauma symptoms following childbirth, including the relatively rare phenomenon of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the benefit of debriefing interventions to prevent this. In this review we examined the evidence for debriefing as a preventative intervention for psychological trauma following childbirth.

Objectives: To assess the effects of debriefing interventions compared with standard postnatal care for the prevention of psychological trauma in women following childbirth.

Search Methods: The trials registers of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (CCDANCTR-References and CCDANCTR-Studies) and the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group were searched up to 4 March 2015. These registers include relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: the Cochrane Library (all years to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). Additional searches were conducted in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. The reference lists of all included studies were checked for additional published reports and citations of unpublished research. Experts in the field were contacted.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials comparing postnatal debriefing interventions with standard postnatal care for the prevention of psychological trauma of women following childbirth. The intervention consisted of at least one debriefing intervention session, which had the purpose of allowing women to describe their experience and to normalise their emotional reaction to that experience.

Data Collection And Analysis: Three authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Meta-analysis was conducted where there were more than two trials examining the same outcomes.

Main Results: We included seven trials (eight articles) from three countries (UK, Australia and Sweden) that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of women contributing data to each outcome varied from 102 to 1745. Methodological quality was variable and most of the studies were of low quality. The quality of evidence for the prevalence of psychological trauma (primary outcome) and the prevalence of depression symptoms was rated low or very low, based on few studies (ranging from a single study to three studies) with high risk of bias in main domains such as performance bias, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and incomplete outcome data. The quality of evidence for the remaining outcomes (that is prevalence of anxiety, prevalence of fear of childbirth, prevalence of general psychological morbidity, health service utilization and attrition from treatment) was not assessed as data were not available.Among women who had a high level of obstetric intervention during labour and birth, we found no difference between standard postnatal care with debriefing and standard postnatal care without debriefing on psychological trauma symptoms within three months postpartum (RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.28 to 1.31; n = 425) or at three to six months postpartum (RR 0.62; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.42; n = 246). The results were based on two trials, respectively. Among women who experienced a distressing or traumatic birth, there was no evidence of an effect of psychological debriefing on the prevention of PTSD (measured by the MINI-PTSD) at four to six weeks postpartum (RR 1.15; 95% CI 0.66 to 2.01; n = 102) or at six months (RR 0.35; 95% CI 0.10 to 1.23; n = 103). The results were based on one small trial. One trial involving low-risk women who delivered healthy infants at or near term reported no significant difference between the intervention group and the control group in the proportion of women who met the diagnostic criteria for psychological trauma during the year following childbirth (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.28; n = 1745). We did not find any information about attrition rates.

Authors' Conclusions: We did not find any high quality evidence to inform practice, with substantial heterogeneity being found between the studies conducted to date. There is little or no evidence to support either a positive or adverse effect of psychological debriefing for the prevention of psychological trauma in women following childbirth. There is no evidence to support routine debriefing for women who perceive giving birth as psychologically traumatic.Future research should provide greater detail of the outcome measures used, and with scales for measuring psychological trauma validated against clinical diagnostic interviews. High rates of obstetric intervention in some birth settings may mean that women require improved emotional care from health professionals to reduce the risk of childbirth being experienced as traumatic. As all included trials excluded women unable to communicate in the native language of the study setting, there is no information on the response of these women to psychological debriefing. No included studies were conducted in low or middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007194.pub2DOI Listing
April 2015

Severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes in the early post-natal period: a prospective cohort study from one English maternity unit.

Matern Child Nutr 2016 10 26;12(4):808-25. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, King's College London, London, UK.

Previous research has identified potential issues of establishing and maintaining breastfeeding among women who experience severe maternal morbidity associated with pregnancy and birth, but evidence in the UK maternity population was scarce. We explored the association between severe maternal morbidity and breastfeeding outcomes (uptake and prevalence of partial and exclusive breastfeeding) at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum in a UK sample. Data on breastfeeding outcomes were obtained from a large cohort study of women who gave birth in one maternity unit in England to assess the impact of women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity (defined as major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorder or high dependency unit/intensive care unit admission) on their post-natal health and other important outcomes including infant feeding. Results indicated that among women who responded (n = 1824, response rate = 53%), there were no statistically significant differences in breastfeeding outcomes between women who did or did not experience severe morbidity, except for women with severe hypertensive disorder who were less likely to breastfeed either partially or exclusively at 6 to 8 weeks post-partum. Rather, breastfeeding outcomes were related to multi-dimensional factors including sociodemographic (age, ethnicity, living arrangement), other pregnancy outcomes (neonatal intensive care unit admission, mode of birth, women's perceived control during birth) and post-natal psychological factors (depressive symptoms). Women who experience severe maternal morbidity can be reassured that establishing successful breastfeeding can be achieved. More studies are required to understand what support is best for women who have complex health/social needs to establish breastfeeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6860128PMC
October 2016

A national cross sectional survey of heads of midwifery services of uptake, benefits and barriers to use of obstetric early warning systems (EWS) by midwives.

Midwifery 2014 Nov 1;30(11):1140-6. Epub 2014 Apr 1.

King׳s College London, Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, London, UK.

Objective: to identify the extent to which Early Warning Systems (EWS) are used by midwives in the United Kingdom (UK), the maternity settings they are used in, physiological parameters used to 'trigger' referral, training provision, barriers to implementation and role in preventing maternal morbidity.

Design: cross-sectional survey of heads of midwifery services. An email questionnaire was sent in September 2012.

Setting: UK NHS secondary care organisations providing maternity care.

Findings: heads of midwifery from 107 (68%) of 157 NHS organisations responded, with 108 questionnaires returned as two organisations had recently merged. All organisations, apart from one which only had a free-standing midwifery unit, had introduced EWS. Nearly all respondents (99%) reported EWS were used by midwives antenatally, 76% in labour and 100% on the postnatal ward. All EWS charts included body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure and oxygen saturation although parameters for escalation varied widely. Barriers to use of EWS by midwives included overlap with the partogram in labour, and staff shortages and delays obtaining clinical review when referral was triggered. Two-thirds considered EWS prevented maternal morbidity although few could provide supporting evidence, for example, audit findings. Training for midwives in use of EWS was available in 83% of organisations.

Conclusion: most UK midwives are using EWS, with the highest use in obstetric units. The heterogeneity of EWS currently used potentially limits collation of evidence to inform appropriate system level responses. Research is needed to evaluate the role of EWS to prevent maternal morbidity during and after pregnancy in different maternity settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2014.03.016DOI Listing
November 2014

The relationship between severe maternal morbidity and psychological health symptoms at 6-8 weeks postpartum: a prospective cohort study in one English maternity unit.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014 Apr 7;14:133. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Department of Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto City, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Background: The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries. However, little has been known about the impact on postnatal morbidity, particularly on psychological health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between severe maternal morbidity (ie. major obstetric haemorrhage, severe hypertensive disorders or intensive care unit/obstetric high dependency unit admission) and postnatal psychological health symptoms, focusing on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 6-8 weeks postpartum.

Method: A prospective cohort study was undertaken of women who gave birth over six months in 2010 in an inner city maternity unit in England. Primary outcomes were prevalence of PTSD symptoms namely: 1) intrusion and 2) avoidance as measured using the Impact of Event Scale at 6 - 8 weeks postpartum via a self-administered postal questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included probable depression. Data on incidence of severe maternal morbidity were extracted from maternity records. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD symptoms taking into account factors that might influence the relationship.

Results: Of women eligible to participate (n=3509), 52% responded. Prevalence of a clinically significant level of intrusion and avoidance were 6.4% (n=114) and 8.4% (n=150) respectively. There was a higher risk of PTSD symptoms among women who experienced severe maternal morbidity compared with women who did not (adjusted OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.17-3.78 for intrusion; adjusted OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 2.01-5.36 for avoidance). Higher ratings of reported sense of control during labour/birth partially mediated the risk of PTSD symptoms. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence or severity of symptoms of depression.

Conclusion: This is one of the largest studies to date of PTSD symptoms among women who had recently given birth. Findings showed that an experience of severe maternal morbidity was independently associated with symptoms of PTSD. Individually tailored care that increases women's sense of control during labour may be a protective factor with further work required to promote effective interventions to prevent these symptoms. Findings have important implications for women's health and the content and organisation of maternity services during and after the birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-14-133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4021064PMC
April 2014

Women's perceptions and experiences of severe maternal morbidity--a synthesis of qualitative studies using a meta-ethnographic approach.

Midwifery 2014 Feb 25;30(2):158-69. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

Kings College London, Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, James Clerk Maxwell Building, 57 Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA, UK. Electronic address:

Background: maternal mortality is a relatively rare event in high-income countries and some middle-income countries. There is however a rising trend in the overall rate of severe maternal morbidity in many of these countries due to the increasingly complex obstetric and medical needs of women who become pregnant. With the aim to identify how women's experiences of health services following severe maternal morbidity could be improved, we explored women's perceptions and experiences of severe maternal morbidity (defined as major obstetric haemorrhage, severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, critical care unit admission) by synthesising evidence from qualitative studies.

Methods: a systematic search of the literature was conducted using multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index (BNI), Web of Science and Scopus, using predetermined search strategies. Studies were selected based on pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The methodological quality of selected qualitative studies was assessed using relevant CASP appraisal tools. Evidence synthesis was undertaken using meta-ethnography. The synthesis involved three steps: (1) ascertaining how studies were related or dissimilar through comparison; (2) translating one study's findings into another and (3) synthesis of the translation.

Findings: 12 studies met inclusion criteria. Synthesis of these studies showed that women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity can be broadly categorised into three areas: experiencing the event of severe maternal morbidity, the immediate reaction to the event (physical experience, perception/interpretation of their situation, and emotion), and the aftermath (either a negative or positive experience), which are all interconnected. Women's experiences of severe maternal morbidity may be influenced by other factors such as the individuals' personal characteristics, pre-existing health conditions, feeling safe within the care provided, availability and accessibility of high quality health care, and their wider social support networks. Importantly, women's perceptions and experiences of severe maternal morbidity could be compounded by inadequate clinical management and care.

Conclusions: an experience of severe maternal morbidity and its subsequent management are physically and emotionally distressing, conjuring negative feelings and emotions and possibly poor postnatal outcomes. Findings suggest the importance of ensuring that the safety and quality of intrapartum interventions and models of postnatal care are enhanced, to reduce or prevent subsequent implications of an acute medical event on women and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2013.09.001DOI Listing
February 2014

A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2012 Nov 10;12:125. Epub 2012 Nov 10.

King's College London, Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery, James Clerk Maxwell Building, 57 Waterloo Road, London, SE1 8WA, UK.

Background: The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women's experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms.

Methods: Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", "pregnancy complications" "puerperal disorders", "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia". Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools.

Results: Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its symptoms, an association possibly mediated by other factors such as fetal/neonatal condition.

Conclusions: Despite the absence of robust evidence regarding the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms, it is crucially important that clinicians and policy makers are aware of a potential higher risk of PTSD among women who experience severe morbidity. Further studies are now needed to confirm this risk as well as to understand underlying mechanisms in order to minimise the longer term psychiatric impact of severe maternal morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-12-125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3582425PMC
November 2012

Factors affecting women's health-related behaviors and safe motherhood: a qualitative study from a refugee camp in eastern Sudan.

Health Care Women Int 2008 Sep;29(8):884-905

Faculty of Nursing, St. Mary's College, Fukuoka, Japan.

We aim to provide a deeper understanding of a broader range of potential factors affecting risk behaviors related to safe motherhood among refugee women in Eastern Sudan, thus creating a basis for further research in behavioral change. Risk behaviors chosen for this study follow (1) practice of female genital cutting, (2) adopting family planning (FP) practices, (3) usage of a skilled birth attendant, and (4) response to obstetric complications. Analyzing findings with the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, we found that factors frequently were uncontrollable for an individual woman, suggesting the importance of a supportive political, social, and educational environment for safe motherhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399330802269600DOI Listing
September 2008

Women's position within the household as a determinant of maternal health care use in Nepal.

Int Fam Plan Perspect 2006 Mar;32(1):17-27

Department of Community Health Nursing, St. Mary's College, Kurume, Japan.

Context: Although gender inequality is often cited as a barrier to improving maternal health in Nepal, little attention has been directed at understanding how sociocultural factors may influence the use of health care. In particular, how a woman's position within her household may affect the receipt of health care deserves further investigation.

Methods: Data on ever-married women aged 15-49 from the 2001 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey were analyzed to explore three dimensions of women's position within their household-decision making, employment and influence over earnings, and spousal discussion of family planning. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship of these variables to receipt of skilled antenatal and delivery care.

Results: Few women reported participation in household decision making, and even fewer had any control over their own earnings. However, more than half reported discussing family planning with their husbands, and there were significant differences among subgroups in these indicators of women's position. Though associations were not consistent across all indicators, spousal discussion of family planning was linked to an increased likelihood of receiving skilled antenatal and delivery care (odds ratios, 1.4 and 1.3, respectively). Women's secondary education was also strongly associated with the greater use of health care (5.1-5.6).

Conclusions: Gender inequality constrains women's access to skilled health care in Nepal. Interventions to improve communication and strengthen women's influence deserve continued support. The strong association of women's education with health care use highlights the need for efforts to increase girls' schooling and alter perceptions of the value of skilled maternal health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1363/3201706DOI Listing
March 2006
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