Publications by authors named "Marie D Mulder"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air in Turkey: Regional Sources and Controlling Factors.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 21;55(14):9434-9443. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Bursa Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, 16310, Yildirim, Bursa, Turkey.

As a result of its unique location, Turkey receives air masses from Europe, Russia, Middle East, and Africa, making it an important place in terms of long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) of contaminants. Atmospheric levels of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 45 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in two metropolitan cities, Istanbul and Izmir, on a weekly basis from May 2014 to May 2015. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its derivatives were dominant OCP species, followed by isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) at both sites. The annual mean concentration of ∑DDX (sum of ,'-DDT, ,'-DDT, ,'-DDD, ,'-DDD, ,'-DDE, and ,'-DDE) was 82 pg/m for Istanbul and 89 pg/m for Izmir, while these levels were about 46 pg/m for ∑HCHs (sum of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-HCH) at both of the sites. At both stations, tri- and tetra-PCBs and tetra- and penta-PBDEs were dominant congeners. The temperature dependence indicates that both LRT and local contaminated areas contribute to the elevated levels. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) showed a few potential source regions in northern Africa and Middle East, southern-southwestern and eastern Europe including Russia, as well as from local domestic metropolitan areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c06272DOI Listing
July 2021

Fast Formation of Nitro-PAHs in the Marine Atmosphere Constrained in a Regional-Scale Lagrangian Field Experiment.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Aug 10;53(15):8914-8924. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Masaryk University , Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment , Kamenice 5 , 625 00 , Brno , Czech Republic.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some of their nitrated derivatives, NPAHs, are seemingly ubiquitous in the atmospheric environment. Atmospheric lifetimes may nevertheless vary within a wide range, and be as short as a few hours. The sources and sinks of NPAH in the atmosphere are not well understood. With a Lagrangian field experiment and modeling, we studied the conversion of the semivolatile PAHs fluoranthene and pyrene into the 2-nitro derivatives 2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene in a cloud-free marine atmosphere on the time scale of hours to 1 day between a coastal and an island site. Chemistry and transport during several episodes was simulated by a Lagrangian box model i.e., a box model coupled to a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART-WRF. It is found that the chemical kinetic data do capture photochemical degradation of the 4-ring PAHs under ambient conditions on the time scale of hours to 1 day, while the production of the corresponding NPAH, which sustained 2-nitrofluoranthene/fluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene/pyrene yields of (3.7 ± 0.2) and (1.5 ± 0.1)%, respectively, is by far underestimated. Predicted levels of NPAH come close to observed ones, when kinetic data describing the reactivity of the OH-adduct were explored by means of theoretically based estimates. Predictions are also underestimated by 1-2 orders of magnitude, when NPAH/PAH yields reported from laboratory experiments conducted under high NO conditions are adopted for the simulations. It is concluded that NPAH sources effective under low NO conditions, are largely underestimated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b03090DOI Listing
August 2019

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of coastal areas of the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Indications for long-term downward trends.

Chemosphere 2017 Jul 27;178:458-465. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Department of Chemistry "Ugo Schiff", University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy; Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes, Italian National Research Council (IDPA-CNR), Dorsoduro, Venice, Italy. Electronic address:

Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition. Among the investigated persistent organic compounds, Hexachlorobenzene was the most abundant, with air concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 50 pg m. In general, the following decreasing concentration order was found for the air samples analyzed: HCB > PeCB > PCBs > DDTs > HCHs. While HCB concentrations were in the same range as those reported in the atmosphere of other Antarctic sampling areas and did not show a decline, HCHs and DDTs levels were lower or similar to those determined one or two decades ago. In general, the very low concentrations reflected the pristine state of the East Antarctica air. Backward trajectories indicated the prevalence of air masses coming from the Antarctic continent. Local contamination and volatilization from ice were suggested as potential sources for the presence of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.02.118DOI Listing
July 2017

Assessing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Sicily Island atmosphere, Mediterranean, using PUF disk passive air samplers.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Oct 31;23(20):20796-20804. Epub 2016 Jul 31.

Dipartimento Scienze fisiche, della Terra e dell'ambiente, Universitá degli Studi di Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.

In this study, PUF disk passive air samplers were deployed at eight sites, during two sampling periods, on the Island of Sicily in the Mediterranean basin. Samples were screened for a number of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (n = 28 congeners), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (n = 16 compounds), and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs n = 28) using GC-MS. PCB concentrations in air ranged ~10-300 pg m. The PCB pattern was dominated by lower to middle molecular weight PCBs (Cl) and PCB-28 and PCB-52 were the most abundant congeners. α- and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) concentrations in air were relatively high ~420 ± 320 (50-1000) and 460 ± 340 (30-1000) pg m, respectively, with an average α/γ ratio of 1 ± 0.5, indicating a tendency of higher use of lindane than of technical HCH. Among DDTs, only p,p'-DDT 90 ± 15 (~10-800) and p,p'-DDE 60 ± 60 (20-400) were frequently detected. DDT/DDE = 0.4-3.0 (1.0 ± 0.7 for both periods) suggesting past and fresh inputs of DDT at the sampling sites. α-Endosulfan, recently included in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention, fluctuated between 120 ± 50 (50-1000) pg m. In contrast, PBDE levels were very low (0.2-2 pg m). Back trajectories of advection suggest that POP levels are mainly related to local sources (primary or secondary) from Sicily (50-70 % contribution of air masses), Southern Italy, and Sardinia (20 %). This study provides new information for POP levels in the atmosphere of the Mediterranean region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7131-1DOI Listing
October 2016

Diurnal Variations of Air-Soil Exchange of Semivolatile Organic Compounds (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs) in a Central European Receptor Area.

Environ Sci Technol 2016 Apr 30;50(8):4278-88. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry , Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air and soil, their fugacities, and the experimental soil-air partitioning coefficient (KSA) were determined at two background sites in the Gt. Hungarian Plain in August 2013. The concentrations of the semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in the soil were not correlated with the organic carbon content but with two indirect parameters of mineralization and aromaticity, suggesting that soil organic matter quality is an important parameter affecting the sorption of SOCs onto soils. Predictions based on the assumption that absorption is the dominant process were in good agreement with the measurements for PAHs, OCPs, and the low chlorinated PCBs. In general, soils were found to be a source of PAHs, high chlorinated PCBs, the majority of OCPs and PBDEs, and a sink for the low chlorinated PCBs and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane. Diurnal variations in the direction of the soil-air exchange were found for two compounds (i.e., pentachlorobenzene and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane), with volatilization during the day and deposition in the night. The concentrations of most SOCs in the near-ground atmosphere were dominated by revolatilization from the soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b05671DOI Listing
April 2016

Air and seawater pollution and air-sea gas exchange of persistent toxic substances in the Aegean Sea: spatial trends of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Aug 25;22(15):11301-13. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic,

Near-ground air (26 substances) and surface seawater (55 substances) concentrations of persistent toxic substances (PTS) were determined in July 2012 in a coordinated and coherent way around the Aegean Sea based on passive air (10 sites in 5 areas) and water (4 sites in 2 areas) sampling. The direction of air-sea exchange was determined for 18 PTS. Identical samplers were deployed at all sites and were analysed at one laboratory. hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradation products are evenly distributed in the air of the whole region. Air concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and o,p'-DDT and seawater concentrations of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were elevated in Thermaikos Gulf, northwestern Aegean Sea. The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener pattern in air is identical throughout the region, while polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE)patterns are obviously dissimilar between Greece and Turkey. Various pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, DDE, and penta- and hexachlorobenzene are found close to phase equilibrium or net-volatilisational (upward flux), similarly at a remote site (on Crete) and in the more polluted Thermaikos Gulf. The results suggest that effective passive air sampling volumes may not be representative across sites when PAHs significantly partitioning to the particulate phase are included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4363-4DOI Listing
August 2015

Spatial distribution of old and emerging flame retardants in Chinese forest soils: sources, trends and processes.

Environ Sci Technol 2015 Mar 19;49(5):2904-11. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Guangzhou 510640, China.

The levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) in soils and their dependence on environmental and anthropological factors were investigated in 159 soil samples from 30 background forested mountain sites across China. Decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) was the most abundant flame retardant (25-18,000 pg g(-1) and 5-13,000 pg g(-1) in O-horizon and A-horizon, respectively), followed by BDE 209 (nd-5900 pg g(-1) and nd-2400 pg g(-1) in O-horizon and A-horizon, respectively). FRs distributions were primarily controlled by source distribution. The distributions of most phasing-out PBDEs, DP isomers and TBPH were in fact correlated to a population density-based index used as proxy of areas with elevated usage and waste of FR containing products. High concentrations of some NBFRs were however observed in industrialized regions and FR manufacturing plants. Strongly positive correlations were observed between PBDEs and their replacement products suggesting similar emission pattern and environmental behavior. Exposure of mineral subsoils depended on precipitations driving leaching of FRs into the soil core. This was especially evident for some emerging BFRs (TBE, TBPH, and TBB etc.) possibly indicating potential for diffuse groundwater contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es505876kDOI Listing
March 2015

Does an analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) distribution in mountain soils across China reveal a latitudinal fractionation paradox?

Environ Pollut 2014 Dec 13;195:115-22. Epub 2014 Sep 13.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address:

Organic and mineral soil horizons from forests in 30 mountains across China were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Soil total organic carbon (TOC) content was a key determinant of PCB distribution explaining over 90% of the differences between organic and mineral soils, and between 30% and 60% of the variance along altitudinal and regional transects. The residual variance (after normalization by TOC) was small. Tri- to tetra-CB levels were higher in the South in relation to high source density and precipitation. Heavier congeners were instead more abundant at mid/high-latitudes where the advection pattern was mainly from long range transport. This resulted in a latitudinal fractionation opposite to theoretical expectations. The study showed that exposure to sources with different characteristics, and possibly accumulation/degradation trends of different congeners in soils being out-of-phase at different latitudes, can lead to an unsteady large scale distribution scenario conflicting with the thermodynamic equilibrium perception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.08.021DOI Listing
December 2014
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