Publications by authors named "Mariasole Magistrali"

5 Publications

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A nationwide study on Sydenham's chorea: Clinical features, treatment and prognostic factors.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Nov 6;36:1-6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Pediatric Rheumatology, Pediatric University Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Objectives: Sydenham's Chorea (SC) is a neuropsychiatric disorder and a major manifestation of acute rheumatic fever. The erroneous assumption that SC is a benign and self-limiting disease, has led to a lack of high-quality scientific evidence of the therapeutical and prognostic features of SC.

Study Design: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients <18-years old with SC in 17 Italian pediatric centers. Recorded data included clinical, instrumental and laboratory parameters. Prognostic risk factors including treatment regimens were assessed with univariate and multivariate sub-analysis.

Results: We included 171 patients with SC. 66% had generalized chorea, and 34% hemichorea. 81% had carditis (subclinical in 65%). Additional neurological symptoms were reported in 60% of the patients, mainly dysarthria and dysgraphia. 51% had neuropsychiatric symptoms at onset, which persisted after 12 months in 10%. Among psychiatric manifestations, the most common was anxiety disorder/depression (77%). Neurological remission was reached by 93% of the patients at 6 months; 9% relapsed. Patients were treated as follows: 11% penicillin alone, 37% immunomodulatory therapy, 16% symptomatic drugs (i.e. anti-seizure medication, dopamine antagonists) and 37% both symptomatic and immunomodulatory treatment. Neurological outcome did not differ between groups. Patients receiving symptomatic drugs had a higher risk of relapse on multivariate analysis (p = 0.045).

Conclusions: Treatment of SC was largely heterogeneous. Based on our results, immunomodulatory therapy did not show higher efficacy at medium term, although it was associated to a slightly lower risk of relapse compared to symptomatic therapy. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess specific risk factors and best treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.11.002DOI Listing
November 2021

Advanced pharmacological therapies for neurofibromatosis type 1-related tumors.

Acta Biomed 2020 06 30;91(7-S):101-114. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant tumor-predisposition disorder that is caused by a heterozygous loss of function variant in the NF1 gene, which encodes a protein called neurofibromin. The absence of neurofibromin causes increased activity in the Rat sarcoma protein (RAS) signalling pathway, which results in an increased growth and cell proliferation. As a result, both oncological and non-oncological comorbidities contribute to a high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Optic pathways gliomas, plexiform neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) are the most frequent NF1-associated tumors. The treatment of these complications is often challenging, since surgery may not be feasible due to the location, size, and infiltrative nature of these tumors, and standard chemotherapy or radiotherapy are burdened by significant toxicity and risk for secondary malignancies. For these reasons, following the novel discoveries of the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in NF1 patients, emerging drugs targeting specific signalling pathways (i.e. the MEK/ERK cascade), have been developed with promising results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7975824PMC
June 2020

Adoptive immunotherapies in neuro-oncology: classification, recent advances, and translational challenges.

Acta Biomed 2020 06 30;91(7-S):18-31. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Uni-versity of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Adoptive immunotherapies are among the pillars of ongoing biological breakthroughs in neuro-oncology, as their potential applications are tremendously wide. The present literature review comprehensively classified adoptive immunotherapies in neuro-oncology, provides an update, and overviews the main translational challenges of this approach.

Methods: The PubMed/MEDLINE platform, Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) database, and ClinicalTrials.gov website were the sources. The MeSH terms "Immunotherapy, Adoptive," "Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy," "Tissue Engineering," and "Cell Engineering" were combined with "Central Nervous System," and "Brain." "Brain tumors" and "adoptive immunotherapy" were used for a further unrestricted search. Only articles published in the last 5 years were selected and further sorted based on the best match and relevance. The search terms "Central Nervous System Tumor," "Malignant Brain Tumor," "Brain Cancer," "Brain Neoplasms," and "Brain Tumor" were used on the ClinicalTrials.gov website.

Results: A total of 79 relevant articles and 16 trials were selected. T therapies include chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cell therapy and T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic therapy. Natural killer (NK) cell-based therapies are another approach; combinations are also possible. Trials in phase 1 and 2 comprised 69% and 31% of the studies, respectively, 8 of which were concluded. CAR T cell therapy targeting epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) was demonstrated to reduce the recurrence rate of glioblastoma after standard-of-care treatment.

Conclusion: Adoptive immunotherapies can be classified as T, NK, and NKT cell-based. CAR T cell therapy redirected against EGFRvIII has been shown to be the most promising treatment for glioblastoma. Overcoming immune tolerance and immune escape are the main translational challenges in the near future of neuro-oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7975830PMC
June 2020

Coexistence of Excessive Weight Gain and Celiac Disease in Children: An Unusual Familial Condition.

Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2019 Jul 18;22(4):407-412. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Service, Unit of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, ICS Maugeri IRCCS, Pavia, Italy.

Excessive weight gain in children diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) is becoming more common. We describe 2 siblings (9-year and 6 months-old female and 6-year and 9 months-old male) with obesity showing attenuated gastrointestinal and atypical symptoms in which CD was diagnosed in the absence of a known family history of CD. After children's diagnosis, CD in their parents was also investigated. It was detected in their father affected by overweight. The presentation of patients with CD has changed. While patients with overweight and obesity commonly have symptoms such as abdominal pain, reflux, headache, and constipation due to lifestyle factors, CD should also be considered in patients with or without a family history of CD. Careful nutritional status assessment and follow-up monitoring after the diagnosis of CD are mandatory, especially in subjects who are already overweight at the presentation of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5223/pghn.2019.22.4.407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629591PMC
July 2019

Fertility Preservation in Pediatric Oncology Patients: New Perspectives.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2018 06 18;7(3):263-269. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Pediatrics and Adolescentology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy .

Over the past 30 years, advances in antineoplastic treatment led to a significant increase in the survival of patients with childhood cancer. In Europe and the United States, 82% of children, adolescents, and young adults survive 5 years from the cancer diagnosis and the majority achieves long-term survival into adulthood. The impact of cancer therapy on fertility is related to the age of the patient and to the duration, dose/intensity, and type of treatment. Exposure to chemotherapy or to radiation to gonads or pituitary brings long-term complications of cancer-directed therapies that include effects on reproductive capacity. Different methods to preserve fertility can be offered. In prepubertal women, ovarian tissue freezing, in vitro maturation, and surgical movement of ovaries outside the field of irradiation are still experimental. In pubertal and postpubertal women, oocyte-embryo freezing is an established option. In men, the options are sperm cryopreservation, gonadal transposition, and testicular tissue or spermatogonial cryopreservation and reimplantation. Fertility risks and provision of strategies to minimize cancer treatment impact fertility include discussion of the tail of the option before cancer treatment. Having to make a decision in a limited time, while still coming to terms with a potentially life-threatening diagnosis, can cause patients to feel overwhelmed. To date, there are no uniform guidelines on how to approach this problem, so it is important to be aware of it for proper clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jayao.2017.0117DOI Listing
June 2018
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