Publications by authors named "Mariano Martini"

70 Publications

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and the "Alice in Wonderland syndrome".

Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

UOC Neurology and Stroke Unit, ASST Lecco, Merate, Italy.

The "Alice in Wonderland syndrome" (AIWS) is a neurological disorder characterized by altered body schema perception, visual, or somesthetic symptoms, which is frequently associated with migraine. In this article, we present the earliest known description of symptoms attributable to AIWS in the medical literature. During a lecture held on November 22, 1887, at the Salpêtrière, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) examined a patient with somesthetic symptoms (partial macrosomatognosia) in the context of migraine with aura. Although this condition was not known at the time, Charcot tried to provide an accurate semiological and nosographic framework of this case, attributing the complex of symptoms to migraine with aura and epilepsy with sensory symptoms. With intellectual honesty and clinical prudence, Charcot correctly pointed to a disturbance in the excitability of cortical areas responsible for processing and perceiving sensory stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05531-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) acute acalculous cholecystitis in an immunocompromised adult patient: a case report and a literature review of a neglected clinical presentation.

J Prev Med Hyg 2021 Mar 29;62(1):E237-E242. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

University of Padova, Italy - IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, Verona, Italy.

Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may present with self-limiting abdominal involvement, characterized by hepatitis with mild elevation of aminotransferases, splenomegaly, and rarely with acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC). Usually, treatment of EBV related AAC is symptomatic, without the need for surgery. Here, we describe a severe case of AAC occurring as the first manifestation of infectious mononucleosis in a young adult woman, receiving treatment with interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6r) inhibitor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA); moreover, we have performed a review of the literature on EBV-related AAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2021.62.1.1859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283645PMC
March 2021

The possible impact of SARS-COV-2 on neglected tropical diseases in Europe: the out of spotlights emerging of schistosomiasis.

J Prev Med Hyg 2021 Mar 29;62(1):E3-E4. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Infectious, Tropical Diseases and Microbiology, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar di Valpolicella, Verona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2021.62.1.1867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283622PMC
March 2021

"You Are Older, although You Do Not Know That": Time, Consciousness, and Memory in "A Kind of Alaska" by Harold Pinter (1930-2008).

Eur Neurol 2021 Jul 20:1-4. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

UOC Neurology and Stroke Unit, ASST Lecco, Merate, Italy.

"A Kind of Alaska" is a one-act play by the British playwright and Nobel Prize winner Harold Pinter (1930-2008), based on the book Awakenings by the neurologist Oliver Sacks (1933-2015). This play, first performed in 1982, is centered around the character of Deborah, a middle-aged woman, struck by encephalitis lethargica ("sleeping sickness") at the age of 16, who wakes up after 29 years of apparent sleep following the injection of an unnamed drug. This article analyzes how Pinter's drama investigated the mysterious and fascinating relationship between time, memory, and consciousness. The term "awakenings," chosen by Sacks himself, clearly refers to the restoration of voluntary motor function in patients with postencephalitic parkinsonism who responded to levodopa. However, it also suggests that these patients had an impairment of awareness. Actually, beyond the acute phase, subjects with postencephalitic parkinsonism were not sleeping but severely akinetic and therefore probably aware of the passage of time. Oliver Sacks probably did not entirely recognize the intrinsic contradiction between prolonged sleep (with consequent impairment of awareness and subjective "time gap") of the acute lethargic phase and the severe akinesia with preserved awareness of the time-passing characteristic of postencephalitic parkinsonism. This confusion was further compounded by Harold Pinter in his play.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517325DOI Listing
July 2021

Fifty years after the eradication of Malaria in Italy. The long pathway toward this great goal and the current health risks of imported malaria.

Pathog Glob Health 2021 Jun 18;115(4):215-223. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

University Museum System of Siena (Simus), History of Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Fifty years ago, Italy was declared a malaria-free country by the World Health Organization (WHO). In remembering this important anniversary, the authors of this paper describe the long journey that led to this goal. In the century following the unification of Italy, malaria was one of the main public health problems. At the end of the 19th century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million, with 15,000-20,000 deaths per year. This manuscript examines the state of public and social health in Italy from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, with particular regard to the government's measures for the prevention, prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. The authors describe the main findings of Italian malariologists during the period under review, from the identification of as a malaria pathogen and the recognition of the mosquito as its vector. They also make some considerations regarding the current situation and the importation of malaria by travelers and migrants from countries where the disease is still endemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20477724.2021.1894394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168761PMC
June 2021

Universal Health Coverage to counteract the economic impact of the COVID-19 infection: current practices and ethical challenges.

J Prev Med Hyg 2020 Dec 14;61(4):E520-E524. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

In late December 2019, the first case of an emerging coronavirus was identified in the city of Wuhan, Hubei province, in mainland China. The novel virus appears to be highly contagious and is rapidly spreading worldwide, becoming a pandemic. The disease is causing a high toll of deaths. Effective public health responses to a new infectious disease are expected to mitigate and counteract its negative impact on the population. However, time and economic-financial constraints, as well as uncertainty, can jeopardize the answer. The aim of the present paper was to discuss the role of Universal Health Coverage to counteract the economic impact of the COVID-19 infection. Appropriate financing of the health system and ensuring equitable access to health services for all can, indeed, protect individuals against high medical costs, which is one of the most important goals of any health system. Financing profoundly affects the performance of the health system, and any policy that the health system decides to implement or not directly depends on the amount of available funding. Developed countries are injecting new funding to cope with the disease and prevent its further transmission. In addition to psychological support and increased societal engagement for the prevention, control, and treatment of COVID-19, extensive financial support to governments by the community should be considered. Developed and rich countries should support countries that do not have enough financial resources. This disease cannot be controlled and contained without international cooperation. The experience of the COVID-19 should be a lesson for further establishing and achieving universal health coverage in all countries. In addition to promoting equity in health, appropriate infrastructure should be strengthened to address these crises. Governments should make a stronger political commitment to fully implement this crucial set of policies and plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.4.1581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888394PMC
December 2020

Assessing Iran's health system according to the COVID-19 strategic preparedness and response plan of the World Health Organization: health policy and historical implications.

J Prev Med Hyg 2020 Dec 14;61(4):E508-E519. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Postgraduate School of Public Health, University of Genoa, Italy.

Background: The role of health systems in the management of disasters, including natural hazards like outbreaks and pandemics, is crucial and vital. Healthcare systems which are unprepared to properly deal with crises are much more likely to expose their public health workers and health personnel to harm and will not be able to deliver healthcare provisions in critical situations. This can lead to a drammatic toll of deaths, even in developed countries. The possible occurrence of global crises has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to devise instruments, guidelines and tools to assess the capacity of countries to deal with disasters. Iran's health system has been hit hardly by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to assess its preparedness and response to the outbreak.

Methods: The present investigation was designed as a qualitative study. We utilized the "COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan" devised by WHO as a conceptual framework.

Results: The dimension/pillar which scored the highest was national laboratories, followed by surveillance, rapid response teams and case investigations. Risk communication and community engagement was another pillar receiving a high score, followed by infection prevention and control and by country-level coordination, planning and monitoring. The pillars/dimensions receiving the lowest scores were operational support and logistics; case management; and points of entry.

Discussion: The COVID-19 pandemic has represented an unprecedent event that has challenged healthcare systems and facilities worldwide, highlighting their weaknesses and the need for inter-sectoral cooperation and collaboration during the crisis. Analyzing these experiences and capitalizing on them, by strengthening them,will help countries to be more prepared to face possible future crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.4.1613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888405PMC
December 2020

THE HISTORY OF SYPHILIS IN THE XVI CENTURY AND THE PIVOTAL ROLE OF LUIGI LUIGINI IN THE RENAISSANCE

Acta Med Hist Adriat 2021 12;18(2):375-397

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. E-mail:

Syphilis is the prime example of a "new disease" which triggered a transnational (European) discussion among physicians. It appeared between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Times (at the beginning of the sixteenth century), a time in which medicine was changing from a dogmatic to an experimental discipline. The main changes were in the field of anatomy: in 1543, the same year of the astronomy-disrupting work by Nicolas Copernicus, the new less dogmatic and more empirical approach to anatomy by Andreas Vesalius was published. Nevertheless, in the Renaissance, medicine remains a tradition-bound discipline, proud of its millennial history and its superiority over the empirical, non-academic healers. When syphilis appeared in Europe, several explanations were elaborated. In the mid-16th century, an Italian doctor Luigi Luigini (born in 1526) published in Venice a collection of all the works on syphilis that appeared until 1566. He wanted to entrust to colleagues, contemporary and future, a compendium of all that was known about the "new" disease (the Latin term Novus means both "new" and "strange"). According to the most authors of the collection, the disease is in fact "new" and "strange". Some authors of the collection find it impossible that authorities like Hippocrates and Galen overlooked it. Luigini's work shows the authors' effort to absorb syphilis in the corpus of academic medicine and affirm the authority of academic physicians against the empirical healers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31952/amha.18.2.9DOI Listing
December 2021

Mapping Research Trends of Universal Health Coverage From 1990 to 2019: Bibliometric Analysis.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 01 11;7(1):e24569. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Universal health coverage (UHC) is one of many ambitious, health-related, sustainable development goals. Sharing various experiences of achieving UHC, in terms of challenges, pitfalls, and future prospects, can help policy and decision-makers reduce the likelihood of committing errors. As such, scholarly articles and technical reports are of paramount importance in shedding light on the determinants that make it possible to achieve UHC.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to conduct a comprehensive analysis of UHC-related scientific literature from 1990 to 2019.

Methods: We carried out a bibliometric analysis of papers related to UHC published from January 1990 to September 2019 and indexed in Scopus via VOSviewer (version 1.6.13; CWTS). Relevant information was extracted: the number of papers published, the 20 authors with the highest number of publications in the field of UHC, the 20 journals with the highest number of publications related to UHC, the 20 most active funding sources for UHC-related research, the 20 institutes and research centers that have produced the highest number of UHC-related research papers, the 20 countries that contributed the most to the research field of UHC, the 20 most cited papers, and the latest available impact factors of journals in 2018 that included the UHC-related items under investigation.

Results: In our analysis, 7224 articles were included. The publication trend was increasing, showing high interest in the scientific community. Most researchers were from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada, with Thailand being a notable exception. The Lancet accounted for 3.95% of published UHC-related research. Among the top 20 funding sources, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) accounted for 1.41%, 1.34%, and 1.02% of published UHC-related research, respectively. The highest number of citations was found for articles published in The Lancet, the American Journal of Psychiatry, and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). The top keywords were "health insurance," "insurance," "healthcare policy," "healthcare delivery," "economics," "priority," "healthcare cost," "organization and management," "health services accessibility," "reform," "public health," and "health policy."

Conclusions: The findings of our study showed an increasing scholarly interest in UHC and related issues. However, most research concentrated in middle- and high-income regions and countries. Therefore, research in low-income countries should be promoted and supported, as this could enable a better understanding of the determinants of the barriers and obstacles to UHC achievement and improve global health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834945PMC
January 2021

Missed opportunities in tb clinical practice: How to bend the curve? A medical, social, economic and ethical point of view.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2021 01 29;126:102041. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

StopTB Italia Onlus, Milan, Italy; Regional TB Reference Centre, Istituto Villa Marelli, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2020.102041DOI Listing
January 2021

From inoculation to vaccination: the fight against smallpox in Siena in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Infez Med 2020 Dec;28(4):634-641

University of Genoa, Department of Health Science, Genoa, Italy; UNESCO CHAIR "Anthropology of Health - Biosphere and Healing System" University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; Stop TB Italia Onlus, Milan, Italy.

Smallpox is a contagious viral disease. In the fight against smallpox, stimulation of the immune system by means of inoculation of human smallpox and subsequent vaccination constituted a very important step forward in the history of medicine. First reported in ancient Greece and in the Egypt of the Pharaohs, smallpox reappeared in the middle of the 16th century, becoming the leading endemic disease in the following century and periodically causing hundreds of thousands of deaths. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Europe was afflicted by numerous epidemics. While their consequences in large urban centres are well known, we know little about the diffusion, morbidity and mortality of the disease in rural areas. To shed light on this issue, we scrutinised the main initial experiences of the use of inoculation in Siena and the scientific, healthcare, social and political consequences that stemmed from them.
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December 2020

The 'Health Transformation Plan' in Iran: A policy to achieve universal health coverage in slums and informal settlement areas.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Mar 29;36(2):267-272. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), School of Public Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Universal health coverage (UHC) is one of the strategies that health decision- and policy-makers worldwide are implementing to guarantee a good health status to everyone. Living in slums is characterized by several issues, including homelessness and malnutrition, environmental challenges, lack of sanitation and access to safe, healthy drinking water, waste disposal problems, widespread social disruptions, job insecurity, feelings of dissatisfaction and inadequacy. In Iran, the 'Health Transformation Plan' (HTP), despite its weaknesses, has had good effects on the health level of people living in slums, ensuring insurance coverage and reducing many economic, social and cultural problems, with a dramatic decline in out-of-pocket expenditures. Good governmental financial support and an adequate revision of the initial packages of health services and provisions have resulted in a higher access rate to healthcare. The HTP has been, indeed, a major step towards reaching UHC in Iran. If policy- and decision-makers can further improve the present situation and provide more and better-quality services to these people, it can be expected that health indicators in suburbs will be significantly improved. Researchers should monitor the impact of HTP and examine its effects on health indicators, specifically among particularly vulnerable groups such as children, women and the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3082DOI Listing
March 2021

From the past, a long way to future challenges for a greater control of tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2020 07 6;123:101948. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

StopTB Italia Onlus, Milan, Italy; Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis (TB) and humans have coexisted for more than 40,000 years; however TB remains a global threat to human kind. The international community has developed new tools for early detection, but TB strains evolved acquiring resistance to first-line therapeutic drugs with increasing treatment challenges. Furthermore, TB has formed also an alliance with human immunodeficiency virus; in this way the poorest populations are most affected. The current vaccine planning activity includes 14 new vaccines against TB (11 of those in the phaseII/III) developed with different techniques. Now, more than ever, new anti-TB drugs and new anti-TB regimens are urgently required as well as universal health care and social protection in order to tackle down both hard to treat TB and the social determinants of TB. Coordinated actions and sharing of information are needed to aspire everywhere to the best clinical practices and improve quality of life of patients and their families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2020.101948DOI Listing
July 2020

"Spreading the word of the master": the contribution of Italian physicians in the early dissemination of Jean-Martin Charcot's theories.

Neurol Sci 2020 Dec 25;41(12):3787-3794. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

, Brou, France.

Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) laid the foundations of modern neurology. The lectures he gave at La Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris attracted a large number of visitors from all over the world. Some of them transcribed these clinical lessons, translating and publishing them when returning home. This article discusses the contribution of some Italian physicians (Gaetano Rummo, 1853-1917; Domenico Miliotti; Giulio Melotti, 1857-19?; and Augusto Tebaldi, 1833-1895), who were pioneers in disseminating the ideas and discoveries of Charcot. The early Italian translations were based on personal handwritten notes and memories, not relying on official French versions personally revised or edited by Charcot himself. As such, their veracity cannot always be verified, particularly in the lack of other independent works reporting details on the same lectures. However, the Italian transcriptions providing information which cannot be found elsewhere in Charcot's corpus of works represent an invaluable and a unique source for fully understanding some theories by the French neurologist. Furthermore, they are the first documents providing original materials related to Charcot's teaching translated in a foreign language. The first Italian publications that included photographs of patients were deeply influenced by and clearly modeled on the famous volumes of the Iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière and further contributed to the early dissemination of Charcot's theories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04606-zDOI Listing
December 2020

The Greek hero Achilles and his mysterious death: transdisciplinary analysis of the gouty hypothesis.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jan-Feb;39(1):17-20. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Health Science, University of Genova, Italy.

Achilles is a character of Greek mythology whose deeds are mainly told in the Iliad by Homer. Achilles distinguishes himself on the battlefield of Troy with his dexterity and strength, appearing invincible, yet he dies wounded by an arrow in his heel. How could an arrow shot to the heel kill anybody, no matter whether vulnerable or invulnerable? Many researchers have tried to give a medical explanation to this mythological conundrum starting from a literary interpretation of the Homeric text: poisoning, infection, allergy, haemophilia or thyroid storm. In a way, the oldest medical interpretation was suggested by Lucian of Samosata (ca. 120 to after 180 AD). In his parodic tragedy "Gout", he claimed that the warrior actually died of gout. In this article we consider the gouty hypothesis and analyse the clinical aspects that support it.
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February 2021

Tuberculosis. The never ending story: past, present and future challenge (Part I).

J Prev Med Hyg 2020 Mar 30;61(1 Suppl 1):E1-E27. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.1s1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263066PMC
March 2020

HIV and tuberculosis: The paradox of dual illnesses and the challenges of their fighting in the history.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2020 05 25;122:101921. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

StopTB Italia Onlus, Milan, Italy.

Tuberculosis is an ancient infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is still nowadays afflicting humans all over the world. It causes ill-health for 10 million people each year. Tuberculosis (TB) has been the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. In recent years, infection with HIV represents a major risk factor predisposing for infection and TB is the most common cause of AIDS-related death. Despite the treatment of HIV-associated TB has essentially retraced that recommended in HIV-negative cases, it has disclosed some additional challenges over the years. The association of delayed and missed diagnoses, logistic accidents and some well-known complications of HIV and TB treatment co-administration has contributed to 300,000 people living with HIV died from a preventable and curable disease like TB in 2017. The evaluation of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches with the struggle to erase stigma are essential to successfully manage HIV-TB coinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2020.101921DOI Listing
May 2020

[Pope Pius XII in the History of Radiology: St. Michael the Archangel Protector of Radiologists].

Acta Med Hist Adriat 2019 12;17(2):337-346

ezione di Storia della Medicina e di Etica, Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute (DISSAL), Università di Genova, Via A. Pastore 1, 16132 Genova, Italia. E-mail:

In 1933 the Professors of Genoa School of Medicine V. Maragliano, GB. Cardinale, and A. Vallebona proposed to designate Saint Michael the Archangel as Patron Saint and Protector of Radiologists. The proposal of Italian radiology scientists was immediately accepted by colleagues with great enthusiasm. A petition was then sent to Pope Pius XII to obtain official recognition by the Catholic Church. The choice of the Holy Archangel Michael was argued by the Professors because he is the Saint who, in religious iconography, is the one who wears armor, is the guardian of paradise, and leads souls to God. Moreover, the Saint represents the triumph of the Light of Good against the darkness of evil. On January 15, 1941, the Sacred Congregation of Rites issued the decree that constituted: "Sanctus Michael, Archangelus pro radiologis et radiumtherapeuticis patronus et protector declaratus".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31952/amha.17.2.10DOI Listing
December 2019

How Big Data and Artificial Intelligence Can Help Better Manage the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 2;17(9). Epub 2020 May 2.

Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada.

SARS-CoV2 is a novel coronavirus, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic declared by the World Health Organization. Thanks to the latest advancements in the field of molecular and computational techniques and information and communication technologies (ICTs), artificial intelligence (AI) and Big Data can help in handling the huge, unprecedented amount of data derived from public health surveillance, real-time epidemic outbreaks monitoring, trend now-casting/forecasting, regular situation briefing and updating from governmental institutions and organisms, and health facility utilization information. The present review is aimed at overviewing the potential applications of AI and Big Data in the global effort to manage the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246824PMC
May 2020

History of use and abuse of X-ray: the early 20th century Italian pediatrics school.

Acta Biomed 2020 03 19;91(1):113-117. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

.

In our paper we report a brief history of the X-rays discovery and discuss the implications of their use and abuse in the Italian pedriatic schools of the early 20th century. Indeed, history of the X-ray treatment in the Italian Pediatric School has not yet been well studied. Even if the scientific experience of many physicians is well known in literature, a summary was missing. In Italy, in 1900, exposure to Röntgenand ultraviolet radiation or to large amounts of solar rays was a widespread medical practice, especially in several pediatric schools. During those years, diagnosis and treatment of childhood pathologies underwent considerable changes, especially after the twenties, when scientists developed an unquestionable trust in the therapeutic properties of radiation, considered harmless at that time. We report the main steps of the scientific research of the early 20th century in Italy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i1.8646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569597PMC
March 2020

Correction to: Fedor Krause (1857-1937): the father of neurosurgery.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Feb;44(1):617

Section of History of Medicine and Ethics, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-020-01264-9DOI Listing
February 2021

From Rheumatology 1.0 to Rheumatology 4.0 and beyond: the contributions of Big Data to the field of rheumatology.

Mediterr J Rheumatol 2019 Mar;30(1):3-6

Postgraduate School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31138/mjr.30.1.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6959971PMC
March 2019

Fedor Krause (1857-1937): the father of neurosurgery.

Neurosurg Rev 2020 Dec 7;43(6):1443-1449. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Section of History of Medicine and Ethics, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Fedor Krause's inspiring biography shows the value of translational thinking: one of the fathers of modern neurosurgery, this gifted child was recognized for his musical talent; he was able to study medicine thanks to financial support in recognition for his study performances. He wrote his doctor thesis on pneumology, and contributed to general surgery, neuroanaesthesiology, and neurosurgery application of novel technologies in neurosurgery and ethics. More in detail, in the neurosurgical field, he performed the first lumbar discectomy, set up intraoperative nerve monitoring, and pioneered trigeminal and acusticus nerve surgery, epilepsy surgery, and cortical mapping. His passion and engagement for surgery allowed him to make small centers turn into great centers recognized as renowned academic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-019-01186-1DOI Listing
December 2020

The Never-Ending Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi in the Field of Medicine 150 Years After His Birth.

Isr Med Assoc J 2019 Oct;21(10):641-643

UNESCO Chair, Health Anthropology Biosphere and Healing Systems, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

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October 2019

De morbo gallico omnia quae extant apud omnes medicos cuiuscunque nationis: the sixteenth-century collection of Luigi Luigini.

Infez Med 2019 Sep;27(3):350-352

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

In recent decades, a rising rate of syphilis infection, often in association with HIV, has been recorded in Europe. In the first years following their appearance, syphilis and HIV shared the character of "new", challenging and serious diseases. The prime example of a "new disease", syphilis appeared between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance period, a time in which medicine was changing from a dogmatic to an experimental discipline. Luigi Luigini's collection of all the works on syphilis that had appeared to date (1566) offers a unique and significant insight into the discussion of the novelty of this disease, even after half a millennium.
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September 2019

"It's time!" …to make a change: Cat Stevens' commitment to the elimination of tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2019 09 6;118:101857. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2019.101857DOI Listing
September 2019

[The History of Beta Thalassaemia in Sardinia: The Contribution of the Italian Schools of Pediatrics].

Acta Med Hist Adriat 2019 06;17(1):65-90

Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padua, Via N. Giustiniani, n. 2 - 35128 Padua, Italy. E‑mail:

Beta thalassaemia represents one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. High prevalence is present in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Far East. The highest incidences are reported in Cyprus, South East Asia and Sardinia and are most likely related to the selective pressure from Pl. falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. InSardinia, because of the health relevance of beta thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathies and after the publication of the first scientific research on Cooley's anaemia, important Schools of Paediatrics and Clinical Genetics have been set up, which have contributed to defining diagnostic criteria, therapeutic and preventive measures (especially, newborn screening). The aim of the present study is to examine the results of the first scientific research made by the Sardinian Schools of Paediatrics and Clinical Genetics, from 1929 to 1957.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31952/amha.17.1.4DOI Listing
June 2019

Neurotuberculosis at the time of Anna O.: life prospects.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Jul 16;402:86-87. Epub 2019 May 16.

University of Genoa, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.05.013DOI Listing
July 2019

Googling for Neurological Disorders: From Seeking Health-Related Information to Patient Empowerment, Advocacy, and Open, Public Self-Disclosure in the Neurology 2.0 Era.

J Med Internet Res 2021 03 26;23(3):e13999. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Since its introduction, the internet has played a major role in reshaping patient-physician communication and interactions, having fostered a shift from a paternalistic to a patient-centered model. Because of its dynamic nature, the internet has been used as a platform to not only disseminate knowledge-favored by improved access to an increasing wealth of available resources-but also to spread advocacy and awareness, contribute to fund-raising, and facilitate open, public self-disclosure of one's own disease, thus eliminating any taboo and reducing the stigma associated with it. The era of Medicine 2.0 is characterized by openness, collaboration, participation, and social networking. The current situation is completely different from the time when Lorenzo Odone's parents, after his diagnosis of adrenoleukodystrophy, decided to attend medical school in order to collect information about a devastating, unknown disease and had to contend with medical authorities at that establishment to convince them of the alleged effectiveness and safety of their discovered therapeutics. Orphan and rare neurological diseases have currently received recognition on web-based resources. However, while the intention is not to ridicule Odone's family legacy and the "complicated lessons" they have reported, some issues should be carefully addressed by health authorities, such as the reputability, reliability, and accuracy of material available on the internet and prevention of the dissemination of material that could instill illusions and unjustified hopes in individuals seeking medical treatment. Neurologists should be aware of such digital resources, participate in web-based activities, and recommend select high-quality websites to their patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/13999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088864PMC
March 2021

The Intriguing Story of Jews' Resistance to Tuberculosis, 1850-1920.

Isr Med Assoc J 2019 Mar;21(3):222-228

Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Department of Medicine B, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

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March 2019
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