Publications by authors named "Marianne Sadler"

7 Publications

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Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

Genetics 2015 Aug 19;200(4):1051-60. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612.

The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California-San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The project, which generated >70 billion genotypes, represents the first large-scale use of the Affymetrix Axiom Genotyping Solution. Because genotyping took place over a short 14-month period, creating a near-real-time analysis pipeline for experimental assay quality control and final optimized analyses was critical. Because of the multi-ethnic nature of the cohort, four different ethnic-specific arrays were employed to enhance genome-wide coverage. All assays were performed on DNA extracted from saliva samples. To improve sample call rates and significantly increase genotype concordance, we partitioned the cohort into disjoint packages of plates with similar assay contexts. Using strict QC criteria, the overall genotyping success rate was 103,067 of 109,837 samples assayed (93.8%), with a range of 92.1-95.4% for the four different arrays. Similarly, the SNP genotyping success rate ranged from 98.1 to 99.4% across the four arrays, the variation depending mostly on how many SNPs were included as single copy vs. double copy on a particular array. The high quality and large scale of genotype data created on this cohort, in conjunction with comprehensive longitudinal data from the KP electronic health records of participants, will enable a broad range of highly powered genome-wide association studies on a diversity of traits and conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.178905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574249PMC
August 2015

Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

Genetics 2015 Aug 19;200(4):1061-72. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2517

The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement was considered an important biomarker to develop on these subjects. To assay relative telomere length (TL) on this large cohort over a short time period, we created a novel high throughput robotic system for TL analysis and informatics. Samples were run in triplicate, along with control samples, in a randomized design. As part of quality control, we determined the within-sample variability and employed thresholds for the elimination of outlying measurements. Of 106,902 samples assayed, 105,539 (98.7%) passed all quality control (QC) measures. As expected, TL in general showed a decline with age and a sex difference. While telomeres showed a negative correlation with age up to 75 years, in those older than 75 years, age positively correlated with longer telomeres, indicative of an association of longer telomeres with more years of survival in those older than 75. Furthermore, while females in general had longer telomeres than males, this difference was significant only for those older than age 50. An additional novel finding was that the variance of TL between individuals increased with age. This study establishes reliable assay and analysis methodologies for measurement of TL in large, population-based human studies. The GERA cohort represents the largest currently available such resource, linked to comprehensive electronic health and genotype data for analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.178624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574243PMC
August 2015

Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

Genetics 2015 Aug 19;200(4):1285-95. Epub 2015 Jun 19.

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0794 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158-2549 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612-2304

Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.115.178616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4574246PMC
August 2015

Next generation genome-wide association tool: design and coverage of a high-throughput European-optimized SNP array.

Genomics 2011 Aug 30;98(2):79-89. Epub 2011 Apr 30.

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0794, CA, USA.

The success of genome-wide association studies has paralleled the development of efficient genotyping technologies. We describe the development of a next-generation microarray based on the new highly-efficient Affymetrix Axiom genotyping technology that we are using to genotype individuals of European ancestry from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH). The array contains 674,517 SNPs, and provides excellent genome-wide as well as gene-based and candidate-SNP coverage. Coverage was calculated using an approach based on imputation and cross validation. Preliminary results for the first 80,301 saliva-derived DNA samples from the RPGEH demonstrate very high quality genotypes, with sample success rates above 94% and over 98% of successful samples having SNP call rates exceeding 98%. At steady state, we have produced 462 million genotypes per week for each Axiom system. The new array provides a valuable addition to the repertoire of tools for large scale genome-wide association studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146553PMC
August 2011

Statin use and risk of prostate cancer in the California Men's Health Study cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 Nov 30;16(11):2218-25. Epub 2007 Oct 30.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, 2000 Broadway, 5th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612, USA.

Statins have known anticarcinogenic effects, however, evidence for long-term statin use as effective chemoprevention for prostate cancer is inconsistent. We examined the association between statin use and risk of prostate cancer among 69,047 eligible participants in the California Men's Health Study, a prospective cohort of Northern and Southern California Kaiser Permanente (KP) members, ages 45 to 69 years, initiated in 2002. Prostate cancer cases were identified by linkage to the KP California Cancer Registries. Statin exposure, estimated from automated KP outpatient pharmacy records (available since 1991 in Southern California and since 1994 in Northern California), was treated as time-varying and defined as the cumulative days dispensed of any statin from the first dispensing until a prostate cancer diagnosis, radical prostatectomy, termination of membership, or end of study (December 31, 2004). Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time scale were used to estimate rate ratios, while controlling for confounding variables. During follow-up, 888 prostate cancer cases, including 131 advanced cases, were identified. There was no association between ever statin use or <5 years use and prostate cancer. Conversely, >or=5 years use was associated with a 28% lower risk for prostate cancer compared with nonuse (adjusted rate ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.99). This association did not differ markedly for advanced disease. However, the association did seem to be restricted to those who regularly take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Our findings suggest that long-term statin use might be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer but perhaps only among regular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0197DOI Listing
November 2007

Correlates of screening sigmoidoscopy use among men in a large nonprofit health plan.

Cancer 2007 Jul;110(2):275-81

Research & Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California 91101, USA.

Background: As the majority of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer have no known risk factors, regular screening is strongly recommended. The authors examined factors associated with screening sigmoidoscopy use among participants in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS).

Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study over a 5-year period nested within a prospective cohort study. The CMHS enrolled a large multiethnic cohort (n = 84,170) of men from 2 major California health plans. Because screening sigmoidoscopy was the preferred and most commonly used test for patients at average risk of colorectal cancer in the health plans, the authors excluded from the analysis men who completed a barium enema colonoscopy or a fecal occult blood test.

Results: Eligible subjects included 39,559 men at average risk for colorectal cancer. Prevalence of screening sigmoidoscopy use decreased with older age and increased with higher education and household income over the 5-year study period. Compared with whites, Asians (adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.30-1.56) and African Americans (adjusted OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.29) were more likely to undergo screening sigmoidoscopy. Screening increased with the number of outpatient visits and with having a primary care provider in internal medicine. Men who did not undergo prostate-specific antigen testing were also less likely to undergo sigmoidoscopy screening. Only 24.5% of current smokers had a screening sigmoidoscopy examination and were 25% less likely to undergo this procedure compared with nonsmokers (adjusted OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69-0.82).

Conclusions: In this insured population for whom financial barriers are minimized, screening sigmoidoscopy use was as low as reported in the general population. However, minority patients were not less likely to be screened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22775DOI Listing
July 2007

California Men's Health Study (CMHS): a multiethnic cohort in a managed care setting.

BMC Public Health 2006 Jun 30;6:172. Epub 2006 Jun 30.

Department of Research & Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Pasadena, CA 91188, USA.

Background: We established a male, multiethnic cohort primarily to study prostate cancer etiology and secondarily to study the etiologies of other cancer and non-cancer conditions.

Methods/design: Eligible participants were 45-to-69 year old males who were members of a large, prepaid health plan in California. Participants completed two surveys on-line or on paper in 2002-2003. Survey content included demographics; family, medical, and cancer screening history; sexuality and sexual development; lifestyle (diet, physical activity, and smoking); prescription and non-prescription drugs; and herbal supplements. We linked study data with clinical data, including laboratory, hospitalization, and cancer data, from electronic health plan files. We recruited 84,170 participants, approximately 40% from minority populations and over 5,000 who identified themselves as other than heterosexual. We observed a wide range of education (53% completed less than college) and income. PSA testing rates (75% overall) were highest among black participants. Body mass index (BMI) (median 27.2) was highest for blacks and Latinos and lowest for Asians, and showed 80.6% agreement with BMI from clinical data sources. The sensitivity and specificity can be assessed by comparing self-reported data, such as PSA testing, diabetes, and history of cancer, to health plan data. We anticipate that nearly 1,500 prostate cancer diagnoses will occur within five years of cohort inception.

Discussion: A wide variety of epidemiologic, health services, and outcomes research utilizing a rich array of electronic, biological, and clinical resources is possible within this multiethnic cohort. The California Men's Health Study and other cohorts nested within comprehensive health delivery systems can make important contributions in the area of men's health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1569841PMC
June 2006
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