Publications by authors named "Mariana Guerra-Maupome"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Recombinant BCG Vaccine Is Safe and Immunogenic in Neonatal Calves and Reduces the Clinical Disease Caused by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:664212. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventative Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) constitutes a major health burden, causing millions of hospitalizations in children under five years old worldwide due to acute lower respiratory tract infections. Despite decades of research, licensed vaccines to prevent hRSV are not available. Development of vaccines against hRSV targeting young infants requires ruling out potential vaccine-enhanced disease presentations. To achieve this goal, vaccine testing in proper animal models is essential. A recombinant BCG vaccine that expresses the Nucleoprotein of hRSV (rBCG-N-hRSV) protects mice against hRSV infection, eliciting humoral and cellular immune protection. Further, this vaccine was shown to be safe and immunogenic in human adult volunteers. Here, we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the rBCG-N-hRSV vaccine in a neonatal bovine RSV calf infection model. Newborn, colostrum-replete Holstein calves were either vaccinated with rBCG-N-hRSV, WT-BCG, or left unvaccinated, and then inoculated aerosol challenge with bRSV strain 375. Vaccination with rBCG-N-hRSV was safe and well-tolerated, with no systemic adverse effects. There was no evidence of vaccine-enhanced disease following bRSV challenge of rBCG-N-hRSV vaccinated animals, suggesting that the vaccine is safe for use in neonates. Vaccination increased virus-specific IgA and virus-neutralization activity in nasal fluid and increased the proliferation of virus- and BCG-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PBMCs and lymph nodes at 7dpi. Furthermore, rBCG-N-hRSV vaccinated calves developed reduced clinical disease as compared to unvaccinated control calves, although neither pathology nor viral burden were significantly reduced in the lungs. These results suggest that the rBCG-N-hRSV vaccine is safe in neonatal calves and induces protective humoral and cellular immunity against this respiratory virus. These data from a newborn animal model provide further support to the notion that this vaccine approach could be considered as a candidate for infant immunization against RSV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.664212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108697PMC
April 2021

Characterization of local and circulating bovine γδ T cell responses to respiratory BCG vaccination.

Sci Rep 2019 11 5;9(1):15996. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

The Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is administered parenterally to infants and young children to prevent tuberculosis (TB) infection. However, the protection induced by BCG is highly variable and the vaccine does not prevent pulmonary TB, the most common form of the illness. Until improved TB vaccines are available, it is crucial to use BCG in a manner which ensures optimal vaccine performance. Immunization directly to the respiratory mucosa has been shown to promote greater protection from TB in animal models. γδ T cells play a major role in host defense at mucosal sites and are known to respond robustly to mycobacterial infection. Their positioning in the respiratory mucosa ensures their engagement in the response to aerosolized TB vaccination. However, our understanding of the effect of respiratory BCG vaccination on γδ T cell responses in the lung is unknown. In this study, we used a calf model to investigate the immunogenicity of aerosol BCG vaccination, and the phenotypic profile of peripheral and mucosal γδ T cells responding to vaccination. We observed robust local and systemic M. bovis-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 production by both γδ and CD4 T cells. Importantly, BCG vaccination induced effector and memory cell differentiation of γδ T cells in both the lower airways and peripheral blood, with accumulation of a large proportion of effector memory γδ T cells in both compartments. Our results demonstrate the potential of the neonatal calf model to evaluate TB vaccine candidates that are to be administered via the respiratory tract, and suggest that aerosol immunization is a promising strategy for engaging γδ T cells in vaccine-induced immunity against TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-52565-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831659PMC
November 2019

Vitamin A deficiency impairs the immune response to intranasal vaccination and RSV infection in neonatal calves.

Sci Rep 2019 10 22;9(1):15157. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Ames, IA, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is one of the most prevalent nutrition-related health problems in the world and is a significant risk factor in the development of severe respiratory infections in infants and young children. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is a primary cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young cattle. The calf model of BRSV infection is useful to understand the immune response to human RSV infection. We have previously developed an amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticle (NP)-based vaccine (i.e., nanovaccine) encapsulating the fusion and attachment proteins from BRSV (BRSV-NP). Calves receiving a single, intranasal dose of the BRSV-NP vaccine are partially protected from BRSV challenge. Here, we evaluated the impact of VAD on the immune response to the BRSV-NP vaccine and subsequent challenge with BRSV. Our results show that VAD calves are unable to respond to the mucosal BRSV-NP vaccine, are afforded no protection from BRSV challenge and have significant abnormalities in the inflammatory response in the infected lung. We further show that acute BRSV infection negatively impacts serum and liver retinol, rendering even well-nourished individuals susceptible to VAD. Our results support the use of the calf model for elucidating the impact of nutritional status on mucosal immunity and respiratory viral infection in infants and underline the importance of VA in regulating immunity in the respiratory mucosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51684-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805856PMC
October 2019

Gamma Delta T Cell Function in Ruminants.

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2019 Nov;35(3):453-469

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, 1907 Christensen Drive, VMRI Building 5, Ames, IA 50010, USA. Electronic address:

Gamma delta (γδ) T cells constitute a major lymphocyte population in peripheral blood and epithelial surfaces. They play nonredundant roles in host defense against diverse pathogens. Although γδ T cells share functional features with other cells of the immune system, their distinct methods of antigen recognition, rapid response, and tissue tropism make them a unique effector population. This review considers the current state of our knowledge on γδ T cell biology in ruminants and the important roles played by this nonconventional T cell population in protection against several infectious diseases of veterinary and zoonotic importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2019.08.001DOI Listing
November 2019

Characterization of γδ T Cell Effector/Memory Subsets Based on CD27 and CD45R Expression in Response to Infection.

Immunohorizons 2019 06 12;3(6):208-218. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010; and

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious diseases worldwide. is the causative agent of bovine TB and zoonotic TB infection. γδ T cells are known to participate in the immune control of mycobacterial infections. Data in human and nonhuman primates suggest that mycobacterial infection regulates memory/effector phenotype and adaptive immune functions of γδ T cells. To date, the impact of infection on bovine γδ T cells and their effector and memory differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we show that circulating γδ T cells from -infected cattle can be differentiated based on the expression of CD27, which is indicative of their capacity to respond to virulent infection: CD27 γδ T cells proliferated in response to Ag and, thus, may comprise the adaptive γδ T cell compartment in cattle. We further show that bovine -specific γδ T cells express surface markers characteristic of central memory T cells (CD45RCD27CD62L) and that -specific CD4 and γδ T cells both upregulate the expression of the tissue-homing receptors CXCR3 and CCR5 during infection. Our studies contribute significantly to our understanding of γδ T cell differentiation during TB infection and provide important insights into the link between phenotypic and functional subsets in the bovine. Accurate characterization of γδ T cell effector and memory-like responses induced during mycobacterial infection will contribute to improved strategies for harnessing the γδ T cell response in protection against TB for humans and animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/immunohorizons.1900032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875775PMC
June 2019

Prophylactic digoxin treatment reduces IL-17 production in vivo in the neonatal calf and moderates RSV-associated disease.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(3):e0214407. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human infants. Bovine RSV infection of neonatal calves is pathologically and immunologically similar to RSV infection in infants, and is therefore a useful preclinical model for testing novel therapeutics. Treatment of severe RSV bronchiolitis relies on supportive care and may include use of bronchodilators and inhaled or systemic corticosteroids. Interleukin-17A (IL-17) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment and activation. IL-17 is increased in children and rodents with severe RSV infection; and in calves with severe BRSV infection. It is currently unclear if IL-17 and Th17 immunity is beneficial or detrimental to the host during RSV infection. Digoxin was recently identified to selectively inhibit IL-17 production by antagonizing its transcription factor, retinoid-related orphan receptor γ t (RORγt). Digoxin inhibits RORγt binding to IL-17 and Th17 associated genes, and suppresses IL-17 production in vitro in human and murine leukocytes and in vivo in rodent models of autoimmune disease. We demonstrate here that in vitro and in vivo digoxin treatment also inhibits IL-17 production by bovine leukocytes. To determine the role of IL-17 in primary RSV infection, calves were treated prophylactically with digoxin and infected with BRSV. Digoxin treated calves demonstrated reduced signs of clinical illness after BRSV infection, and reduced lung pathology compared to untreated control calves. Digoxin treatment did not adversely affect virus shedding or lung viral burden, but had a significant impact on pulmonary inflammatory cytokine expression on day 10 post infection. Together, our results suggest that exacerbated expression of IL-17 has a negative impact on RSV disease, and that development of specific therapies targeting Th17 immunity may be a promising strategy to improve disease outcome during severe RSV infection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214407PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433258PMC
December 2019

Aerosol vaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guerin induces a trained innate immune phenotype in calves.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212751. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventative Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live attenuated vaccine for use against tuberculosis (TB); however, it is known to reduce childhood mortality from infections other than TB. The unspecific protection induced by BCG vaccination has been associated with the induction of memory-like traits of the innate immune system identified as 'trained' immunity. In humans and mouse models, in vitro and in vivo BCG training leads to enhanced production of monocyte-derived proinflammatory cytokines in response to secondary unrelated bacterial and fungal pathogens. While BCG has been studied extensively for its ability to induce innate training in humans and mouse models, BCG's nonspecific protective effects have not been defined in agricultural species. Here, we show that in vitro BCG training induces a functional change in bovine monocytes, characterized by increased transcription of proinflammatory cytokines upon restimulation with the toll-like receptor agonists. Importantly, in vivo, aerosol BCG vaccination in young calves also induced a 'trained' phenotype in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), that lead to a significantly enhanced TLR-induced proinflammatory cytokine response and changes in cellular metabolism compared to PBMCs from unvaccinated control calves. Similar to the long-term training effects of BCG reported in humans, our results suggest that in young calves, the effects of BCG induced innate training can last for at least 3 months in circulating immune populations. Interestingly, however, aerosol BCG vaccination did not 'train' the innate immune response at the mucosal level, as alveolar macrophages from aerosol BCG vaccinated calves did not mount an enhanced inflammatory response to secondary stimulation, compared to cells isolated from control calves. Together, our results suggest that, like mice and humans, the innate immune system of calves can be 'trained'; and that BCG vaccination could be used as an immunomodulatory strategy to reduce disease burden in juvenile food animals before the adaptive immune system has fully matured.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212751PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386280PMC
November 2019

Utility of the Neonatal Calf Model for Testing Vaccines and Intervention Strategies for Use against Human RSV Infection.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Jan 8;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of pediatric respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that two-thirds of infants are infected with RSV during the first year of life and it is one of the leading causes of death in this age group worldwide. Similarly, bovine RSV is a primary viral pathogen in cases of pneumonia in young calves and plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex. Importantly, naturally occurring infection of calves with bovine RSV shares many features in common with human RSV infection. Herein, we update our current understanding of RSV infection in cattle, with particular focus on similarities between the calf and human infection, and the recent reports in which the neonatal calf has been employed for the development and testing of vaccines and therapeutics which may be applied to hRSV infection in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466205PMC
January 2019

Bovine Gamma Delta T Cells Contribute to Exacerbated IL-17 Production in Response to Co-Infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica.

PLoS One 2016 4;11(3):e0151083. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, Iowa, United States of America.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children under five years of age. IL-17 and Th17 responses are increased in children infected with HRSV and have been implicated in both protective and pathogenic roles during infection. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is genetically closely related to HRSV and is a leading cause of severe respiratory infections in young cattle. While BRSV infection in the calf parallels many aspects of human infection with HRSV, IL-17 and Th17 responses have not been studied in the bovine. Here we demonstrate that calves infected with BRSV express significant levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22; and both CD4 T cells and γδ T cells contribute to this response. In addition to causing significant morbidity from uncomplicated infections, BRSV infection also contributes to the development of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a leading cause of morbidity in both beef and dairy cattle. BRDC is caused by a primary viral infection, followed by secondary bacterial pneumonia by pathogens such as Mannheimia haemolytica. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo infection with M. haemolytica results in increased expression of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22. We have also developed an in vitro model of BRDC and show that co-infection of PBMC with BRSV followed by M. haemolytica leads to significantly exacerbated IL-17 production, which is primarily mediated by IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that calves, like humans, mount a robust IL-17 response during RSV infection; and suggest a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of BRDC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0151083PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4778910PMC
July 2016