Publications by authors named "Mariana C Rossoni-Serão"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessing the statistical training in animal science graduate programs in the United States: survey on statistical training.

J Anim Sci 2021 May;99(5)

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA.

Statistical analysis of data and understanding of experimental design are critical skills needed by animal science graduate students (ASGS). These skills are even more valuable with the increased development of high-throughput technologies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perceived statistical training of U.S. ASGS. A survey with 38 questions was shared across U.S. universities, and 416 eligible ASGS from 43 universities participated in this study. The survey included questions on the demographics and overall training, graduate education on statistics, and self-assessment on statistics and career path of ASGS. Several analyses were performed: relationship between perceived received education (PRE; i.e., how ASGS evaluated their graduate education in statistics) and perceived knowledge (PK; i.e., how ASGS evaluated their knowledge in statistics from their education); ranking of statistical topics based on PRE, PK, and confidence in performing statistical analyses (CPSA); cluster analysis of statistical topics for PRE, PK, and CPSA; and factors (demographic, overall training, interest in statistics, and field of study) associated with the overall scores (OS) for PRE, PK, and CPSA. Students had greater (P < 0.05) PRE than PK for most of the statistical topics included in this study. The moderate to high repeatability of answers within statistical topics indicates substantial correlations in ASGS answers between PRE and PK. The cluster analysis resulted in distinct groups of "Traditional" and "Nontraditional" statistical topics. ASGS showed lower (P < 0.05) scores of PRE, PK, and CPSA in "Nontraditional" compared with "Traditional" statistical methods. Several factors were associated (P < 0.05) with the OS of PRE, PK, and CSPA. In general, factors related to greater training and interest in statistics of ASGS were associated with greater OS, such as taking more credits in statistics courses, having additional training in statistics outside the classroom, knowing more than one statistics software, and more. This study provided comprehensive information on the perceived level of education, knowledge, and confidence in statistics in ASGS in the United States. Although objective measurements of their training in statistics are needed, the current study suggests that ASGS have limited statistical training on topics of major importance for the current and future trends of data-driven research in animal sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab086DOI Listing
May 2021

High-Fat Diets Led to OTU-Level Shifts in Fecal Samples of Healthy Adult Dogs.

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:564160. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

High fat diets have been reported to negatively affect the microbiota in both mice and humans. However, there is a lack of studies in canine models. The variation among the gastrointestinal (GI) tract anatomy/physiology and typical diet compositions of these animal species may lead to vastly different results. Due to the large inclusion rate of dietary fat in pet food, it is critical to understand its effects in a canine model. Therefore, the study objective was to report the effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on the fecal microbiota in healthy adult dogs. Eight adult beagles were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments within each 15-day period of a replicated 4x4 Latin Square design. Diets contained 32% (T1), 37% (T2), 42% (T3), and 47% (T4) fat. T2, T3, and T4 were created by adding increasing levels of canola oil to T1, a commercially manufactured canned canine diet, which served as the control diet. Fresh fecal samples were collected during the last 5 days of each period for microbial analysis. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and paired-end 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform. When comparing whole microbial communities using PERMANOVA, no significant differences were observed among treatments ( = 0.735). Individual OTUs were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS with fixed effects of diet and room, and the random effects of period and animal. Out of the 100 most abundant individual OTUs, 36 showed significant differences in abundance based on treatment ( < 0.05). Overall, OTUs assigned to genera related to fat digestion increased while OTUs assigned to genera involved in carbohydrate digestion decreased. In conclusion, the microbial community adapted to dietary intervention without jeopardizing the health of the animals, evaluated by body condition score, fecal characteristics, and blood parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.564160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7752866PMC
December 2020

Impact of storage conditions on protein oxidation of rendered by-product meals.

Transl Anim Sci 2020 Oct 13;4(4):txaa205. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

Rendered products used in animal feed and pet food undergo extreme temperatures during manufacturing and may be stored up to 2 yr. No information is available on protein oxidation in these products. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which typical antioxidant inclusion at different storage conditions may limit protein oxidation in typical rendered protein meals. Two experiments were conducted on 14 rendered products stored at either 45 °C for 7 or 14 d, or at 20 °C for 3 or 6 mo to determine the extent to which time, temperature, and antioxidants affect protein oxidation. Results from this study show that fish meal and chicken blood meal are susceptible to protein oxidation during storage at 45 °C ( = 0.05; 0.03) as well as during storage at 20 °C ( = 0.01; 0.04). Natural antioxidants were effective at limiting carbonyl formation in fish meal during short-term storage at 45 °C, whereas ethoxyquin was effective at limiting the extent of protein oxidation in fish meal stored long term at 20 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tas/txaa205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7743793PMC
October 2020

Cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) meal fed to healthy adult dogs does not affect general health and minimally impacts apparent total tract digestibility.

J Anim Sci 2020 Mar;98(3)

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

Insects can serve as a novel high-quality protein source for pet foods. However, there is an absence of research investigating the use of insects in pet food. The study objective was to evaluate the apparent total tract digestibility and possible health effects of diets containing graded levels of cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus) meal fed to healthy adult dogs. Thirty-two adult Beagles were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: 0%, 8%, 16%, or 24% cricket meal. Dogs were fed their respective diet for a total of 29 d with a 6-d collection phase. Fecal samples were collected daily during the collection phase to measure total fecal output as well as apparent total tract digestibility for dry matter (DM), organic matter, crude protein, fat, total dietary fiber, and gross energy. Blood samples were taken prior to the study and on day 29 for hematology and chemistry profiles. Data were analyzed in a mixed model including the fixed effects of diet and sex. Total fecal output increased on both an as-is (P = 0.030) and DM basis (P = 0.024). The apparent total tract digestibility of each nutrient decreased (P < 0.001) with the increasing level of cricket meal inclusion. All blood values remained within desired reference intervals indicating healthy dogs. Slight fluctuations in blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037) and hemoglobin (P = 0.044) levels were observed but were not considered of biological significance. Even with the decrease in digestibility with the inclusion of cricket meal, diets remained highly digestible at greater than 80% total apparent digestibility. In conclusion, crickets were demonstrated to be an acceptable ingredient for dog diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102401PMC
March 2020

Apparent total tract digestibility, fecal characteristics, and blood parameters of healthy adult dogs fed high-fat diets.

J Anim Sci 2020 Mar;98(3)

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

Pet foods may be formulated with decreased starch to meet consumer demands for less processed diets. Fats and oils may be added to low-starch diets to meet energy requirements, but little is known about its effects on canine health. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding healthy adult dogs low carbohydrate, high-fat diets on apparent total tract digestibility, fecal characteristics, and overall health status. Eight adult Beagles were enrolled in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design feeding trial. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of four dietary fat level treatments (T) within each period: 32% (T1), 37% (T2), 42% (T3), and 47% (T4) fat on a dry matter basis. Fat levels were adjusted with the inclusion of canola oil added to a commercial diet. Each dog was fed to exceed its energy requirement based on NRC (2006). Blood samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, chemistry profiles, and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity levels. Apparent total tract digestibility improved (P < 0.05) as the fat level increased for dry matter, organic matter, fat, and gross energy. Fecal output decreased as levels of fat increased in the diet (P = 0.002). There was no effect of fat level on stool quality or short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations in fecal samples (P ≥ 0.20). Blood urea nitrogen levels decreased with increased fat level (P = 0.035). No significant differences were seen in canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (P = 0.110). All blood parameters remained within normal reference intervals. In summary, increased dietary fat improved apparent total tract digestibility, did not alter fecal characteristics, and maintained the health status of all dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059695PMC
March 2020

A review of feed efficiency in swine: biology and application.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2015 6;6(1):33. Epub 2015 Aug 6.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3150 USA.

Feed efficiency represents the cumulative efficiency with which the pig utilizes dietary nutrients for maintenance, lean gain and lipid accretion. It is closely linked with energy metabolism, as the oxidation of carbon-containing components in the feed drive all metabolic processes. While much is known about nutrient utilization and tissue metabolism, blending these subjects into a discussion on feed efficiency has proven to be difficult. For example, while increasing dietary energy concentration will almost certainly increase feed efficiency, the correlation between dietary energy concentration and feed efficiency is surprisingly low. This is likely due to the plethora of non-dietary factors that impact feed efficiency, such as the environment and health as well as individual variation in maintenance requirements, body composition and body weight. Nonetheless, a deeper understanding of feed efficiency is critical at many levels. To individual farms, it impacts profitability. To the pork industry, it represents its competitive position against other protein sources. To food economists, it means less demand on global feed resources. There are environmental and other societal implications as well. Interestingly, feed efficiency is not always reported simply as a ratio of body weight gain to feed consumed. This review will explain why this arithmetic calculation, as simple as it initially seems, and as universally applied as it is in science and commerce, can often be misleading due to errors inherent in recording of both weight gain and feed intake. This review discusses the importance of feed efficiency, the manner in which it can be measured and reported, its basis in biology and approaches to its improvement. It concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for future efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-015-0031-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4527244PMC
August 2015

Fecal metabolomics of healthy breast-fed versus formula-fed infants before and during in vitro batch culture fermentation.

J Proteome Res 2014 May 28;13(5):2534-42. Epub 2014 Mar 28.

Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, Ohio 43219, United States.

Nontargeted metabolomics analyses were used (1) to compare fecal metabolite profiles of healthy breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants before and during in vitro fermentation in batch culture and (2) to evaluate fecal metabolomics in assessing infant diet. Samples from healthy BF (n = 4) or FF (n = 4) infants were individually incubated at 37( °)C in anaerobic media containing 1% (wt/vol) galactooligosaccharides, 6'-sialyllactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-neotetraose, inulin, and gum arabic for up to 6 h, and supernatants were analyzed using GC/MS and LC/MS/MS to assess changes in various compounds. Comparison of over 250 metabolites prior to incubation showed that BF samples contained higher relative concentrations (P ≤ 0.05) of 14 compounds including human milk oligosaccharides and other metabolites presumably transferred through breast feeding (linoelaidate, myo-inositol) (P ≤ 0.05). Conversely, feces from FF infants contained 41 identified metabolites at higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) with many indicative of carbon limitation and protein fermentation. Our data are consistent with the notion that carbon-limited cultures catabolize protein and amino acids to obtain energy, whereas the provision of fermentable carbohydrate creates anabolic conditions relying on amino acids for bacterial growth. Results also suggest that fecal metabolomics can be a useful tool for studying interactions among diet, microbes, and host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr500011wDOI Listing
May 2014

In vitro fermentation characteristics of select nondigestible oligosaccharides by infant fecal inocula.

J Agric Food Chem 2013 Mar 20;61(9):2109-19. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois , Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

This study sought to determine the fermentation potential of human milk oligosaccharides by mixed cultures of fecal microbiota from breast-fed (BF; n = 4) and formula-fed (FF; n = 4) infants. Infant fecal inocula were incubated with galactooligosaccharide (GOS), gum arabic (GA), HP inulin (HP), 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnt). GOS, 2'FL, and LNnT had a lower pH than other substrates after 3 h (P < 0.05). Total short chain fatty acids were greater in FF compared to BF infants at 6 h (P = 0.03) and 12 h (P = 0.01). GOS, 2'FL, and LNnT led to more lactate than 6'SL, HP, and GA (P < 0.05). Bifidobacteria populations were greater (P = 0.02) in FF at 6 and 12 h. Overall, GOS, 2'FL, and LNnT were rapidly fermented by infant fecal inocula, 6'SL and HP had intermediate fermentability, while GA had little fermentation. Inocula from FF infants fermented substrates more rapidly than inocula from BF infants, which should be accounted for when evaluating substrate fermentability. These data will aid in future infant formulas to promote optimal gut health in FF infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf305056fDOI Listing
March 2013

454 pyrosequencing reveals a shift in fecal microbiota of healthy adult men consuming polydextrose or soluble corn fiber.

J Nutr 2012 Jul 30;142(7):1259-65. Epub 2012 May 30.

University of Illinois, Department of Animal Sciences, Urbana, IL, USA.

The relative contribution of novel fibers such as polydextrose and soluble corn fiber (SCF) to the human gut microbiome and its association with host physiology has not been well studied. This study was conducted to test the impact of polydextrose and SCF on the composition of the human gut microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing and to identify associations among fecal microbiota and fermentative end-products. Healthy adult men (n = 20) with a mean dietary fiber (DF) intake of 14 g/d were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Participants consumed 3 treatment snack bars/d during each 21-d period that contained no supplemental fiber (NFC), polydextrose (PDX; 21 g/d), or SCF (21 g/d) for 21 d. There were no washout periods. Fecal samples were collected on d 16-21 of each period; DNA was extracted, followed by amplification of the V4-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene using barcoded primers. PDX and SCF significantly affected the relative abundance of bacteria at the class, genus, and species level. The consumption of PDX and SCF led to greater fecal Clostridiaceae and Veillonellaceae and lower Eubacteriaceae compared with a NFC. The abundance of Faecalibacterium, Phascolarctobacterium, and Dialister was greater (P < 0.05) in response to PDX and SCF intake, whereas Lactobacillus was greater (P < 0.05) only after SCF intake. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, well known for its antiinflammatory properties, was greater (P < 0.05) after fiber consumption. Principal component analysis clearly indicated a distinct clustering of individuals consuming supplemental fibers. Our data demonstrate a beneficial shift in the gut microbiome of adults consuming PDX and SCF, with potential application as prebiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.158766DOI Listing
July 2012

Digestive physiological outcomes related to polydextrose and soluble maize fibre consumption by healthy adult men.

Br J Nutr 2011 Dec 31;106(12):1864-71. Epub 2011 May 31.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, 1207 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate digestive physiological outcomes elicited by functional fibres fed to healthy adult men. A total of twenty-one healthy adult men were utilised in a cross-over design. Each subject received polydextrose (PDX) or soluble maize fibre (SCF) (21 g/d) or no supplemental fibre (no fibre control; NFC) in a snack bar. Periods were 21 d and faeces were collected during the last 5 d of each period. Food intake, including fibre intake, did not differ among treatments. Flatulence (P = 0·001) and distention (P = 0·07) were greatest when subjects consumed PDX or SCF. Reflux was greater (P = 0·04) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. All tolerance scores were low ( < 2·5), indicating only slight discomfort. Faecal ammonia, 4-methylphenol, indole and branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased (P < 0·01) when subjects consumed the functional fibre sources compared with NFC. Faecal acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were lower (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed PDX compared with SCF and NFC. Faecal pH was lower (P = 0·01) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC, while PDX was intermediate. Faecal wet weight was greatest (P = 0·03) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. Faecal dry weight tended to be greater (P = 0·07) when subjects consumed PDX compared with NFC. The functional fibres led to 1·4 and 0·9 g (PDX and SCF, respectively) increases in faecal dry mass per g supplemental fibre intake. Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations were greater (P < 0·05) when subjects consumed SCF compared with NFC. These functional fibres appear to be beneficial to gut health while leading to minimal gastrointestinal upset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511002388DOI Listing
December 2011