Publications by authors named "Marian R Fairgrieve"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Self-guarding of MORC3 enables virulence factor-triggered immunity.

Nature 2021 12 10;600(7887):138-142. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Pathogens use virulence factors to inhibit the immune system. The guard hypothesis postulates that hosts monitor (or 'guard') critical innate immune pathways such that their disruption by virulence factors provokes a secondary immune response. Here we describe a 'self-guarded' immune pathway in human monocytes, in which guarding and guarded functions are combined in one protein. We find that this pathway is triggered by ICP0, a key virulence factor of herpes simplex virus type 1, resulting in robust induction of anti-viral type I interferon (IFN). Notably, induction of IFN by ICP0 is independent of canonical immune pathways and the IRF3 and IRF7 transcription factors. A CRISPR screen identified the ICP0 target MORC3 as an essential negative regulator of IFN. Loss of MORC3 recapitulates the IRF3- and IRF7-independent IFN response induced by ICP0. Mechanistically, ICP0 degrades MORC3, which leads to de-repression of a MORC3-regulated DNA element (MRE) adjacent to the IFNB1 locus. The MRE is required in cis for IFNB1 induction by the MORC3 pathway, but is not required for canonical IFN-inducing pathways. As well as repressing the MRE to regulate IFNB1, MORC3 is also a direct restriction factor of HSV-1. Our results thus suggest a model in which the primary anti-viral function of MORC3 is self-guarded by its secondary IFN-repressing function-thus, a virus that degrades MORC3 to avoid its primary anti-viral function will unleash the secondary anti-viral IFN response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04054-5DOI Listing
December 2021

Flavivirus Nonstructural Protein NS5 Dysregulates HSP90 to Broadly Inhibit JAK/STAT Signaling.

Cells 2020 04 7;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease, Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Pathogenic flaviviruses antagonize host cell Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling downstream of interferons α/β. Here, we show that flaviviruses inhibit JAK/STAT signaling induced by a wide range of cytokines beyond interferon, including interleukins. This broad inhibition was mapped to viral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) binding to cellular heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), resulting in reduced Janus kinase-HSP90 interaction and thus destabilization of unchaperoned JAKs (and other kinase clients) of HSP90 during infection by , West Nile virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. Our studies implicate viral dysregulation of HSP90 and the JAK/STAT pathway as a critical determinant of cytokine signaling control during flavivirus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9040899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226784PMC
April 2020

Comparative Analysis of African and Asian Lineage-Derived Zika Virus Strains Reveals Differences in Activation of and Sensitivity to Antiviral Innate Immunity.

J Virol 2019 07 14;93(13). Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease, Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA

In recent years, Asian lineage Zika virus (ZIKV) strains emerged to cause pandemic outbreaks associated with a high rate of congenital ZIKV syndrome (CZVS). The reasons for the enhanced spread and severe disease caused by newly emerging strains are not fully understood. Here we compared viral sequences, viral replication, and innate immune signaling induction of three different ZIKV strains derived from African and Asian lineages and West Nile virus, another flavivirus. We found pronounced differences in activation of innate immune signaling and inhibition of viral replication across ZIKV strains. The newly emerged Asian ZIKV strain Brazil Fortaleza 2015, which is associated with a higher rate of neurodevelopmental disorders like microcephaly, induced much weaker and delayed innate immune signaling in infected cells. However, superinfection studies to assess control of innate immune signaling induced by Sendai virus argue against an active block of IRF3 activation by the Brazilian strain of ZIKV and rather suggest an evasion of detection by host cell pattern recognition receptors. Compared to the Asian strain FSS13025 isolated in Cambodia, both ZIKV Uganda MR766 and ZIKV Brazil Fortaleza appear less sensitive to the interferon-induced antiviral response. ZIKV infection studies of cells lacking the different RIG-I-like receptors identified RIG-I as the major cytosolic pattern recognition receptor for detection of ZIKV. Zika Virus (ZIKV), discovered in 1947, is divided into African and Asian lineages. Pandemic outbreaks caused by currently emerging Asian lineage strains are accompanied by high rates of neurological disorders and exemplify the global health burden associated with this virus. Here we compared virological and innate immunological aspects of two ZIKV strains from the Asian lineage, an emerging Brazilian strain and a less-pathogenic Cambodian strain, and the prototypic African lineage ZIKV strain from Uganda. Compared to the replication of other ZIKV strains, the replication of ZIKV Brazil was less sensitive to the antiviral actions of interferon (IFN), while infection with this strain induced weaker and delayed innate immune responses Our data suggest that ZIKV Brazil directs a passive strategy of innate immune evasion that is reminiscent of a stealth virus. Such strain-specific properties likely contribute to differential pathogenesis and should be taken into consideration when choosing virus strains for future molecular studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00640-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580957PMC
July 2019

Calpain drives pyroptotic vimentin cleavage, intermediate filament loss, and cell rupture that mediates immunostimulation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 03 22;116(11):5061-5070. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109;

Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death following cellular damage or infection. It is a lytic process driven by gasdermin D-mediated cellular permeabilization and presumed osmotic forces thought to induce swelling and rupture. We found that pyroptotic cells do not spontaneously rupture in culture but lose mechanical resilience. As a result, cells were susceptible to rupture by extrinsic forces, such as shear stress or compression. Cell analyses revealed that all major cytoskeleton components were disrupted during pyroptosis and that sensitivity to rupture was calpain-dependent and linked with cleavage of vimentin and loss of intermediate filaments. Moreover, while release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), HMGB1, and IL-1β occurred without rupture, rupture was required for release of large inflammatory stimuli-ASC specks, mitochondria, nuclei, and bacteria. Importantly, supernatants from ruptured cells were more immunostimulatory than those from nonruptured cells. These observations reveal undiscovered cellular events occurring during pyroptosis, define the mechanisms driving pyroptotic rupture, and highlight the immunologic importance of this event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1818598116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421439PMC
March 2019

Congenital Zika virus infection as a silent pathology with loss of neurogenic output in the fetal brain.

Nat Med 2018 03 5;24(3):368-374. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Washington National Primate Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with teratogenic effects on fetal brain, but the spectrum of ZIKV-induced brain injury is unknown, particularly when ultrasound imaging is normal. In a pregnant pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) model of ZIKV infection, we demonstrate that ZIKV-induced injury to fetal brain is substantial, even in the absence of microcephaly, and may be challenging to detect in a clinical setting. A common and subtle injury pattern was identified, including (i) periventricular T2-hyperintense foci and loss of fetal noncortical brain volume, (ii) injury to the ependymal epithelium with underlying gliosis and (iii) loss of late fetal neuronal progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (temporal cortex) and subgranular zone (dentate gyrus, hippocampus) with dysmorphic granule neuron patterning. Attenuation of fetal neurogenic output demonstrates potentially considerable teratogenic effects of congenital ZIKV infection even without microcephaly. Our findings suggest that all children exposed to ZIKV in utero should receive long-term monitoring for neurocognitive deficits, regardless of head size at birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.4485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839998PMC
March 2018

Fetal brain lesions after subcutaneous inoculation of Zika virus in a pregnant nonhuman primate.

Nat Med 2016 11 12;22(11):1256-1259. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

We describe the development of fetal brain lesions after Zika virus (ZIKV) inoculation in a pregnant pigtail macaque. Periventricular lesions developed within 10 d and evolved asymmetrically in the occipital-parietal lobes. Fetal autopsy revealed ZIKV in the brain and significant cerebral white matter hypoplasia, periventricular white matter gliosis, and axonal and ependymal injury. Our observation of ZIKV-associated fetal brain lesions in a nonhuman primate provides a model for therapeutic evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.4193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5365281PMC
November 2016

Molecular characterization of the gonadal kisspeptin system: Cloning, tissue distribution, gene expression analysis and localization in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2016 Jan 16;225:212-223. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Environmental and Fisheries Sciences Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, WA 98112, USA; Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. Electronic address:

The kisspeptin system plays pivotal roles in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Classically, kisspeptin produced in the brain stimulates brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling, which in turn activates the pituitary-gonad axis. Expression of the kisspeptin system has also been documented in peripheral tissues, including gonads of mammals and fishes. However, the fish gonadal kisspeptin system remained uncharacterized. Herein we report identification and characterization of four kisspeptin system mRNAs (kisspeptin 1 (kiss1), kiss2, and G protein-coupled receptor 54-1 (gpr54-1) and gpr54-2) in sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria. Sablefish predicted protein sequences were highly similar to those of other marine teleosts, but less so to freshwater teleosts. Tissue distribution analyses revealed that all four kisspeptin-system transcripts were expressed in both brain and gonad. However, kiss2 was the predominant transcript in the gonads and the only transcript detected in ovulated eggs. Ontogenetic analysis of kiss2 expression in juvenile sablefish gonads demonstrated that levels were low during sex differentiation but increased with fish size and gonadal development. Dramatic increases in kiss2 mRNA occurred during primary oocyte growth, while levels remained relatively low in testes. In situ hybridization revealed that kiss2 mRNA was localized to cytoplasm of perinucleolus stage oocytes, suggesting it could play a local role in oogenesis or could be synthesized and stored within oocytes as maternal mRNA. This represents the first study to focus on the gonadal kisspeptin system in fishes and provides important tools for further investigation of both the gonadal and brain kisspeptin systems in sablefish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.07.015DOI Listing
January 2016
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