Publications by authors named "Mariaelena Tagliabue"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Visual Feedback Effectiveness in Reducing Over Speeding of Moped-Riders.

Front Psychol 2021 11;12:611603. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

The use of assistance systems aimed at reducing road fatalities is spreading, especially for car drivers, but less effort has been devoted to developing and testing similar systems for powered two-wheelers (PTWs). Considering that over speeding represents one of the main causal factors in road crashes and that riders are more vulnerable than drivers, in the present study we investigated the effectiveness of an assistance system which signaled speed limit violations during a simulated moped-driving task, in optimal and poor visibility conditions. Participants performed four conditions of simulated riding: one baseline condition without Feedback, one Fog condition in which visual feedback was provided so as to indicate to the participants when a speed limit (lower than that indicated by the traffic signals) was exceeded, and two post-Feedback conditions with and without Fog, respectively, in which no feedback was delivered. Results showed that participants make fewer speeding violations when the feedback is not provided, after 1 month, and regardless of the visibility condition. Finally, the feedback has been proven effective in reducing speed violations in participants with an aggressive riding style, as measured in the baseline session.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.611603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990878PMC
March 2021

A cross-cultural comparison of visual search strategies and response times in road hazard perception testing.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Dec 5;148:105785. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Mind, Brain, and Behavior Research Center, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Road hazard perception is considered the most prominent higher-order cognitive skill related to traffic-accident involvement. Regional cultures and social rules that govern acceptable behavior may influence drivers' interpretation of a traffic situation and, consequently, the correct identification of potentially hazardous situations. Here, we aimed to compare hazard perception skills among four European countries that differ in their traffic culture, policies to reduce traffic risks, and fatal crashes: Ukraine, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. We developed a static hazard perception test in which driving scenes with different levels of braking affordance were presented while drivers' gaze was recorded. The test required drivers to indicate the action they would undertake: to brake vs. to keep driving. We assessed 218 young adult drivers. Multilevel models revealed that the scenes' levels of braking affordance (i.e., road hazard) modulated drivers' behavior. As the levels of braking affordance increased, drivers' responses became faster and their gaze entropy decreased (i.e., visual search strategy became less erratic). The country of origin influenced these effects. Ukrainian drivers were the fastest and Swedish drivers were the slowest to respond. For all countries, the decrement in response times was less marked in the case of experienced drivers. Also, Spanish drivers showed the most structured (least erratic) visual search strategy, whereas the Italians had the most rigid (most constant) one. These results suggest that road hazard perception can be defined cross-culturally, with cultural factors (e.g., traffic climate, legislation) modulating response times and visual search strategies. Our results also support the idea that a multimodal assessment methodology is possible for mass testing of road hazard perception and its outcomes would be relevant to understand how different traffic cultures shape driving behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105785DOI Listing
December 2020

Electrophysiological correlates of attentional monitoring during a complex driving simulation task.

Biol Psychol 2020 07 10;154:107918. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova Italy.

Starting from the evidence that complex tasks (e.g., driving) require lots of cognitive resources, this research aims at assessing the change of attentional electrophysiological correlates during an oddball task performed while driving a simulator. Twenty-four participants drove along six courses on a moped simulator, preceded by a baseline condition (i.e., watching a video clip of one driving course). Throughout the task, an auditory passive multi-feature oddball with both traffic-related and unrelated stimuli was presented, and the EEG activity was recorded along with driving performance indexes. The main results point out that, as participants learn to drive safely, more attentional resources are available to process the deviant oddball stimuli, as shown by the increase in the amplitude of mismatch negativity (deviant pure tones) and P3a (traffic-related sounds) in the second block of driving. We interpreted these effects as dependent on stimuli complexity and salience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2020.107918DOI Listing
July 2020

Enhancement of unsafe behaviors in simulated moped-riding performance under the influence of low dose of alcohol.

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Mar 28;136:105409. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.

The effects of low levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on motorcyclist performance are still not fully comprehended. The great majority of the studies are, in fact, focused on car driving. So far, it is known that even BAC levels below the legal limit negatively affect riding motor skills correlated with crash rate. In the present study, we used a moped riding simulator to investigate the effects of low alcohol dosages (under the limits established in Italy, and in most European countries) on the defensive riding ability of light drinkers, particularly focusing on the degree of danger characterizing their riding performance. We recruited 24 participants through a double-blind, random distribution, balanced, cross-over design. We administered moderate amounts of alcohol to participants during two sessions of moped riding simulation. The results showed that even though BAC levels were always below (mean value: 0.03 g/dL) the limit allowed by Italian traffic law (0.05 g/dL), alcohol induced a reduction in safe riding behaviors, as indicated by the greater amount of hazardous scenes faced with dangerous riding behaviors when participants were under the influence of alcohol than when they were sober. Moreover, low BAC levels had a greater detrimental influence when a certain amount of learning had already been achieved by the participants (i.e., in the last experimental session). The results suggest that the effect of a low dose of alcohol interacts with participants' self-confidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.105409DOI Listing
March 2020

Neurocognitive and behavioral markers in DUI recidivists.

Traffic Inj Prev 2019 1;20(sup2):S185-S189. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Legal Medicine and Toxicology, Department of Cardio-Thoraco-Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol recidivism may be a risk-taking behavior motivated by a change in decision-making capacity. Decision-making capacity has been investigated by event-related potentials (ERPs) acquisition and specifically by analyzing feedback-related negativity (FRN) reflecting the activity of medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the aim of our study was to test the role of FRN as a possible neurophysiological marker of underestimation of risk associated with DUI recidivism to provide novel insights into the influence of neurocognitive aspects of driving ability. The research was structured as a case-control study. The total cohort (30 Italian male subjects) was divided into 2 groups, according to positive or negative history of DUI recidivism. The protocol included informed consent collection, medical history and clinical examination, ERP registration, and sensation-seeking scale administration. ERPs were acquired during a gambling task. The data were analyzed with 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measures. Statistical analyses were conducted using R to test the participants' risk behaviors. A multivariate ANOVA was run to compare the personality traits of the groups. ANOVAs and planned comparisons were performed with StatSoft software. FRN amplitude analyses showed that the interaction Reward Magnitude × Valence (large vs. small × gains vs. losses) was significant for recidivists ((1,13) = 11.75,  < .01) but not for controls ((1,14) = 0.04,  = .84). The results of the logistic generalized linear models analysis showed that the 2 groups differed in risk-taking behavior ( = -3.65;  < .001) with an average of 70 risky choices for recidivists and 63 for controls. Both groups were homogeneous for personality traits. The FRN and gambling task results suggest that DUI recidivists seemed attracted by the prospect of a large reward and appeared unable to recognize small losses read as wins These results, if confirmed in a larger sample, could indicate the usefulness of ERP analysis in clinical and forensic evaluation of DUI subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2019.1659591DOI Listing
June 2020

Stressing the accuracy: Wrist-worn wearable sensor validation over different conditions.

Psychophysiology 2019 11 23;56(11):e13441. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Wearable sensors are promising instruments for conducting both laboratory and ambulatory research in psychophysiology. However, scholars should be aware of their measurement error and the conditions in which accuracy is achieved. This study aimed to assess the accuracy of a wearable sensor designed for research purposes, the E4 wristband (Empatica, Milan, Italy), in measuring heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and skin conductance (SC) over five laboratory conditions widely used in stress reactivity research (seated rest, paced breathing, orthostatic, Stroop, speech task) and two ecological conditions (slow walking, keyboard typing). Forty healthy participants concurrently wore the wristband and two gold standard measurement systems (i.e., electrocardiography and finger SC sensor). The wristband accuracy was determined by evaluating the signal quality and the correlations with and the Bland-Altman plots against gold standard-derived measurements. Moreover, exploratory analyses were performed to assess predictors of measurement error. Mean HR measures showed the best accuracy over all conditions. HRV measures showed satisfactory accuracy in seated rest, paced breathing, and recovery conditions but not in dynamic conditions, including speaking. Accuracy was diminished by wrist movements, cognitive and emotional stress, nonstationarity, and larger wrist circumferences. Wrist SC measures showed neither correlation nor visual resemblance with finger SC signal, suggesting that the two sites may reflect different phenomena. Future studies are needed to assess the responsivity of wrist SC to emotional and cognitive stress. Limitations and implications for laboratory and ambulatory research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13441DOI Listing
November 2019

How Can On-Road Hazard Perception and Anticipation Be Improved? Evidence From the Body.

Front Psychol 2019 1;10:167. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

The present research is aimed at investigating processes associated with learning how to drive safely. We were particularly interested in implicit mechanisms related to the automatic processing system involved in decision making in risky situations (Slovic et al., 2007). The operation of this system is directly linked to experiential and emotional reactions and can be monitored by measuring psychophysiological variables, such as skin conductance responses (SCRs). We focused specifically on the generalization of previously acquired skills to new and never before encountered road scenarios. To that end, we compared the SCRs of two groups of participants engaged, respectively, in two distinctive modes of moped-riding training. The active group proceeded actively, via moped, through several simulated courses, whereas the passive group watched video of the courses performed by the former group and identified hazards. Results indicate that the active group not only demonstrated improved performance in the second session, which involved the same simulated courses, but also showed generalization to new scenes in the third session. Moreover, SCRs to risky scenes, although present in both groups, were detectable in a higher proportion in the active group, paralleling the degree of risk confronted as the training progressed. Finally, the anticipatory ability demonstrated previously (and replicated in the present study), which was evident in the repeated performance of a given scenario, did not seem to generalize to the new scenarios confronted in the last session.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367247PMC
February 2019

Personality Traits and Beliefs About Peers' On-Road Behaviors as Predictors of Adolescents' Moped-Riding Profiles.

Front Psychol 2018 7;9:2483. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Several efforts aimed at discriminating between different degrees of on-road risky attitudes have been devoted to the identification of personality profiles among young drivers. However, the results are often inconsistent because of the limits of self-report measures. To overcome these limits, we tried to identify different profiles based on our study participants' driving performances in a virtual environment and to look for psychological predictors of inclusion in one of three profiles. One-hundred and fourteen inexperienced adolescents were involved in this study, which included two experimental sessions. During the first, before riding along five virtual courses on a moped simulator, participants' sensation seeking, locus of control, aggressiveness and beliefs about their peers' on-road behaviors were measured by means of self-report tools. During the second session, the participants drove the simulator along six courses that were different from those faced in the first session. A cluster analysis was run on a wide number of indexes extracted from the participants' performances to detect different riding profiles. Three profiles emerged (Imprudent, Prudent and Insecure), with specific riding patterns. The profiles also differed in terms of riding safety, assessed by means of the scores automatically given by the simulator to the participants' performances. Reporting an external locus of control, underestimating peers' on-road risky behaviors and showing less concern for fate among the possible causes of crashes are predictors that increase the risk of being included in the Imprudent profile. Low levels of dangerous thrill seeking predict inclusion in the Prudent profile, whereas high rates of self-reported anger play a role in discriminating the Insecure riders from the other profiles. The study indicates that it is possible to identify riding profiles with different degrees of on-road safety among inexperienced adolescents by means of simulated road environments. Moreover, inclusion in these profiles is predicted by different patterns of personality variables and beliefs. Further research is needed to verify the validity of these conclusions in real road conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6293198PMC
December 2018

Sensation Seeking, Non-contextual Decision Making, and Driving Abilities As Measured through a Moped Simulator.

Front Psychol 2017 11;8:2126. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

The general aim of the present study was to explore the relations between driving style (assessed through a moped riding simulator) and psychological variables such as sensation seeking and decision making. Because the influences of sensation seeking and decision making on driving styles have been studied separately in the literature, we have tried to investigate their mutual relations so as to include them in a more integrated framework. Participants rode the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT) simulator, filled in the Sensation Seeking Scale V (SSS V), and performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). A cluster analysis of the HRT riding indexes identified three groups: Prudent, Imprudent, and Insecure riders. First, the results showed that Insecure males seek thrills and adventure less than both Prudent males and Insecure females, whereas Prudent females are less disinhibited than both Prudent males and Insecure females. Moreover, concerning the relations among SSS, decision making as measured by the IGT, and riding performance, high thrill and adventure seekers performed worse in the simulator only if they were also bad decision makers, indicating that these two traits jointly contribute to the quality of riding performance. From an applied perspective, these results also provide useful information for the development of protocols for assessing driving abilities among novice road users. Indeed, the relation between risk proneness and riding style may allow for the identification of road-user populations who require specific training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5732172PMC
December 2017

A First Step toward the Understanding of Implicit Learning of Hazard Anticipation in Inexperienced Road Users Through a Moped-Riding Simulator.

Front Psychol 2017 11;8:768. Epub 2017 May 11.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua,Padua, Italy.

Hazard perception is considered one of the most important abilities in road safety. Several efforts have been devoted to investigating how it improves with experience and can be trained. Recently, research has focused on the implicit aspects of hazard detection, reaction, and anticipation. In the present study, we attempted to understand how the ability to anticipate hazards develops during training with a moped-riding simulator: the Honda Riding Trainer (HRT). Several studies have already validated the HRT as a tool to enhance adolescents' hazard perception and riding abilities. In the present study, as an index of hazard anticipation, we used skin conductance response (SCR), which has been demonstrated to be linked to affective/implicit appraisal of risk. We administered to a group of inexperienced road users five road courses two times a week apart. In each course, participants had to deal with eight hazard scenes (except one course that included only seven hazard scenes). Participants had to ride along the HRT courses, facing the potentially hazardous situations, following traffic rules, and trying to avoid accidents. During the task, we measured SCR and monitored driving performance. The main results show that learning to ride the simulator leads to both a reduction in the number of accidents and anticipation of the somatic response related to hazard detection, as proven by the reduction of SCR onset recorded in the second session. The finding that the SCR signaling the impending hazard appears earlier when the already encountered hazard situations are faced anew suggests that training with the simulator acts on the somatic activation associated with the experience of risky situations, improving its effectiveness in detecting hazards in advance so as to avoid accidents. This represents the starting point for future investigations into the process of generalization of learning acquired in new virtual situations and in real-road situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5425582PMC
May 2017

Long-lasting virtual motorcycle-riding trainer effectiveness.

Front Psychol 2015 29;6:1653. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua Padua, Italy.

This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group 1 year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training-1 year before-is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4625563PMC
November 2015

The contribution of attention in virtual moped riding training of teenagers.

Accid Anal Prev 2013 Aug 6;57:10-6. Epub 2013 Apr 6.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Italy.

Riding a moped, like many other everyday activities, is a complex behavior in which attention plays a crucial role. This study aims to investigate the role of attention in enhancing the skills required to ride a moped simulator. Two experiments were conducted with 207 and 60 students (14-15 years old), respectively, using a moped simulator to ride on 12 different tracks. The assignment was to ride safely and avoid hazards. In experiment 1, we divided the hazard scenes of the tracks on the basis of the fact that a shift in attention was required to escape the danger. We showed that during the riding training, when no attentional shift was required, the ability to avoid hazards was constantly higher. In experiment 2, participants were asked to cope with the same basic experimental setting but with an additional attentive task. The results showed that they performed in such a way that not only did the attentive task not impair their performance, but it also produced an improvement in the ability to shift attentional focus, preserving performance efficiency. On the basis of these data, it can be claimed that, primarily, attentional shift plays a prominent role in accounting for accident circumstances. Secondarily, it can be claimed that attentional training contributes to improved processing efficiency so as to prevent mishaps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2013.03.034DOI Listing
August 2013

Interference between nonspatial stimulus features in the Simon effect.

Am J Psychol 2009 ;122(4):431-53

University of Padua, Italy.

We investigated whether learning effects influencing the Simon effect, such as those found when learning involves the spatial stimulus dimension, might be also found when learning tasks involve other nonspatial stimulus features, such as color, shape, and orientation. Experiment 1 focused on mutual influences between Simon tasks based on color and shape. The Simon task on color is affected by a previously performed Simon task on shape more than the latter is affected by a previously performed Simon task on color. We hypothesized that this difference depends on the difficulty of the tasks. Because orientation discrimination seems more difficult than both color and shape discrimination (Experiment 2), we predicted that a Simon task on orientation would be influenced by a Simon task on color or shape more than tasks on color or shape would be influenced by a task on orientation. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed our hypothesis.
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January 2010

Response selection and attention orienting: a computational model of Simon effect asymmetries.

Exp Psychol 2009 ;56(4):274-82

Department of general psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Recently, there has been a redirection of research efforts toward the exploration of the role of hemispheric lateralization in determining Simon effect asymmetries. The present study aimed at implementing a connectionist model that simulates the cognitive mechanisms implied by such asymmetries, focusing on the underlying neural structure. A left-lateralized response-selection mechanism was implemented alone (Experiment 1) or along with a right-lateralized automatic attention-orienting mechanism (Experiment 2). It was found that both models yielded Simon effect asymmetries. However, whereas the first model showed a reversed pattern of asymmetry compared with human, real data, the second model's performance strongly resembled human Simon effect asymmetries, with a significantly greater right than left Simon effect. Thus, a left-side bias in the response-selection mechanism produced a left-side biased Simon effect, whereas a right-side bias in the attention system produced a right-side biased Simon effect. In conclusion, results showed that the bias of the attention system had a larger impact than the bias of the response-selection mechanism in producing Simon effect asymmetries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169.56.4.274DOI Listing
October 2009

The measurement of left-right asymmetries in the Simon effect: a fine-grained analysis.

Behav Res Methods 2007 Feb;39(1):50-61

University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

The spatial Simon effect is often asymmetric, being greater on one side than on the other. To date, not much attention has been paid to these asymmetries, and explanations of the Simon effect do not take them into account. In the present article, we attempt to clarify the statistical implications of the asymmetries so as to provide a useful tool for future empirical investigation. Starting with examples from our laboratory and previous well-known studies, we point out the consequences of ignoring the asymmetries in the Simon effect. We suggest an alternative data analysis that might render the results clearer. Finally, through a comparison of left- and right-handed subjects, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the Simon effect are linked to the lateralization of processes involved in the Simon task--that is, attention and response selection. This approach provides a strong argument against collapsing data from the two sides to measure the Simon effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/bf03192843DOI Listing
February 2007

Simon effect with and without awareness of the accessory stimulus.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2006 Apr;32(2):268-86

Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale, Università di Padova, Padua, Italy.

The authors investigated whether a Simon effect could be observed in an accessory-stimulus Simon task when participants were unaware of the task-irrelevant accessory cue. In Experiment 1A a central visual target was accompanied by a suprathreshold visual lateral cue. A regular Simon effect (i.e., faster cue-response corresponding reaction times [RTs]) was found. Experiment 1B demonstrated that this effect cannot be attributed to perceptual grouping of the target and cue. Experiments 2A, 2B, and 2C showed a reverse Simon effect (i.e., faster noncorresponding RTs) when participants were not aware of the cue. In this condition, the Simon effect would occur relative to the reorientation of attention from the cue, which would initially capture attention, toward the target. This conclusion is supported by the results of Experiments 3A and 3B, in which the reorientation of attention was induced by having the target flash after its onset. With suprathreshold cues either a reverse or regular Simon effect was observed by using a 100-ms or > or = 200-ms onset flashing interval, respectively, whereas with subthreshold cues a reverse Simon effect was found irrespective of the interval length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.32.2.268DOI Listing
April 2006

Asymmetrical hemispheric EEG activation evoked by stimulus position during the Simon task.

Neurosci Lett 2006 May 28;399(3):215-9. Epub 2006 Feb 28.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Via Venezia 8, 35131 Padova, Italy.

The Simon effect has been previously shown to be asymmetric at both the behavioral and electrophysiological levels. The present investigation was aimed to clarify whether, during a Simon task, hemispheric asymmetry is also observed in the early phases of stimulus processing. In a group of healthy subjects performing the Simon task, we analyzed scalp potentials evoked by the first lateralized cue (left or right), instead of the classical readiness potential preceding the motor response. ERP results showed a significant left cortical activation to stimuli presented in the right visual field at the 140-160 ms time window. Instead, left stimuli elicited a significant activation of the right versus left hemisphere starting at the next 160-180 ms time interval. We linked this asymmetry to that observed in behavioral data: the Simon effect recorded with left stimuli is smaller than the Simon effect recorded with right stimuli. Results confirm the hypothesis that in right handed subjects, left hemisphere is specialized for motor response selection and is able to process right stimuli faster than the right hemisphere does for left stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2006.02.013DOI Listing
May 2006

Cross-modal re-mapping influences the Simon effect.

Mem Cognit 2002 Jan;30(1):18-23

University of Padua, Italy.

Tagliabue, Zorzi, Umiltà, and Bassignani (2000) showed that one's practicing of a spatially incompatible task influences performance in a Simon task even when the interval between the two tasks is as long as 1 week. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to investigate whether such an effect could be found in a cross-modal paradigm, whereby stimuli in the two tasks were presented in different modalities. Subjects performed either compatible or incompatible mappings in an acoustic spatial compatibility task and, after an interval of 5 min, 24 h, or 7 days, performed a visual Simon task. Results show that the spatially incompatible mapping task affected performance in the Simon task: The Simon effect was absent for all three intervals. This pattern is similar to the results of the Tagliabue et al. study, in which both tasks were performed in the same (visual) modality. Our findings disprove possible explanations based on episodic/contextual effects and support the hypothesis of a long-lasting spatial remapping that is not modality specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/bf03195261DOI Listing
January 2002