Publications by authors named "Maria Tufariello"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Soil Management and Training System on Negroamaro Wine Aroma.

Foods 2021 Feb 19;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Council for Agricultural Research and Economics-Research Center for Viticulture and Enology (CREA-VE), Via Casamassima 148, 70010 Turi, Italy.

This study aimed to assess the impact of two soil managements and training systems on yield and wine aroma compounds of Negroamaro variety grown in a warm climate region (southern Italy). Cover crop (CC) and soil tillage (ST) as soil management, whilst bilateral Guyot (BG) and monolateral Guyot (MG) as training systems were compared. Free and bound volatile fractions were evaluated by GC-MS. ST and CC as well as BG and MG significantly affected yield parameters. In particular, yield was higher in ST and BG than in CC and MG, respectively; moreover, it was found to be positively influenced by interaction between BG and ST. Regarding aroma compounds, significant interactions between soil management and training system factors were observed. In case of free volatiles, the most positive interaction was found between BG and ST, whereas, for bound volatiles, the best interaction was represented by MG with both soil tillage and cover crop. Vine leaf area and development over vine growth stages along with water stress levels played an important role in determining the aroma profile as well as yield parameters. In conclusion, the training system significantly interacted with soil management and affected most of important aroma compounds in Negroamaro wine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922071PMC
February 2021

Influence of Non- on Wine Chemistry: A Focus on Aroma-Related Compounds.

Molecules 2021 Jan 26;26(3). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

CNR-Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), via Prov. le, Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

Wine fermentation processes are driven by complex microbial systems, which comprise eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms that participate in several biochemical interactions with the must and wine chemicals and modulate the organoleptic properties of wine. Among these, yeasts play a fundamental role, since they carry out the alcoholic fermentation (AF), converting sugars to ethanol and CO together with a wide range of volatile organic compounds. The contribution of , the reference organism associated with AF, has been extensively studied. However, in the last decade, selected strains received considerable commercial and oenological interest due to their specific pro-technological aptitudes and the positive influence on sensory quality. This review aims to highlight the inter-specific variability within the heterogeneous class of non- in terms of synthesis and release of volatile organic compounds during controlled AF in wine. In particular, we reported findings on the presence of model non- organisms, including spp. and , in combination with . The evidence is discussed from both basic and applicative scientific perspective. In particular, the oenological significance in different kind of wines has been underlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26030644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865429PMC
January 2021

Effect of Co-Inoculation of , and for the Industrial Production of Negroamaro Wine in Apulia (Southern Italy).

Microorganisms 2020 May 13;8(5). Epub 2020 May 13.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, National Research Council, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

The employment of multi-species starter cultures has growing importance in modern winemaking for improving the complexity and wine attributes. The assessment of compatibility for selected species/strains at the industrial-scale is crucial to assure the quality and the safety associated with fermentations. An aspect particularly relevant when the species belong to non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces spp. and malolactic bacteria, three categories with different biological characteristics and oenological significance. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study regarding the utilization of a combined starter culture composed of three strains of non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum for production of wine at the industrial scale. More in-depth, this work investigated the oenological potential of the autochthonous characterized strains from the Apulian region (Southern Italy), Candida zemplinina (syn. Starmerella bacillaris) 35NC1, S. cerevisiae (NP103), and L. plantarum (LP44), in co-inoculation following a complete scale-up scheme. Microbial dynamics, fermentative profiles and production of volatile secondary compounds were assessed in lab-scale micro-vinification tests and then the performances of the mixed starter formulation were further evaluated by pilot-scale wine production. The above results were finally validated by performing an industrial-scale vinification on 100HL of Negroamaro cultivar grape must. The multi-starter formulation was able to rule the different stages of the fermentation processes effectively, and the different microbial combinations enhanced the organoleptic wine features to different extents. The findings indicated that the simultaneous inoculation of the three species affect the quality and quantity of several volatile compounds, confirming that the complexity of the wine can reflect the complexity of the starter cultures. Moreover, the results underlined that the same mixed culture could differently influence wine quality when tested at the lab-, pilot- and industrial-scale. Finally, we highlighted the significance of employment non-Saccharomyces and L. plantarum, together with S. cerevisiae, autochthonous strains in the design of custom-made starter culture formulation for typical regional wine production with pronounced unique quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285497PMC
May 2020

New Insights into the Oenological Significance of : Impact of Selected Autochthonous Strains on the Volatile Profile of Apulian Wines.

Microorganisms 2020 Apr 26;8(5). Epub 2020 Apr 26.

CNR-Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), via Prov.le, Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

In this investigation, we explored the oenological significance of (syn. ) isolates from Apulian grape musts. Moreover, we provide the first evidence of the impact of different strains on the wine aromatic properties tested as monocultures. We described the diversity of strains isolated from grapes and the variability of 'volatile' phenotypes associated with this intraspecific variability. Thirty-three isolates were characterized at strain level by PCR-based approach and, among these, 16 strains were identified and then tested by microfermentation tests carried out in grape must. Analyzed strains were low producers of acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide, not able to decarboxylate a panel of representative amino acids, whereas they showed fructophilic character and significant glycerol production. Volatile profiles of produced wines were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Odor Activity Values of all molecules were calculated and 12 compounds showed values above their odor thresholds. Two selected strains (35NC1 and 15PR1) could be considered as possible starter cultures since they were able to positively affect the sensory properties of obtained wine. This report firstly supplies evidence on the strain-specific impact of different strains on the final aroma of produced wines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285007PMC
April 2020

A Metagenomic-Based Approach for the Characterization of Bacterial Diversity Associated with Spontaneous Malolactic Fermentations in Wine.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Aug 15;20(16). Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment Sciences, University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

This study reports the first application of a next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. The analysis was designed to monitor the effect of the management of microbial resources associated with alcoholic fermentation on spontaneous malolactic consortium. Together with the analysis of 16S rRNA genes from the metagenome, we monitored the principal parameters linked to MLF (e.g., malic and lactic acid concentration, pH). We encompass seven dissimilar concrete practices to manage microorganisms associated with alcoholic fermentation: Un-inoculated must (UM), (PdC), (SC), and co-inoculated and sequentially inoculated, as well as and co-inoculated and sequentially inoculated. Surprisingly, each experimental modes led to different taxonomic composition of the bacterial communities of the malolactic consortia, in terms of prokaryotic phyla and genera. Our findings indicated that, uncontrolled AF (UM, PdC) led to heterogeneous consortia associated with MLF (with a relevant presence of the genera and ), when compared with controlled AF (SC) (showing a clear dominance of the genus ). Effectively, the SC trial malic acid was completely degraded in about two weeks after the end of AF, while, on the contrary, malic acid decarboxylation remained uncomplete after 7 weeks in the case of UM and PdC. In addition, for the first time, we demonstrated that both (i) the inoculation of different non- ( and ) and, (ii) the inoculation time of the non- with respect to resources (co-inoculated and sequentially inoculated) influence the composition of the connected MLF consortia, modulating MLF performance. Finally, we demonstrated the first findings of delayed and inhibited MLF when and were inoculated, respectively. In addition, as a further control test, we also assessed the effect of the inoculation with and at the end of alcoholic fermentation, as MLF starter cultures. Our study suggests the potential interest in the application of NGS analysis, to monitor the effect of alcoholic fermentation on the spontaneous malolactic consortium, in relation to wine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721008PMC
August 2019

Patè Olive Cake: Possible Exploitation of a By-Product for Food Applications.

Front Nutr 2019 5;6. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Lecce, Italy.

Patè Olive Cake (POC) is a new by-product derived from recently introduced new decanters in the olive oil production process. POC, is essentially composed of water, olive pulp and olive skin, and is rich in several valuable bioactive compounds. Moreover, it still contains about 8-12% residual olive oil. We characterized the main bioactive compounds in POC from black olives (cv. and ) and also verified the biotechnological aptitude of selected yeast and lactic acid bacteria from different sources, in transforming POC into a new fermented product. The strategy of sequential inoculum of and was successful in driving the fermentation process. In fermented POC total levels of phenols were slightly reduced when compared with a non-fermented sample nevertheless the content of the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol showed increased results. The total levels of triterpenic acids, carotenoids, and tocochromanols results were almost unchanged among the samples. Sensory notes were significantly improved after fermentation due to the increase of superior alcohols, esters, and acids. The results reported indicate a possible valorisation of this by-product for the preparation of food products enriched in valuable healthy compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6371699PMC
February 2019

Efficacy of yeast starters to drive and improve Picual, Manzanilla and Kalamàta table olive fermentation.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Mar 12;99(5):2504-2512. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Unità Operativa di Lecce, Lecce, Italy.

Background: Table olive fermentation is an unpredictable process and frequently performed using traditional practices often inadequate to obtain products with acceptable quality and safety standards. In the present study, the efficacy of selected yeast strains as starters to drive fermentations of green and black table olives by the Greek method was investigated. Pilot-scale production by spontaneous fermentation as a control, olives started with previously selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and fermentation driven by commercial S. cerevisiae baker's yeast strain were carried out for each of Manzanilla, Picual and Kalamàta table olive cultivars.

Results: Time of fermentation was significantly shortened to 40 days to complete the transformation process for all three tested cultivars. Inoculated table olives were enhanced in their organoleptic and nutritional properties in comparison with corresponding samples obtained by spontaneous fermentation. The use of starters was also able to improve safety traits of table olives in terms of biogenic amine reduction as well as absence of undesired microorganisms at the end of the process.

Conclusions: Autochthonous, but also non-autochthonous, yeasts can be used to start and control table olive fermentations and can significantly improve quality and safety aspects of table olives produced by many smallholder farmers. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9460DOI Listing
March 2019

Selection of indigenous yeast strains for the production of sparkling wines from native Apulian grape varieties.

Int J Food Microbiol 2018 Nov 5;285:7-17. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

We report the first polyphasic characterization of native Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to select candidate strains for the design of starter cultures tailored for Apulian sparkling wines obtained from local grape variety. In addition, it is the first survey in our region that propose the selection of autochthonous starter cultures for sparkling wine i) including a preliminary tailored genotypic and technological screening, and ii) monitoring analytical contribution during secondary fermentation in terms of volatile compounds (VOCs). Furthermore, we exploit the potential contribute of autochthonous cultures throughout the productive chain, including the possible improvement of base wine. One representative strain from each cluster was characterized i) for tolerance to abiotic and biotic stressors peculiar of sparkling wine fermentation, ii) for the performances in base wine production, and iii) for the aptitudes to promote in-bottle secondary fermentation in white and rosé sparkling wines, both obtained from Apulian grape varieties. Genetic characterization led to group 164 S. cerevisiae in 16 genetic clusters based on interdelta profiles. Stress tolerance assays shown a certain correlation with fermentative attitude. Our evidences demonstrated a different fermentative behavior and release of VOCs of the different strains in association with primary and secondary fermentations and as function of wine and rosé sparkling wine. Furthermore, performances in white/rosé sparkling wines have been found to be strain-dependent characters. Overall, we propose different strains as biotechnological resources suitable to improve the quality of regional sparkling wines and to provide a driver of innovation/segmentation in the market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2018.07.004DOI Listing
November 2018

Characterization of two Pantoea strains isolated from extra-virgin olive oil.

AMB Express 2018 Jul 10;8(1):113. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Laboratory of Analytical and Isotopic Mass Spectrometry, Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.

The olive oil is an unfavorable substrate for microbial survival and growth. Only few microorganisms use olive oil fatty acids as carbon and energy sources, and survive in the presence of olive oil anti-microbial components. In this study, we have evaluated the occurrence of microorganisms in 1-year-stored extra-virgin olive oil samples. We detected the presence of bacterial and yeast species with a recurrence of the bacterium Stenotrophomonas rhizophila and yeast Sporobolomyces roseus. We then assayed the ability of all isolates to grow in a mineral medium supplemented with a commercial extra-virgin olive oil as a sole carbon and energy source, and analyzed the utilization of olive oil fatty acids during their growth. We finally focused on two bacterial isolates belonging to the species Pantoea septica. Both these isolates produce carotenoids, and one of them synthesizes bioemulsifiers enabling the bacteria to better survive/growth in this unfavorable substrate. Analyses point to a mixture of glycolipids with glucose, galactose and xylose as carbohydrate moieties whereas the lipid domain was constituted by C6-C10 β-hydroxy carboxylic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-018-0642-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039349PMC
July 2018

Fermented Apulian table olives: Effect of selected microbial starters on polyphenols composition, antioxidant activities and bioaccessibility.

Food Chem 2018 May 11;248:137-145. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), National Council of Research (CNR), Via G. Amendola, 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

The effects of fermentation by autochthonous microbial starters on phenolics composition of Apulian table olives, Bella di Cerignola (BDC), Termite di Bitetto (TDB) and Cellina di Nardò (CEL) were studied, highlighting also the cultivars influence. In BDC with starter, polyphenols amount doubled compared with commercial sample, while in TDB and CEL, phenolics remain almost unchanged. The main phenolics were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, verbascoside and luteolin, followed by hydroxytyrosol-acetate detected in BDC and cyanidine-3-glucoside and quercetin in CEL. Scavenger capacity in both DPPH and CAA assays, assessed the highest antioxidant effect for CEL with starters (21.7 mg Trolox eq/g FW; 8.5 μmol hydroxytyrosol eq/100 g FW). The polyphenols were highly in vitro bioaccessible (>60%), although modifications in their profile, probably for combined effect of environment and microorganisms, were noted. Finally, fermented table olives are excellent source of health promoting compounds, since hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are almost 8 times more than in olive oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.12.032DOI Listing
May 2018

Chromatographic analysis of VOC patterns in exhaled breath from smokers and nonsmokers.

Biomed Chromatogr 2018 Apr 12;32(4). Epub 2017 Dec 12.

National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystem, Lecce, Italy.

Cigarette smoking harms nearly every organ of the body and causes many diseases. The analysis of exhaled breath for exogenous and endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide fundamental information on active smoking and insight into the health damage that smoke is creating. Various exhaled VOCs have been reported as typical of smoking habit and recent tobacco consumption, but to date, no eligible biomarkers have been identified. Aiming to identify such potential biomarkers, in this pilot study we analyzed the chemical patterns of exhaled breath from 26 volunteers divided into groups of nonsmokers and subgroups of smokers sampled at different periods of withdrawal from smoking. Solid-phase microextraction technique and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods were applied. Many breath VOCs were identified and quantified in very low concentrations (ppbv range), but only a few (toluene, pyridine, pyrrole, benzene, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone and 1-methyldecyclamine) were found to be statistically significant variables by Mann-Whitney test. In our analysis, we did not consider the predictive power of individual VOCs, as well as the criterion of uniqueness for biomarkers suggests, but we used the patterns of the only statistically significant compounds. Probit prediction model based on statistical relevant VOCs-patterns showed that assessment of smoking status is heavily time dependent. In a two-class classifier model, it is possible to predict with high specificity and sensitivity if a subject is a smoker who respected 1 hour of abstinence from smoking (short-term exposure to tobacco) or a smoker (labelled "blank smoker") after a night out of smoking (long-term exposure to tobacco). On the other side, in our study "blank smokers" are more like non-smokers so that the two classes cannot be well distinguished and the corresponding prediction results showed a good sensitivity but low selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4132DOI Listing
April 2018

Isolation, Characterization, and Selection of Molds Associated to Fermented Black Table Olives.

Front Microbiol 2017 18;8:1356. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni AlimentariLecce, Italy.

Table olives are one of the most important fermented food in the Mediterranean countries. Apart from lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that mainly conduct the olive fermentation, molds can develop on the brine surface, and can have either deleterious or useful effects on this process. From the food safety point of view, occurring molds could also produce mycotoxins, so, it is important to monitor and control them. In this respect, identification of molds associated to two Italian and two Greek fermented black table olives cultivars, was carried out. Sixty strains were isolated and molecularly identified as (21), (29), (1), (6), (2), (1). A group of 20 selected isolates was subjected to technological (beta-glucosidase, cellulolytic, ligninolytic, pectolytic, and xylanolytic activities; proteolytic enzymes) and safety (biogenic amines and secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins) characterization. Combining both technological (presence of desired and absence of undesired enzymatic activities) and safety aspects (no or low production of biogenic amines and regulated mycotoxins), it was possible to select six strains with biotechnological interest. These are putative candidates for future studies as autochthonous co-starters with yeasts and lactic acid bacteria for black table olive production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5513898PMC
July 2017

Evaluation of bioactive compounds in black table olives fermented with selected microbial starters.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Jan 5;98(1):96-103. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari (ISPA)-CNR, Lecce, Italy.

Background: Table olives have been a component of the Mediterranean diet for centuries, with the trend for their consumption currently increasing worldwide. They are rich in bioactive molecules with nutritional, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or hormone-like properties. In the present study, the concentrations of phenolics, triterpenic acids, carotenoids and vitamins, as well as fatty acid profiles and antioxidant activity, were analyzed in the edible portion of black table olives (Olea europea L.) from Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars fermented with selected autochthonous starters and in the corresponding monovarietal olive oils.

Results: On a fresh weight basis, Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives showed the highest total phenolic content. No significant differences were found with respect to the levels of total triterpenic (maslinic and oleanolic) acids and vitamin E among cultivars. All table olives were characterized by high amounts of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. Oils were richer in lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocochromanols) than table olives, which, instead, showed a higher content of polyphenols and triterpenic acids than oils.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that fermented table olives are an excellent natural source of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as being nutritionally important health-promoting bioactive compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8443DOI Listing
January 2018

Simultaneous Alcoholic and Malolactic Fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni Cells Co-immobilized in Alginate Beads.

Front Microbiol 2016 14;7:943. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

Unità Operativa di Lecce, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari Lecce, Italy.

Malolactic fermentation (MLF) usually takes place after the end of alcoholic fermentation (AF). However, the inoculation of lactic acid bacteria together with yeast starter cultures is a promising system to enhance the quality and safety of wine. In recent years, the use of immobilized cell systems has been investigated, with interesting results, for the production of different fermented foods and beverages. In this study we have carried out the simultaneous immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus oeni in alginate beads and used them in microvinifications tests to produce Negroamaro wine. The process was monitored by chemical and sensorial analyses and dominance of starters and cell leaking from beads were also checked. Co-immobilization of S. cerevisiae and O. oeni allowed to perform an efficient fermentation process, producing low volatile acidity levels and ethanol and glycerol concentrations comparable with those obtained by cell sequential inoculum and co-inoculum of yeast and bacteria cells in free form. More importantly, co-immobilization strategy produced a significant decrease of the time requested to complete AF and MLF. The immobilized cells could be efficiently reused for the wine fermentation at least three times without any apparent loss of cell metabolic activities. This integrated biocatalytic system is able to perform simultaneously AF and MLF, producing wines similar in organoleptic traits in comparison with wines fermented following traditional sequential AF and MLF with free cell starters. The immobilized-cell system, that we here describe for the first time in our knowledge, offers many advantages over conventional free cell fermentations, including: (i) elimination of non-productive cell growth phases; (ii) feasibility of continuous processing; (iii) re-use of the biocatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4906054PMC
July 2016

The Oenological Potential of Hanseniaspora uvarum in Simultaneous and Sequential Co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Industrial Wine Production.

Front Microbiol 2016 9;7:670. Epub 2016 May 9.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Institute of Sciences of Food Production Lecce, Italy.

In oenology, the utilization of mixed starter cultures composed by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts is an approach of growing importance for winemakers in order to enhance sensory quality and complexity of the final product without compromising the general quality and safety of the oenological products. In fact, several non-Saccharomyces yeasts are already commercialized as oenological starter cultures to be used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while several others are the subject of various studies to evaluate their application. Our aim, in this study was to assess, for the first time, the oenological potential of H. uvarum in mixed cultures (co-inoculation) and sequential inoculation with S. cerevisiae for industrial wine production. Three previously characterized H. uvarum strains were separately used as multi-starter together with an autochthonous S. cerevisiae starter culture in lab-scale micro-vinification trials. On the basis of microbial development, fermentation kinetics and secondary compounds formation, the strain H. uvarum ITEM8795 was further selected and it was co- and sequentially inoculated, jointly with the S. cerevisiae starter, in a pilot scale wine production. The fermentation course and the quality of final product indicated that the co-inoculation was the better performing modality of inoculum. The above results were finally validated by performing an industrial scale vinification The mixed starter was able to successfully dominate the different stages of the fermentation process and the H. uvarum strain ITEM8795 contributed to increasing the wine organoleptic quality and to simultaneously reduce the volatile acidity. At the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first study regarding the utilization of a selected H. uvarum strain in multi-starter inoculation with S. cerevisiae for the industrial production of a wine. In addition, we demonstrated, at an industrial scale, the importance of non-Saccharomyces in the design of tailored starter cultures for typical wines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860541PMC
May 2016

New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources.

Front Microbiol 2015 24;6:1007. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Unità Operativa di Lecce Lecce, Italy.

Table olives represent one important fermented product in Europe and, in the world, their demand is constantly increasing. At the present time, no systems are available to control black table olives spontaneous fermentation by the Greek method. During this study, a new protocol for the production of black table olives belonging to two Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino) and two Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea) cultivars has been developed: for each table olive cultivar, starter-driven fermentations were performed inoculating, firstly, one selected autochthonous yeast starter and, subsequently, one selected autochthonous LAB starter. All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process. The olive fermentation was monitored using specific chemical descriptors able to identify a first stage (30 days) mainly characterized by aldehydes; a second period (60 days) mainly characterized by higher alcohols, styrene and terpenes; a third fermentation stage represented by acetate esters, esters and acids. A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8 to 12 months to a maximum of 3 months) and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained. This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4585182PMC
October 2015

Physico-chemical characterization of natural fermentation process of Conservolea and Kalamàta table olives and developement of a protocol for the pre-selection of fermentation starters.

Food Microbiol 2015 Apr 6;46:368-382. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Bari, Italy.

Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. Conservolea and Kalamàta are the most important table olives Greek varieties. In the Greek system, the final product is obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. This natural fermentation process is not predictable and strongly influenced by the physical-chemical conditions and by the presence of microorganisms contaminating the olives. Natural fermentations of Conservolea and Kalamàta cultivars black olives were studied in order to determine microbiological, biochemical and chemical evolution during the process. Following the process conditions generally used by producers, in both cultivars, yeasts were detected throughout the fermentation, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in the last staged of the process. A new optimized specific protocol was developed to select autochthonous yeast and LAB isolates that can be good candidates as starters. These microorganisms were pre-selected for their ability to adapt to model brines, to have beta-glucosidase activity, not to produce biogenic amines. Chemical compounds deriving by microbiological activities and associated to the three different phases (30, 90 and 180 days) of the fermentation process were identified and were proposed as chemical descriptors to follow the fermentation progress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2014.08.021DOI Listing
April 2015

Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of spontaneous fermentation of Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives.

Front Microbiol 2014 28;5:570. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche- Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari Bari, Italy.

Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. In the Greek style, table olives are obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. Evolution of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, mono, and polyphenol compounds and volatile compounds associated with the fermentative metabolism of yeasts and bacteria throughout the natural fermentation process of the two Italian olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Leccino were determined. A protocol was developed and applied aimed at the technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains as possible candidate autochthonous starters for table olive fermentation from Cellina di Nardò and Leccino cultivars. The study of the main physic-chemical parameters and volatile compounds during fermentation helped to determine chemical descriptors that may be suitable for monitoring olive fermentation. In both the analyzed table olive cultivars, aldehydes proved to be closely related to the first stage of fermentation (30 days), while higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol; 3-methyl-1-butanol), styrene, and o-cymene were associated with the middle stage of fermentation (90 days) and acetate esters with the final step of olive fermentation (180 days).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211558PMC
November 2014

Analytical characterisation of Negroamaro red wines by "Aroma Wheels".

Food Chem 2013 Dec 4;141(3):2906-15. Epub 2013 Jun 4.

National Council of Research, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems (C.N.R.-I.M.M.), Via Monteroni, Campus Ecotekne, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

In this work we characterised Negroamaro red wines, made by an autochthonous cultivar of Southern Italy, by linking volatile composition to aroma properties. This linking was carried out by picturing "Aroma Wheels", built by Odour Activity Values (OAVs) of all the identified volatile compounds grouped in "aromatic series" belonging to 13 classes of sensory descriptors. The 18 most active odorants with OAV>1 were mainly alcohols, fatty acids and their ethyl esters. The "OAVs' Aroma Wheels" showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fruity and floral, next fatty and pungent and minor nutty and caramelised notes. Principal Component Analysis displayed correlations between sensory descriptors and wine samples; the main 7-fruity and 5-floral sensory features of Negroamaro wines have negative values of PC1 and they are negatively correlated with the second main sensory feature, i.e. 13-fatty, falling at positive value of PC1; this fit the aroma perception of this varietal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.05.105DOI Listing
December 2013

Role of the C-terminus of Pleurotus eryngii Ery4 laccase in determining enzyme structure, catalytic properties and stability.

Protein Eng Des Sel 2013 Jan 20;26(1):1-13. Epub 2012 Sep 20.

CNR-Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari (ISPA), Lecce, Italy.

The ERY4 laccase gene of Pleurotus eryngii is not biologically active when expressed in yeast. To explain this finding, we analysed the role of the C-terminus of Ery4 protein by producing a number of its different mutant variants. Two different categories of ERY4 mutant genes were produced and expressed in yeast: (i) mutants carrying C-terminal deletions and (ii) mutants carrying different site-specific mutations at their C-terminus. Investigation of the catalytic properties of the recombinant enzymes indicated that each novel variant acquired different affinities and catalytic activity for various substrates. Our results highlight that C-terminal processing is fundamental for Ery4 laccase enzymatic activities allowing substrate accessibility to the enzyme catalytic core. Apparently, the last 18 amino acids in the C-terminal end of the Ery4 laccase play a critical role in enzyme activity, stability and kinetic and, in particular biochemical and structural data indicate that the K532 residue is fundamental for enzyme activation. These studies shed light on the structure/function relationships of fungal laccases and will enhance the development of biotechnological strategies for the industrial exploitation of these enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/protein/gzs056DOI Listing
January 2013

Autochthonous fermentation starters for the industrial production of Negroamaro wines.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2012 Jan 21;39(1):81-92. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

C.N.R. Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), Operative Unit of Lecce, via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, 73100, Lecce, Italy.

The aim of the present study was to establish a new procedure for the oenological selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from natural must fermentations of an important Italian grape cultivar, denoted as "Negroamaro". For this purpose, 108 S. cerevisiae strains were selected as they did not produce H(2)S and then assayed by microfermentation tests. The adopted procedure made it possible to identify 10 strains that were low producers of acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide and showed that they completed sugar consumption during fermentation. These strains were characterized for their specific oenological and technological properties and, two of them, strains 6993 and 6920, are good candidates as industrial starter cultures. A novel protocol was set up for their biomass production and they were employed for industrial-scale fermentation in two industrial cellars. The two strains successfully dominated the fermentation process and contributed to increasing the wines' organoleptic quality. The proposed procedure could be very effective for selecting "company-specific" yeast strains, ideal for the production of typical regional wines. "Winery" starter cultures could be produced on request in a small plant just before or during the vintage season and distributed as a fresh liquid concentrate culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10295-011-1002-zDOI Listing
January 2012

An optimized procedure for the enological selection of non-Saccharomyces starter cultures.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2011 Feb 24;99(2):189-200. Epub 2010 Jun 24.

CNR-Institute of Sciences of Food Production (ISPA), Operative Unit of Lecce, via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni, Lecce, Italy.

The apiculate yeasts are the species predominating the first stage of grape must alcoholic fermentation and are important for the production of desired volatile compounds. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a protocol for the enological selection of non-Saccharomyces strains directly isolated from a natural must fermentation during the tumultuous phase. At this scope, fifty Hanseniaspora uvarum isolates were characterized at strain level by employing a new combined PCR-based approach. One isolate representative of each identified strain was used in fermentation assays to assess strain-specific enological properties. The chemical analysis indicated that all the analyzed strains were low producers of acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide, whereas they showed fructophilic character and high glycerol production. Analysis of volatile compounds indicated that one strain could positively affect, during the alcoholic fermentation process, the taste and flavour of alcoholic beverages. The statistical evaluation of obtained results indicated that the selected autochthonous H. uvarum strain possessed physiological and technological properties which satisfy the criteria indicated for non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts selection. Our data suggest that the described protocol could be advantageously applied for the selection of non-Saccharomyces strains suitable for the formulation of mixed or sequential starters together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-010-9475-8DOI Listing
February 2011
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