Publications by authors named "Maria Teresa Sandri"

82 Publications

Anyplex II HPV test in detection and follow-up after surgical treatment of CIN2+ lesions.

J Med Virol 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Division of Laboratory Medicine, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) tests differ for technology, targets, and information on the genotype and viral load. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Seegene Anyplex II HPV HR (Anyplex) assay in the detection of cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) and as a test-of-cure in the follow-up after surgical treatment. One hundred and sixty-seven women referred to the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, for surgical treatment of CIN2+ were enrolled. A cervical sample was taken before treatment and at the first follow-up visit: on these samples, Qiagen Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), Roche Linear Array HPV Test (Linear Array), cytology and histology were performed at baseline, HC2, and cytology at follow-up. Anyplex genotyping HPV test was performed on a post aliquot from liquid-based cytology specimens when available. The concordance between Anyplex and HC2 was 93.6% at baseline and 76.7% at follow-up (3-9 months after treatment), respectively. The concordance between Anyplex and Linear Array was evaluable only at baseline (92.9%). No recurrence occurred in women without the persistence of the same genotype at follow-up. Seven women relapsed: six had persistence of the same genotypes (five HPV16, one HPV33, and one HPV39), while one tested negative not only with Anyplex but also with HC2 for the persistence of low-risk genotype infection (HPV73 only detected by Linear Array). Anyplex test represents a valid option for HPV detection and genotyping in order to stratify women at risk of high-grade lesions at baseline and to monitor patients treated for CIN2+ lesions during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26862DOI Listing
February 2021

Human Papillomavirus Same Genotype Persistence and Risk: A Systematic Review.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2021 Jan;25(1):27-37

Becton, Dickinson and Company, BD Life Sciences - Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD.

Objective: The aim of the study was to examine whether high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was more closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) same-genotype persistence (SGTP) versus clearance of prior infection with a subsequent infection by a new genotype (genotype switch [GS]), clearance of HPV infection, or acquisition of a new HPV infection after a negative infection status, during a follow-up testing subsequent to abnormal screening results.

Materials And Methods: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Health Technology Assessment, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched from January 2000 to July 2019 for prospective controlled trials and observational studies of women and retrospective studies using HPV assays with extended- or full-genotype reporting. The primary outcome was high-grade CIN after at least 2 rounds of testing. Overall quality of evidence for the risk estimate outcomes was assessed. Of the 830 identified abstracts, 66 full-text articles were reviewed, and 7 studies were included in the synthesis. The study protocol was registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42018091093).

Results: Continued HPV-positive women falls in 2 equally large groups: SGTP and GS. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and positive likelihood ratio of SGTP were significantly higher than for GS. Human papillomavirus genotypes may be ranked into 3 tiers (immediate colposcopy, follow-up testing, return to routine screening), according to associated risk of persistence for high-grade CIN and to prevailing clinical action thresholds.

Conclusions: There is moderately high-quality evidence to support the clinical utility of SGTP to improve risk discrimination for high-grade CIN compared with qualitative HPV testing without genotype-specific information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748037PMC
January 2021

The Role of hCG Triggering Progesterone Levels: A Real-World Retrospective Cohort Study of More Than 8000 IVF/ICSI Cycles.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 23;11:547684. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Division of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Department of Gynecology, Fertility Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

To assess the association between serum ovulation trigger progesterone (P) levels and the outcome of fertilization cycles. Real world single-center retrospective cohort study. All fresh cleavage and blastocyst-stage embryo transfers (ETs) performed from January 2012 to December 2016. The impact of premature high serum P levels cycles in terms of clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) and live birth rates (LBRs). 8,034 ETs were performed: 7,597 cleavage-stage transfers and 437 blastocyst transfers. Serum P levels demonstrated to be inversely related to CPR (OR 0.72, < 0.001) and LBR (OR 0.73, < 0.001). The progressive decrease of LBR and CPR started when P levels were >1 ng/ml in a good prognosis cleavage ET subgroup, whereas in patients with worse prognosis only for ≥ 1.75 ng/ml. In the blastocyst ET subgroup, the negative effect of P elevation was reported only if P was >1.75 ng/ml. CPR (OR 0.71 (0.62-0.80), < 0.001) and LBR (OR 0.73 (0.63-0.84), < 0.001) in thawed cycles resulted statistically significantly higher than in fresh cycles in the cleavage-stage subgroup. In the blastocyst group, no significant difference resulted between thawed and fresh cycles, independently of P levels [CPR OR 0. 37 (0.49-1.09), = 0.123; LBR OR 0.71 (0.46-1.10), = 0.126]. High P levels decrease CPR as well as LBR in both cleavage and blastocyst ET. In the cleavage group, for P levels below 1.75 ng/ml, our data suggest the possibility to wait until day 5 for ET, and if P level is ≥1.75 ng/ml, it should be considered to freeze all embryos and postpone the ET. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT04253470.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.547684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538643PMC
September 2020

Association between cardiac troponin I and mortality in patients with COVID-19.

Biomarkers 2020 Dec 24;25(8):634-640. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Laboratory Medicine, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center - IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy.

Background: Severe pneumonia is pathological manifestation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), however complications have been reported in COVID-19 patients with a worst prognosis. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-TnI) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Methods: we retrospectively analysed hs-TnI values measured in 523 patients (median age 64 years, 68% men) admitted to a university hospital in Milan, Italy, and diagnosed COVID-19.

Results: A significant difference in hs-TnI concentrations was found between deceased patients (98 patients) vs discharged (425 patients) [36.05 ng/L IQR 16.5-94.9 vs 6.3 ng/L IQR 2.6-13.9,  < 0.001 respectively]. Hs-TnI measurements were independent predictors of mortality at multivariate analysis adjusted for confounding parameters such as age (HR 1.004 for each 10 point of troponin, 95% CI 1.002-1.006,  < 0.001). The survival rate, after one week, in patients with hs-TnI values under 6 ng/L was 97.94%, between 6 ng/L and the normal value was 90.87%, between the normal value and 40 ng/L was 86.98, and 59.27% over 40 ng/L.

Conclusion: Increase of hs-TnI associated with elevated mortality in patients with COVID-19. Troponin shows to be a useful biomarker of disease progression and worse prognosis in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2020.1831609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711728PMC
December 2020

Chest CT in patients with a moderate or high pretest probability of COVID-19 and negative swab.

Radiol Med 2020 Dec 29;125(12):1260-1270. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Radiology Division, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Via Alessandro Manzoni, 56, 20089, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of CT in patients with a negative first RT-PCR testing and to identify typical features of COVID-19 pneumonia that can guide diagnosis in this case.

Methods: Patients suspected of COVID-19 with a negative first RT-PCR testing were retrospectively revalued after undergoing CT. CT was reviewed by two radiologists and classified as suspected COVID-19 pneumonia, non-COVID-19 pneumonia or negative. The performance of both first RT-PCR result and CT was evaluated by using sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC) and by using the second RT-PCR test as the reference standard. CT findings for confirmed COVID-19 positive or negative were compared by using the Pearson chi-squared test (P values < 0.05) RESULTS: Totally, 337 patients suspected of COVID-19 underwent CT and nasopharyngeal swabs in March 2020. Eighty-seven out of 337 patients had a negative first RT-PCR result; of these, 68 repeated RT-PCR testing and were included in the study. The first RT-PCR test showed SE 0, SP = 100%, PPV = NaN, NPV = 70%, AUC = 50%, and CT showed SE = 70% SP = 79%, PPV = 86%, NPV = 76%, AUC = 75%. The most relevant CT variables were ground glass opacity more than 50% and peripheral and/or perihilar distribution.

Discussion: Negative RT-PCR test but positive CT features should be highly suggestive of COVID-19 in a cluster or community transmission scenarios, and the second RT-PCR test should be promptly requested to confirm the final diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01269-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456362PMC
December 2020

Thyrotoxicosis in patients with COVID-19: the THYRCOV study.

Eur J Endocrinol 2020 Oct;183(4):381-387

Endocrinology, Diabetology and Medical Andrology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Objective: This study assessed thyroid function in patients affected by the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), based on the hypothesis that the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19 may influence thyroid function and/or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may directly act on thyroid cells, such as previously demonstrated for SARS-CoV-1 infection.

Design And Methods: This single-center study was retrospective and consisted in evaluating thyroid function tests and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) values in 287 consecutive patients (193 males, median age: 66 years, range: 27-92) hospitalized for COVID-19 in non-intensive care units.

Results: Fifty-eight patients (20.2%) were found with thyrotoxicosis (overt in 31 cases), 15 (5.2%) with hypothyroidism (overt in only 2 cases), and 214 (74.6%) with normal thyroid function. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) values were inversely correlated with age of patients (rho -0.27; P < 0.001) and IL-6 (rho -0.41; P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, thyrotoxicosis resulted to be significantly associated with higher IL-6 (odds ratio: 3.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.97-5.36; P < 0.001), whereas the association with age of patients was lost (P = 0.09).

Conclusions: This study provides first evidence that COVID-19 may be associated with high risk of thyrotoxicosis in relationship with systemic immune activation induced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-20-0335DOI Listing
October 2020

High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and T methods for the early detection of myocardial injury in patients on chemotherapy.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Feb 22;59(3):513-521. Epub 2020 May 22.

Dipartimento di Medicina di Laboratorio, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Padova, and Dipartimento di Medicina - Università di Padova, Padova, Italy.

Important advances achieved in pharmacological cancer treatment have led progressively to a reduction in mortality from many forms of cancer, and increasing numbers of previously incurable patients can now hope to become cancer-free. Yet, to achieve these improved outcomes a high price has been paid in terms of untoward side effects associated with treatment, cardio-toxicity in particular. Several recent studies have reported that cardiac troponin assay using high-sensitivity methods (hs-cTn) can enable the early detection of myocardial injury related to chemotherapy or abuse of drugs that are potentially cardiotoxic. Several authors have recently suggested that changes in hs-cTn values enable the early diagnosis of cardiac injury from chemotherapy, thus potentially benefitting cancer patients with increased troponin values by initiating early cardioprotective therapy. However, large randomised clinical trials are needed in order to evaluate the cost/benefit ratio of standardised protocols for the early detection of cardiotoxicity using the hs-cTn assay in patients treated with chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-0362DOI Listing
February 2021

Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential Predictors of Anthracycline-Induced Troponin Elevation in Breast Cancer Patients: Diverging Effects of Doxorubicin and Epirubicin.

J Clin Med 2020 May 11;9(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

Immunology and Functional Genomics Unit, Centro Cardiologico Monzino-IRCCS, 20138 Milan, Italy.

Anthracyclines are anti-neoplastic drugs presenting cardiotoxicity as a side effect. Cardiac troponins (cTn) and echocardiography are currently used to assess cardiac damage and dysfunction, but early biomarkers identifying patients in need of preventive treatments remain a partially met need. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) represent good candidates, so we investigated their possible roles as predictors of troponin elevation upon anthracycline treatment. Eighty-eight female breast cancer patients administered with doxorubicin (DOX) or epirubicin (EPI) were divided into four groups basing on drug type and cTn positive (cTn+) or negative (cTn-) levels: DOX cTn-, DOX cTn+, EPI cTn- and EPI cTn+. Blood was collected at baseline, during treatment, and at follow-up. We identified plasma miRNAs of interest by OpenArray screening and single assay validation. Our results showed miR-122-5p, miR-499a-5p and miR-885-5p dysregulation in DOX patients at T0, identifying a signature separating, with good accuracy, DOX cTn- from DOX cTn+. No miRNAs showed differential expression in EPI subjects. Conversely, an anthracycline-mediated modulation (regardless of cTn) was observed for miR-34a-5p, -122-5p and -885-5p. Our study indicates specific circulating miRNAs as possible prediction markers for cardiac troponin perturbation upon anthracycline treatment. Indeed, our findings hint at the possible future use of plasma miRNAs to predict the cardiac responsiveness of patients to different anticancer agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290665PMC
May 2020

Circulating biomarkers and cardiac function over 3 years after chemotherapy with anthracyclines: the ICOS-ONE trial.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 08 1;7(4):1452-1466. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Aims: A multicentre trial, ICOS-ONE, showed increases above the upper limit of normality of cardiac troponin (cTn) in 27% of patients within 12 months after the end of cancer chemotherapy (CT) with anthracyclines, whether cardiac protection with enalapril was started at study entry in all (prevention arm) or only upon first occurrence on supra-normal cTn (troponin-triggered arm). The aims of the present post hoc analysis were (i) to assess whether anthracycline-based treatment could induce cardiotoxicity over 36 month follow-up and (ii) to describe the time course of three cardiovascular biomarkers (i.e. troponin I cTnI-Ultra, B-type natriuretic peptide BNP, and pentraxin 3 PTX3) and of left ventricular (LV) function up to 36 months.

Methods And Results: Eligible patients were those prescribed first-in-life CT, without evidence of cardiovascular disease, normal cTn, LV ejection fraction (EF) >50%, not on renin-angiotensin aldosterone system antagonists. Patients underwent echocardiography and blood sampling at 24 and 36 months. No differences were observed in biomarker concentration between the two study arms, 'prevention' vs. 'troponin-triggered'. During additional follow-up 13 more deaths occurred, leading to a total of 23 (9.5%), all due to a non-cardiovascular cause. No new occurrences of LV-dysfunction were reported. Two additional patients were admitted to the hospital for cardiovascular causes, both for acute pulmonary embolism. No first onset of raised cTnI-Ultra was reported in the extended follow-up. BNP remained within normal range: at 36 months was 23.4 ng/L, higher (N.S.) than at baseline, 17.6 ng/L. PTX3 peaked at 5.2 ng/mL 1 month after CT and returned to baseline values thereafter. cTnI-Ultra peaked at 26 ng/L 1 month after CT and returned to 3 ng/L until the last measurement at 36 months. All echocardiographic variables remained stable during follow-up with a median LVEF of 63% and left atrial volume index about 24 mL/m .

Conclusions: First-in-life CT with median cumulative dose of anthracyclines of 180 mg/m does not seem to cause clinically significant cardiac injury, as assessed by circulating biomarkers and echocardiography, in patients aged 51 years (median), without pre-existing cardiac disease. This may suggest either a 100% efficacy of enalapril (given as preventive or troponin-triggered) or a reassuringly low absolute cardiovascular risk in this cohort of patients, which may not require intensive cardiologic follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7373944PMC
August 2020

Venous and arterial thromboembolic complications in COVID-19 patients admitted to an academic hospital in Milan, Italy.

Thromb Res 2020 07 23;191:9-14. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Clinic for Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Few data are available on the rate and characteristics of thromboembolic complications in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Methods: We studied consecutive symptomatic patients with laboratory-proven COVID-19 admitted to a university hospital in Milan, Italy (13.02.2020-10.04.2020). The primary outcome was any thromboembolic complication, including venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic stroke, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS)/myocardial infarction (MI). Secondary outcome was overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Results: We included 388 patients (median age 66 years, 68% men, 16% requiring intensive care [ICU]). Thromboprophylaxis was used in 100% of ICU patients and 75% of those on the general ward. Thromboembolic events occurred in 28 (7.7% of closed cases; 95%CI 5.4%-11.0%), corresponding to a cumulative rate of 21% (27.6% ICU, 6.6% general ward). Half of the thromboembolic events were diagnosed within 24 h of hospital admission. Forty-four patients underwent VTE imaging tests and VTE was confirmed in 16 (36%). Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) was performed in 30 patients, corresponding to 7.7% of total, and pulmonary embolism was confirmed in 10 (33% of CTPA). The rate of ischemic stroke and ACS/MI was 2.5% and 1.1%, respectively. Overt DIC was present in 8 (2.2%) patients.

Conclusions: The high number of arterial and, in particular, venous thromboembolic events diagnosed within 24 h of admission and the high rate of positive VTE imaging tests among the few COVID-19 patients tested suggest that there is an urgent need to improve specific VTE diagnostic strategies and investigate the efficacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.04.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177070PMC
July 2020

Clinical Utility of Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Cervical Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2020 Jan;24(1):1-13

Becton, Dickinson and Company, BD Life Sciences - Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD.

Objective: Thirteen human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are associated with the highest risk of cervical disease/cancer; however, the risk of disease progression and cancer is genotype dependent. The objective of this systematic review was to examine evidence for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (≥CIN 3) risk discrimination using HPV genotyping.

Materials And Methods: A systematic review of English and non-English articles through MEDLINE, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov, and abstracts presented at relevant professional society conferences were searched from 2000 to 2019. Search terms included: cervical cancer screening, HPV genotyping, CIN, HPV persistence, humans, and colposcopy; prospective, controlled trials, observational studies, and retrospective studies of residual specimens; evidence included HPV genotyping (beyond genotypes 16/18/45) results. Data were obtained independently by authors using predefined fields. Risk of bias was evaluated with a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology facilitated overall quality of evidence evaluation for risk estimation. The study protocol was registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42018091093). The primary outcome was CIN 3 or worse risk both at baseline and at different follow-up periods.

Results: Of 236 identified sources, 60 full texts were retrieved and 16 articles/sources were included. Risk of bias was deemed low; the overall quality of evidence for CIN 3 or worse risk with negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancies or low-grade squamous intraepithelial cytology was assessed as moderate; that with atypical squamous cells-undetermined significance and "all cytology" was assessed as high. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. Human papillomavirus genotyping discriminated risk of CIN 3 or worse to a clinically significant degree, regardless of cytology result.

Conclusions: The evidence supports a clinical utility for HPV genotyping in risk discrimination during cervical cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924950PMC
January 2020

Clinical performance of Xpert Bladder Cancer (BC) Monitor, a mRNA-based urine test, in active surveillance (AS) patients with recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC): results from the Bladder Cancer Italian Active Surveillance (BIAS) project.

World J Urol 2020 Sep 5;38(9):2215-2220. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Urology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas IRCCS-Clinical and Research Hospital, via Manzoni 56, 20089, Milan, Rozzano, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the clinical performance of a new mRNA-based urine test, aiming to avoid unnecessary follow-up cystoscopy in patients under active surveillance (AS) for recurrent NMIBC.

Methods: This is a prospective cohort study enrolling patients with history of low-grade (LG) NMIBC, who developed a recurrence during the follow-up and underwent AS. Their urinary samples were analyzed by Xpert BC Monitor (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The primary endpoint was to investigate if Xpert BC Monitor could avoid unnecessary cystoscopy during the follow-up period. Its sensitivity, specificity, PPVs and NPVs were calculated. A cutoff of 0.4 "linear discriminant analysis" (LDA) was optimized for the AS setting.

Results: The cohort consisted of 106 patients with a mean age of 72 ± 9.52 and a median follow-up from AS start of 8.8 (range 0-56.5) months. No statistically significant difference was found for the mean age, smoker status, lesion size, and number of lesions with a cutoff of 0.4. Of 106 patients, 22 (20.8%) were deemed to require treatment because of cystoscopic changes in size and/or number of lesions during the follow-up period. Using a cutoff value of < 0.4, 34 (33.7%) cystoscopies could be avoided due to low LDA value, missing 2/22 (9%) failures, none with high-grade (HG) NMIBC. Further research on larger population remains mandatory before its clinical use.

Conclusion: Xpert BC Monitor seems to be a reliable assay, which might avoid unnecessary cystoscopies without missing HG NMIBC when its cutoff is optimized for the AS setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-019-03002-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Distribution of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Preneoplastic and Neoplastic Cervical Lesions of Unvaccinated Women: A Cross-sectional Study.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2019 Oct;23(4):259-264

Clinical Analysis Laboratory, Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and the role of multiple infection in preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions, according to histology, age, and the number of genotypes per infection.

Materials And Methods: Nine hundred eighty-eight women affected by known HPV-related cervical lesions and attending the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy, from December 2006 to December 2014, were selected for a cross-sectional study. Prevalence of HPV genotypes was calculated by histology and the number of genotypes per infection. Univariate and multivariable cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2-3 versus CIN 1 risks were estimated by logistic regression models.

Results: Overall, HPV 16 (53.1%), HPV 31 (15.1%), and HPV 58 (6.4%) were the most frequent genotypes in precancerous lesions. At multivariable analysis, HPV 16 (p = .02), 18 (p = .013), and 56 (p = .01) were significantly associated to worsen histology, whereas HPV 39 (p = .03) and 45 (p = .03) were statistically correlated only to the increasing number of genotypes per infections. Human papillomavirus 33 was the only genotype significantly related to both the number of genotypes per infection (p = .005) and age (p = .03). Infections by HR-HPV (odds ratio [OR] = 9.48, 95% CI = 3.77-23.8, p < .001), HPV genotypes covered by current vaccines (OR = 6.28, 95% CI = 4.05-9.75, p < .001), single HPV genotype (OR = 8.13, 95% CI = 4.12-16.0, p < .001), as well as age (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.19, p < .001) were significantly associated to higher risk of CIN 2-3.

Conclusions: The most of CIN 2+ lesions are sustained by HR-HPV genotypes, especially the ones covered by 9-valent vaccine; therefore, the widespread use of prophylactic HPV vaccines could significantly reduce the incidence of preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000487DOI Listing
October 2019

Iron deficiency in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Int J Cardiol 2020 02 31;300:14-19. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, I.R.C.C.S., Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is a known co-morbidity and a potential therapeutic target in heart failure. Whether ID is frequent also in ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and is associated with worse in-hospital outcomes has never been evaluated.

Methods: We defined ID as a serum ferritin < 100 μg/L or transferrin saturation < 20% at hospital admission. We assessed the association between ID and the primary endpoint (a composite of in-hospital mortality and Killip class ≥ 3). We explored the potential association between ID, circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters.

Results: Four-hundred-twenty STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) were included. Of them, 237 (56%) had ID. They had significantly higher admission high-sensitivity troponin and mtDNA levels as compared to non-ID patients (145 ± 35 vs. 231 ± 66 ng/L, P < 0.001; 917 [404-1748] vs. 1368 [908-4260] copies/μL; P < 0.003, respectively). A lower incidence of the primary endpoint (10% vs. 18%, P = 0.01) was observed in ID patients (adjusted OR 0.50 [95% CI 0.27-0.93]; P = 0.02). At CMR (n = 192), ID patients had a similar infarct size (21 ± 18 vs. 21 ± 19 g; P = 0.95), but a higher myocardial salvage index (0.56 ± 0.30 vs. 0.43 ± 0.27; P = 0.002), and a smaller microvascular obstruction extent (3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 6.9 ± 3.9 g; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Iron deficiency is frequent in STEMI patients, it is coupled with mitochondrial injury, and, paradoxically, with a better in-hospital outcome. This unexpected clinical result seems to be associated with a smaller myocardial reperfusion injury. The mechanisms underlying our findings and their potential clinical implications warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.07.083DOI Listing
February 2020

The clinical use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) enumeration for staging of metastatic breast cancer (MBC): International expert consensus paper.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2019 Feb 19;134:39-45. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Women Cancer Center, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale di Cremona, University of Trieste, Italy.

Background: The heterogeneity of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) necessitates novel biomarkers allowing stratification of patients for treatment selection and drug development. We propose to use the prognostic utility of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for stratification of patients with stage IV disease.

Methods: In a retrospective, pooled analysis of individual patient data from 18 cohorts, including 2436 MBC patients, a CTC threshold of 5 cells per 7.5 ml was used for stratification based on molecular subtypes, disease location, and prior treatments. Patients with ≥ 5 CTCs were classified as Stage IV, those with < 5 CTCs as Stage IV Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log rank test.

Results: For all patients, Stage IV patients had longer median overall survival than those with Stage IV (36.3 months vs. 16.0 months, P < 0.0001) and similarly for de novo MBC patients (41.4 months Stage IV vs. 18.7 months Stage IV, p < 0.0001). Moreover, patients with Stage IV disease had significantly longer overall survival across all disease subtypes compared to the aggressive cohort: hormone receptor-positive (44 months vs. 17.3 months, P < 0.0001), HER2-positive (36.7 months vs. 20.4 months, P < 0.0001), and triple negative (23.8 months vs. 9.0 months, P < 0.0001). Similar results were obtained regardless of prior treatment or disease location.

Conclusions: We confirm the identification of two subgroups of MBC, Stage IV and Stage IV, independent of clinical and molecular variables. Thus, CTC count should be considered an important tool for staging of advanced disease and for disease stratification in prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.12.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Improvement of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin sensitivity and specificity by two plasma measurements in predicting acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2018 Oct;28(3):030701

Unit of Laboratory Medicine, Centro Cardiologico ''Monzino'', IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains among the most severe complication after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as possible biomarker for the prediction of AKI in an adult cardiac population.

Materials And Methods: Sixty-nine consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgeries in our hospital were prospectively evaluated. In the intensive care unit (ICU) NGAL was measured as a new biomarker of AKI besides serum creatinine (sCrea). Patients with at least two factors of AKI risk were selected and samples collected before the intervention and soon after the patient's arrival in ICU. As reference standard, sCrea measurements and urine outputs were evaluated to define the clinical AKI. A Triage Meter for plasma NGAL fluorescence immunoassay was used.

Results: Acute kidney injury occurred in 24 of the 69 patients (35%). Analysis of post-operative NGAL values demonstrated an AUC of 0.71, 95% CI (0.60 - 0.82) with a cut-off = 154 ng/mL (sensitivity = 76%, specificity = 59%). Moreover, NGAL after surgery had a good correlation with the AKI stage severity (P ≤ 0.001). Better diagnostic results were obtained with two consecutive tests: sensitivity 86% with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 87%. At 10-18 h after surgery sCrea measurement, as confirmatory test, allowed to reach a more sensitivity and specificity with a NPV of 96%.

Conclusions: The assay results showed an improvement of NGAL diagnostic accuracy evaluating two tests. Consequently, NGAL may be useful for a timely treatment or for the AKI rule out in ICU patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11613/BM.2018.030701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214698PMC
October 2018

Neutrophil, Platelets, and Eosinophil to Lymphocyte Ratios Predict Gleason Score Upgrading in Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients.

Urol Int 2019 8;102(1):43-50. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Division of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Background: Several biochemical and clinical markers have been proposed for selecting patients for active surveillance (AS). However, some of these are expensive and not easily accessible. Moreover, currently about 30% of patients on AS harbor aggressive disease. Hence, there is an urgent need for other tools to accurately identify patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa).

Patients: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 260 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and were eligible for AS according to the following criteria: clinical stage T2a or less, prostate-specific antigen level < 10 ng/mL, 2 or fewer cores involved with cancer, Gleason score (GS) ≤6 grade, and prostate-specific antigen density < 0.2 ng/mL/cc.

Methods: Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association of patient and tumor characteristics with reclassification, defined as upstaged (pathological stage >pT2) and upgraded (GS ≥7) disease. A base model (age, prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, and clinical stage) was compared with models considering neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or platelets to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte to lymphocyte (MLR), and eosinophil to lymphocyte ratio (ELR). OR and 95% CI were calculated. Finally, a decision curve analysis was performed.

Results: Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that NLR, PLR, and ELR upgrading were significantly associated with upgrading (ORs ranging from 2.13 to 4.13), but not with upstaging except for MLR in multivariate analysis, showing a protective effect.

Conclusion: Our results showed that NLR, PLR, and ELR are predictors of Gleason upgrading. Therefore, these inexpensive and easily available tests might be useful in the assessment of low-risk PCa, when considering patients for AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494259DOI Listing
March 2019

Onclarity Human Papillomavirus Extended Genotyping in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2+ Lesions.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2019 Jan;23(1):39-42

Clinical Analysis Laboratory, Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Objective: Many methods are available today for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing; they differ for technology, targets, and information on the genotypes detected. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Onclarity HPV assay in detection and follow-up of cervical preneoplastic lesions.

Materials And Methods: One hundred sixty-seven women referred to the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, for treatment of cervical lesions were enrolled. We investigated the utility of Onclarity extended genotyping HPV test in the management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ preneoplastic lesion.

Results: At baseline, the concordance was 92% (150/163) between Onclarity and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and 93% (142/152) between Onclarity and linear array, respectively. At follow-up, the concordance between Onclarity and HC2 was 80%. Seven women relapsed: 6 had persistence of the same genotypes and 1 patient tested negative not only with Onclarity but also with HC2 for the presence of a low-risk genotype in the sample.

Conclusions: This study showed that the evaluation of the HPV genotype persistence may represent a valid option to monitor patients treated for CIN 2+ lesions, because relapses were detected only in patients with persistence of the same genotype detected at baseline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000441DOI Listing
January 2019

Acute kidney injury after lung cancer surgery: Incidence and clinical relevance, predictors, and role of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide.

Lung Cancer 2018 09 17;123:155-159. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy; Department of Oncology and Hematoncology, University of Milan, Italy.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently occurs in several medical and surgical settings, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In patients undergoing lung cancer surgery, AKI has not been fully investigated. We prospectively evaluated the incidence, clinical relevance, and risk factors of AKI in patients undergoing lung cancer surgery. Moreover, we estimated the accuracy of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the prediction of AKI.

Methods: Patients undergoing lung cancer surgery were included in the study. Plasma NT-proBNP was measured before and soon after surgery. Postoperative AKI was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) classification.

Results: A total of 2179 patients were enrolled. Of them, 222 (10%) developed AKI and had a more complicated in-hospital clinical course (overall complication rate: 35% vs. 16%; P < 0.0001), and a longer hospital stay (10 ± 7 vs. 7 ± 4 days; P < 0.0001). The incidence of AKI increased in parallel with the extent of lung resection. Among the independent predictors of AKI, serum creatinine (area under the curve [AUC] 0.70 [95% CI 0.67-0.74]) and NT-proBNP (AUC 0.71 [95% CI 0.67-0.74]) provided the highest predictive accuracy, and their combination further significantly improved AKI prediction (AUC 0.74 [95% CI 0.71-0.77]). No difference in AKI prediction was observed between preoperative and postoperative NT-proBNP (P = 0.84).

Conclusions: Acute kidney injury occurs in 10% of patients undergoing lung cancer surgery, and it is associated with a high incidence of postoperative complications. The risk of AKI can be accurately predicted by the combined evaluation of preoperative serum creatinine and NT-proBNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.07.009DOI Listing
September 2018

ST2 and B-type natriuretic peptide kinetics during exercise in severe heart failure.

Eur J Heart Fail 2018 10 27;20(10):1494-1495. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1246DOI Listing
October 2018

Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity: A multicenter randomised trial comparing two strategies for guiding prevention with enalapril: The International CardioOncology Society-one trial.

Eur J Cancer 2018 05 20;94:126-137. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Oncology, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Lariana, Como, Italy.

Background: Troponin changes over time have been suggested to allow for an early diagnosis of cardiac injury ensuing cancer chemotherapy; cancer patients with troponin elevation may benefit of therapy with enalapril. It is unknown whether a preventive treatment with enalapril may further increase the benefit.

Methods: The International CardioOncology Society-one trial (ICOS-ONE) was a controlled, open-label trial conducted in 21 Italian hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned to two strategies: enalapril in all patients started before chemotherapy (CT; 'prevention' arm), and enalapril started only in patients with an increase in troponin during or after CT ('troponin-triggered' arm). Troponin was assayed locally in 2596 blood samples, before and after each anthracycline-containing CT cycle and at each study visit; electrocardiogram and echocardiogram were done at baseline, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up. Primary outcome was the incidence of troponin elevation above the threshold.

Findings: Of the 273 patients, 88% were women, mean age 51 ± 12 years. The majority (76%) had breast cancer, 3% had a history of hypertension and 4% were diabetic. Epirubicin and doxorubicin were most commonly prescribed, with median cumulative doses of 360 [270-360] and 240 [240-240] mg/m, respectively. The incidence of troponin elevation was 23% in the prevention and 26% in the troponin-triggered group (p = 0.50). Three patients (1.1%) -two in the prevention, one in the troponin-triggered group-developed cardiotoxicity, defined as 10% point reduction of LV ejection fraction, with values lower than 50%.

Interpretation: Low cumulative doses of anthracyclines in adult patients with low cardiovascular risk can raise troponins, without differences between the two strategies of giving enalapril. Considering a benefit of enalapril in the prevention of LV dysfunction, a troponin-triggered strategy may be more convenient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.02.005DOI Listing
May 2018

Transition from Hybrid Capture 2 to Cobas 4800 in Hpv detection: sensitivity and specificity for Cin2+ in two time periods.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2018 07 20;50(7):554-559. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

a Division of Laboratory Medicine , European Institute of Oncology , Milan , Italy.

Background: High-risk (HR) Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Tests for HPV detection differ in sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the HC2 HR HPV Test and the Cobas 4800 HPV Test in consecutive cervical samples collected from a referral population with a high prevalence of disease, using CIN2+ histology as clinical outcome.

Methods: Ten thousand two-hundred and thirteen consecutive cervical samples were assayed for HR-HPV in the Laboratory Medicine Division of IEO: 5140 from January 2012 to June 2013 with HC2 and 5073 from July 2013 to December 2014 with the Cobas HPV Test. These two assays differ in terms of target genes and testing methods.

Results: The test positivity rates for HC2 and Cobas 4800 were 29.5% (1515/5135, 95% CI 28.3-30.8%) and 23.9% (1212/5069, 95% CI 22.7-25.1%), respectively. The detection rates of CIN2+ in the two time periods were 2.8% (145/5140, 95% CI 2.4-3.3%) and 1.6% (79/5073, 95% CI 1.2-1.9%), respectively. The sensitivity for CIN2+ for HC2 and Cobas 4800 was 95.2% (138/145, 95% CI 91.7-98.7%) and 93.7% (74/79, 95% CI 88.3-99.0%), respectively. The specificity for CIN2+ for HC2 and Cobas 4800 was 72.4% (3613/4990, 95% CI 71.2-73.6%) and 77.2% (3852/4990, 95% CI 76.0-78.4%), respectively. There were 23 cases of cancer in each of the two time periods. HC2 detected 100% (23/23). Cobas 4800 detected 82.6% (19/23).

Conclusions: The detection rate of CIN2+ was higher in the first period than in the second period. There was no significant difference in sensitivity of HC2 and Cobas 4800 in women with CIN2+. The specificity of CIN2+ using Cobas 4800 in the second period was higher than HC2 in the first period, probably due to the lower prevalence of CIN2+ in the second period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2018.1441538DOI Listing
July 2018

Clinical and analytical performance of the BD Onclarity™ HPV assay for detection of CIN2+ lesions on SurePath samples.

Papillomavirus Res 2016 12 2;2:31-37. Epub 2016 Mar 2.

Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Hvidovre, Denmark; Copenhagen University Hospital, Clinical Research Center, Hvidovre, Denmark.

Background: The novel BD Onclarity HPV assay (Onclarity) on the BD Viper™ LT system (BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD), detects E6/E7 DNA from 13 high-risk HPV genotypes and HPV66. We compared the analytical and clinical performance of the Onclarity Assay to that of Hybrid Capture 2 and LINEAR ARRAY using adjudicated histological outcomes from Danish women referred for colposcopy.

Methods: 276 women from Copenhagen, Denmark were referred for colposcopy with abnormal cytology and/or a positive HPV test. Two samples for HPV analysis were taken in BD SurePath™ and in the BD cervical brush diluent (CBD) media. ClinicalTrial gov. identifier: NCT01671462, Ethical Approval: H-4-2012-070.

Results: Histology was normal in 84 (31%) women, 70 (26%) had CIN1, 47 (17%) CIN2, and 68 (25%) had CIN3. The Onclarity assay detected 67 out of 68 (99%) ≥CIN3 and 113/115 (98%) ≥CIN2. The specificities for
Conclusion: Overall, the Onclarity HPV assay performed well on SurePath LBC and CBD media, with clinical sensitivity and specificity matching those of HC2 and LA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pvr.2016.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886872PMC
December 2016

MiR-320a as a Potential Novel Circulating Biomarker of Arrhythmogenic CardioMyopathy.

Sci Rep 2017 07 6;7(1):4802. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Cardiac Arrhythmia Research Center, Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Diagnosis of Arrhythmogenic CardioMyopathy (ACM) is challenging and often late after disease onset. No circulating biomarkers are available to date. Given their involvement in several cardiovascular diseases, plasma microRNAs warranted investigation as potential non-invasive diagnostic tools in ACM. We sought to identify circulating microRNAs differentially expressed in ACM with respect to Healthy Controls (HC) and Idiopathic Ventricular Tachycardia patients (IVT), often in differential diagnosis. ACM and HC subjects were screened for plasmatic expression of 377 microRNAs and validation was performed in 36 ACM, 53 HC, 21 IVT. Variable importance in data partition was estimated through Random Forest analysis and accuracy by Receiver Operating Curves. Plasmatic miR-320a showed 0.53 ± 0.04 fold expression difference in ACM vs. HC (p < 0.01). A similar trend was observed when comparing ACM (n = 13) and HC (n = 17) with athletic lifestyle, a ACM precipitating factor. Importantly, ACM patients miR-320a showed 0.78 ± 0.05 fold expression change vs. IVT (p = 0.03). When compared to non-invasive ACM diagnostic parameters, miR-320a ranked highly in discriminating ACM vs. IVT and it increased their accuracy. Finally, miR-320a expression did not correlate with ACM severity. Our data suggest that miR-320a may be considered a novel potential biomarker of ACM, specifically useful in ACM vs. IVT differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05001-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500514PMC
July 2017

The clinical implementation of primary HPV screening.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2017 Mar 3;136(3):266-271. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Preventive Gynaecology Unit, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate, from a gynecology perspective, the transition from cytology-based HPV screening to primary HPV screening.

Methods: Studies examining switching from cytology-based screening to primary HPV-DNA testing with triaging of patients with positive test results were retrieved and reviewed, with a particular focus on screening in an Italian setting.

Results: The increased complexity of patient-management decisions when implementing HPV-based screening was a critical issue discussed in the literature. The change in strategy represents a paradigm shift in moving from a medical perspective of identifying the disease in individual patients, to a public-healthcare perspective of excluding HPV from the healthy population and identifying a small sub-group of individuals at increased risk of HPV.

Conclusion: With knowledge about HPV screening evolving rapidly, new programs and related algorithms need to be sufficiently flexible to be adjusted according to ongoing research and the validation of new assays. The establishment of a national working group (including epidemiologists, gynecologists, pathologists, and healthcare providers) will be necessary to properly implement and govern this important technical and cultural transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12065DOI Listing
March 2017

Using biomarkers to predict and to prevent cardiotoxicity of cancer therapy.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2017 03 29;17(3):245-256. Epub 2017 Jan 29.

c Cardiology Department , European Institute of Oncology , IRCCS , Milan , Italy.

Introduction: Cardiotoxicity is a common complication that may compromise the clinical effectiveness of anticancer therapy. The current standard for monitoring cardiac function detects cardiotoxicity only when a functional impairment has already occurred, not allowing for any early preventive strategy. Areas covered: A novel approach, based on the use of biomarkers has recently emerged, resulting in a very effective tool for early, real-time identification, and monitoring of cardiotoxicity. In particular, cardiac troponin elevation during chemotherapy allows to identify patients more prone to develop myocardial dysfunction and cardiac events. In these patients, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, such as enalapril, has shown to be effective in improving clinical outcomes, giving the chance for cardioprotective strategies in a selected population. The authors reviewed the currently available data about the role of biomarkers in this setting. Expert commentary: Early identification of patients at high risk of cardiotoxicity by cardiac biomarkers - in particular troponin - provides a rationale for targeted preventive strategies against cancer therapy-induced left ventricular dysfunction and its associated clinical complications, with the advantage of limiting prophylactic therapy only to a restricted number of patients. Although the major international oncologic societies encourage this approach, some limitations to a routinely use of biomarkers still exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737159.2017.1283219DOI Listing
March 2017

Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of Circulating Cytochrome c in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Circ Res 2016 Dec 31;119(12):1339-1346. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

From the Centro Cardiologico Monzino, I.R.C.C.S., University of Milan, Italy (G.M., N.C., V.M., M.M., M.T.S., F.V., A.B., A.L.B.); European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy (M.T., M.G., D.C., M.T.S., C.M.C.); and Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel (CRIB) and Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland (J.B., M.K., R.T., T.N., T.R., K.W., S.S., N.K., Z.S., C.M.).

Rationale: In contrast to cardiomyocyte necrosis, which can be quantified by cardiac troponin, functional cardiomyocyte impairment, including mitochondrial dysfunction, has escaped clinical recognition in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients.

Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy for AMI and prognostic prediction of in-hospital mortality of cytochrome c.

Methods And Results: We prospectively assessed cytochrome c serum levels at hospital presentation in 2 cohorts: a diagnostic cohort of patients presenting with suspected AMI and a prognostic cohort of definite AMI patients. Diagnostic accuracy for AMI was the primary diagnostic end point, and prognostic prediction of in-hospital mortality was the primary prognostic end point. Serum cytochrome c had no diagnostic utility for AMI (area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve 0.51; 95% confidence intervals 0.44-0.58; P=0.76). Among 753 AMI patients in the prognostic cohort, cytochrome c was detectable in 280 (37%) patients. These patients had higher in-hospital mortality than patients with nondetectable cytochrome c (6% versus 1%; P<0.001). This result was mainly driven by the high mortality rate observed in ST-segment-elevation AMI patients with detectable cytochrome c, as compared with those with nondetectable cytochrome c (11% versus 1%; P<0.001). At multivariable analysis, cytochrome c remained a significant independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 3.0; 95% confidence interval 1.9-5.7; P<0.001), even after adjustment for major clinical confounders (odds ratio 4.01; 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.38; P=0.02).

Conclusions: Cytochrome c serum concentrations do not have diagnostic but substantial prognostic utility in AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.309792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5627527PMC
December 2016

Chlamydia trachomatis infection and HPV/Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection among HPV-vaccinated young women at the beginning of their sexual activity.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2016 11 8;294(6):1227-1233. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Division of Laboratory Medicine, European Institute of Oncology, Via Giuseppe Ripamonti, 435, 20141, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: This study investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, co-infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and associated risk factors in a cohort of sexually active young women enrolled in an ongoing trial on HPV vaccination at the European Institute of Oncology (IEO, Milan, Italy).

Methods: Cervical samples were collected from 591 girls (median age 18.8 years) at the beginning of their sexual activity. At the time of sample collection, 354 women had not yet been vaccinated, and 237 women had been vaccinated for at least 12 months. All samples were analyzed through a molecular assay for the detection of C. trachomatis infection. Demographic, behavioral risk factors and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) status were investigated.

Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 4.9 % and HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection rate was 1.5 %. The exact analysis has not underlined statistical significance for the variables considered, except for the infection with HR-HPV (p < 0.001). The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women who had not been immunized and those already vaccinated was similar (5.6 vs 3.8 %). However, the rate of HPV/C. trachomatis co-infection was twice as high in unvaccinated women (2 %) compared to vaccinated women (0.8 %).

Conclusions: Over 16 % of young women had at least one of the two STIs investigated. The risk of C. trachomatis infection was higher in HR-HPV infected compared to HR-HPV uninfected young women. The rate of co-infection was halved in HPV-vaccinated compared to unvaccinated women. This study underlines that HPV vaccination can confer benefits also in terms of co-infections prevention, leading to a decreased risk of developing cervical malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-016-4167-xDOI Listing
November 2016

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus Infection in 18-Year-Old Women: Baseline Report of a Prospective Study on Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.

J Low Genit Tract Dis 2017 Jan;21(1):4-8

1Preventive Gynaecology Unit, 2Laboratory Medicine Unit, and 3Diagnostic Cytology Unit, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Little is known about the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Italy before the age of 25. At the European Institute of Oncology, a prospective observational study on cervical HPV infection in 18-year-old women undergoing quadrivalent HPV vaccination is ongoing.

Methods: At the first visit before vaccination, all the young women answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and then, the presence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) was tested. Samples positive for hrHPV were genotyped. Liquid-based cytology was done only to women declaring not to be virgins. Any positivity at cytology or HPV testing was completed with colposcopy and eventually biopsies.

Results: Seven hundred and thirty women were enrolled. Two hundred sixty-six women were virgins; 7 (2.6%) of these resulted positive to hrHPV: 1 had HPV16 and CP6108, whereas the other 6 resulted negative at genotyping. Of the 464 nonvirgins, 61 (13.1%) were HPV positive: 19 had HPV16, 4 were positive to HPV18 with other hrHPVs, 25 to other hrHPVs, 7 to low-risk HPV, whereas 13 resulted negative at genotyping. HPV positivity was significantly associated to both smoking and having more than 3 partners. Cervical cytology was negative in 433 cases (93.3%), ASC-US in 10 cases (2.2%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 20 cases (4.3%), and ASC-H in 1 case (0.2%). No CIN2+ was identified.

Conclusions: Overall, we found a low positivity to HPV in this population; however, the rate of HPV positivity was significantly related to smoking and sexual life. The cytology result low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was more frequent than in the screening population, whereas no CIN2+ was identified, confirming the indication to avoid screening at this age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/LGT.0000000000000268DOI Listing
January 2017

The BD Onclarity HPV Assay on Samples Collected in SurePath Medium Meets the International Guidelines for Human Papillomavirus Test Requirements for Cervical Screening.

J Clin Microbiol 2016 09 15;54(9):2267-72. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark Clinical Research Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.

This study describes a validation of the BD Onclarity HPV (Onclarity) assay using the international guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening of women 30 years old and older using Danish SurePath screening samples. The clinical specificity (0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88 to 0.91) and sensitivity (0.97, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.0) of the Onclarity assay were shown to be not inferior to the reference assay (specificity, 0.90 [95% CI = 0.88 to 0.92]; sensitivity, 0.98 [95% CI = 0.91 to 1.0]). The intralaboratory reproducibility of Onclarity was 97%, with a lower confidence bound of 96% (kappa value, 0.93). The interlaboratory agreement was 97%, with a lower confidence bound of 95% (kappa value, 0.92). The BD Onclarity HPV assay fulfills all the international guidelines for a new HPV test to be used in primarily screening. This is the first clinical validation of a new HPV assay using SurePath screening samples, and thus the Onclarity HPV assay is the first HPV assay to hold an international validation for both SurePath and ThinPrep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00508-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5005508PMC
September 2016