Publications by authors named "Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini"

40 Publications

Ruxolitinib for chronic steroid-refractory graft versus host disease: a single center experience.

Leuk Res 2021 Jun 11;109:106642. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCSS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant that severely impacts quality of life and long-term survival. About 50-to-60 % of patients treated with steroids require a further line of therapy due to lack of sustained response. Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, has recently been approved for the treatment of acute GvHD.

Methods: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate ruxolitinib efficacy and safety in a cohort of patients diagnosed with moderate (25 %) or severe (75 %) steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent chronic GvHD. Response evaluation was performed at three and six months.

Results: Thirty-six patients received ruxolitinib after a median of three previous lines (range, r 1-11) for a median of 8.6 months (r 1-51.6). Cutaneous GvHD was the most frequent presentation. We observed an overall response of 59 % (CR 9%, PR 50 %) at three months and 62 % (CR 15 %, PR 46 %) at six months. Two patients had hematologic disease recurrence and were censored at relapse; no other permanent discontinuation due to adverse events were documented. Cutaneous, oral, genital and ocular GvHD significantly improved after treatment. 2-year overall survival and 2-year transplant related mortality were 74 % and 19 % respectively. Ruxolitinib was associated with a significant reduction of steroid dose.

Conclusion: Ruxolitinib was confirmed to be a safe and effective option as salvage treatment also for advanced stages of chronic GvHD. Longer follow up is needed to evaluate durability of response. Prospective analyses on larger cohorts are ongoing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2021.106642DOI Listing
June 2021

Posttransplantation Cyclophosphamide- and Sirolimus-Based Graft-Versus-Host-Disease Prophylaxis in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has emerged as a promising graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from haploidentical donors and more recently in matched donor transplants. Herein, we describe our real-life experience on 249 adult patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT, from HLA-matched related (MRD), HLA-matched unrelated (MUD), or mismatched related donors (MMRD). Patients received unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), using a GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy and sirolimus. Mycophenolate mofetil was added in MUD or MMRD. In the HLA-matched donor group (MRD, n = 48, MUD, n = 50), the cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GvHD was 23% and 9% at 100 days, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 25% at 2 years, severe only for 5% of the patients. The cumulative incidences of relapse and transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 31% and 9% at 2 years, respectively. The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 72% and progression-free survival (PFS) 60%; the composite endpoint of GvHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 52% at 2 years. In the haploidentical donor group (n = 151), we documented a cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD of 35% and 20% at 100 days, respectively, and a cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD of 39% at 2 years. We observed severe chronic GVHD in 15% of the patients. The cumulative incidence of relapse and TRM was 32% and 25% at 2 years, respectively. The 2-year OS was 48%, whereas PFS was 43%; GRFS was 28% at 2 years. However, more patients in the haploidentical group presented high/very high disease risk index (DRI) and higher HCT-comorbidity index. In patients classified in the low-intermediate DRI, 2-year GRFS was 53% in MRD, 65% in MUD, and 46% in haploidentical HSCT (P = .33). Sirolimus-PTCy platform deserves further investigation as an alternative to calcineurin-inhibitor-based GVHD prophylaxis for all donor sources. In patients presenting a low-intermediate DRI, this strategy translates in relevant survival independently from the transplant source.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.023DOI Listing
June 2021

Breakthrough Invasive Fungal Infections in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;7(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy.

Despite the recent introduction of mold-active antifungal prophylaxis (MAP), breakthrough invasive fungal infections (b-IFI) still represent a possible complication and a cause of morbidity and mortality in hematological patients and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients (HSCT). Data on incidence and type of b-IFI are limited, although they are mainly caused by non- and non- molds and seem to depend on specific antifungal prophylaxis and patients' characteristics. Herein, we described the clinical presentation and management of two cases of rare b-IFI which recently occurred at our institution in patients undergoing HSCT and receiving MAP. The management of b-IFI is challenging due to the lack of data from prospective trials and high mortality rates. A thorough analysis of risk factors, ongoing antifungal prophylaxis, predisposing conditions and local epidemiology should drive the choice of antifungal treatments. Early broad-spectrum preemptive therapy with a lipid formulation of amphotericin-B, in combination with a different mold-active azole plus/minus terbinafine, is advisable. The therapy would cover against rare azole-susceptible and -resistant fungal strains, as well as atypical sites of infections. An aggressive diagnostic work-up is recommended for species identification and subsequent targeted therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7050347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146885PMC
April 2021

Following-up allogeneic transplantation recipients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lancet Haematol 2020 08 22;7(8):e564-e565. Epub 2020 May 22.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30176-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255213PMC
August 2020

Infections after Allogenic Transplant with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide: Impact of Donor HLA Matching.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 06 28;26(6):1179-1188. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Incidence and outcome of infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis are largely unknown. Study aims were to estimate the incidence of pre-engraftment bloodstream infections (PE-BSIs) and viral infections (VIs; cytomegalovirus [CMV], adenovirus [ADV], human herpes virus 6 [HHV6], and BK-polyomavirus hemorrhagic-cystitis [BKPyV-HC]), their predictive factors, and infection-related mortality (IRM) after HSCT with PT-Cy. We analyzed 235 patients: 62%, 21%, and 17% received haploidentical (haplo), matched-unrelated donor (MUD), and matched-related donor, respectively. Overall, 72 patients had 77 PE-BSI episodes at a median time of 13 days after HSCT: cumulative incidence function (CIF) at 28 days was 32%, without differences among donor types (P = .988). By multivariate analysis, CIF of PE-BSI was higher in patients with severe neutropenia before HSCT (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 2.90) and in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria rectal carriers (AHR = 2.68). IRM at 30 days was 5%, without differences by donor type (P = .106). Overall, 208 patients experienced ≥1 VIs (first occurrence among CMV, HHV6, ADV, BKPyV-HC) at a median time of 20 days after HSCT: CIF at 90 days was 91%, significantly higher in MUD and haplo (P = .0089). By multivariate analysis, also acute GVHD grade ≥2 (AHR = 1.32) and host/donor CMV-serology mismatch (positive/positive versus negative/negative: AHR = 2.95, positive/negative versus negative/negative: AHR = 2.41, negative/positive versus negative/negative: AHR = 2.35) affected VIs occurrence. IRM at 180 days was 8%, without differences among donor types (P = .106). In conclusion, study results did not show a significant impact of donor type on PE-BSI incidence; conversely, MUD and haploidentical transplants retained a higher occurrence of VIs in the early phase after HSCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.01.013DOI Listing
June 2020

Lung Ultrasound to Evaluate Invasive Fungal Diseases after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Infect Chemother 2019 Dec;51(4):386-392

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy.

Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a leading cause of infection-related-mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this prospective pilot study, we investigated the use of bedside lung ultrasound (US) in IFD management. Ten consecutive hematological patients, who developed pulmonary IFD after HSCT, were included in the study. Standard computed tomography scan and lung US were performed at IFD diagnosis and 10 days after antifungal treatment. The lung US demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of lung lesions at IFD diagnosis and in the follow-up examinations. It is of potential clinical relevance for IFD management in hematological patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2019.51.4.386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940370PMC
December 2019

Interleukin-6 as Biomarker for Acute GvHD and Survival After Allogeneic Transplant With Post-transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:2319. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Although the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has dramatically improved in the past decade, it is still compromised by transplant-related mortality (TRM), mainly caused by Graft-vs. -Host Disease (GvHD). We conducted a prospective observational study to ascertain the potential of serum interleukin-6 (IL6) levels, measured before conditioning and 7 days after allo-HSCT, in predicting acute GvHD, TRM and survival after allo-HSCT with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) based GvHD prophylaxis. Between April 2014 and June 2017, we collected samples from 166 consecutive allo-HSCT patients. By ROC analysis, we identified a threshold of 2.5 pg/ml for pre-transplant IL6 and 16.5 pg/ml for post-transplant IL6. Both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of high baseline IL6 levels to predict worse OS (HR 4.3; < 0.01) and grade II-IV acute GvHD (HR 1.8; = 0.04), and of high post-transplant IL6 to identify patients with worse OS (HR 3.3; < 0.01) and higher risk of grade II-IV (HR 5; < 0.01) and grade III-IV acute GvHD (HR 10.2; < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, both baseline (HR 6.7; < 0.01) and post-transplant high IL6 levels (HR 3.5; = 0.02) predicted higher TRM. IL6 may contribute to the risk stratification of patients at major risk for aGvHD and TRM, potentially providing a window for additional prophylactic or preemptive strategies to improve the quality of life in the early post-transplant phase and the outcome of allo-HSCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779849PMC
October 2020

Clofarabine and Treosulfan as Conditioning for Matched Related and Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Results from the Clo3o Phase II Trial.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 02 9;26(2):316-322. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) can be curative for patients with hematologic malignancies. The ideal conditioning regimen before allo-HSCT has not been established. We conducted a Phase II study to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of clofarabine and treosulfan as conditioning regimen before allo-HSCT. The primary objective was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) on day +100. Forty-four patients (36 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 5 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 3 with myelodysplastic syndromes) were enrolled. The median patient age was 47 years, and the median duration of follow-up was 27 months. The conditioning regimen was based on clofarabine 40 mg/m (days -6 to -2) and treosulfan 14 g/m (days -6 to -4). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells were derived from a sibling (n = 22) or a well-matched unrelated donor (n = 22). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of antithymocyte globulin, rituximab, cyclosporine, and a short-course of methotrexate. The regimen allowed for rapid engraftment and a 100-day NRM of 18%, due mainly to bacterial infections. The incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD and chronic GVHD were 16% and 19%, respectively. The rates of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and relapse at 2 years were 51%, 31%, and 50%, respectively. Significantly different outcomes were observed between patients with low-intermediate and patients with high-very high Disease Risk Index (DRI) scores (1-year OS, 78% and 24%, respectively). Our findings show that the use of treosulfan and clofarabine as a conditioning regimen for allo-HSCT is feasible, with a 78% 1-year OS in patients with a low-intermediate DRI score. However, 1-year NRM was 18%, and despite the intensified conditioning regimen, relapse incidence remains a major issue in patients with poor prognostic risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.09.032DOI Listing
February 2020

Ocular graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation: Expert review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the CIBMTR and Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 05 7;54(5):662-673. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in more than half of patients who develop chronic GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), causing prolonged morbidity, which affects activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of ocular GVHD in a collaboration between transplant physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Recent updates in ocular GVHD, regarding pathophysiology, preclinical models, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis, response criteria, evaluation measures, and treatment are discussed in this review. Ocular GVHD has at least three biological processes: lacrimal gland dysfunction, meibomian gland dysfunction, and corneoconjunctival inflammation. Preclinical models have found several novel pathogenic mechanisms, including renin angiotensin system and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling that can be targeted by therapeutic agents. Many studies have identified reliable tests for establishing diagnosis and response assessment of ocular GVHD. Efficacy of systemic and topical treatment for ocular GVHD is summarized. It is important for all health professionals taking care of HCT recipients to have adequate knowledge of ocular GVHD for optimal care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0340-0DOI Listing
May 2019

Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Expert Review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 02 24;25(2):e46-e54. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs in more than one-half of patients who develop chronic GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), causing prolonged morbidity that affects activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of ocular GVHD in a collaboration between transplantation physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Recent updates in ocular GVHD regarding pathophysiology, preclinical models, risk factors, prevention, screening, diagnosis, response criteria, evaluation measures, and treatment are discussed. Ocular GVHD involves at least 3 biological processes: lacrimal gland dysfunction, meibomian gland dysfunction, and corneoconjunctival inflammation. Preclinical models have identified several novel pathogenic mechanisms, including the renin angiotensin system and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling, which can be targeted by therapeutic agents. Numerous studies have identified reliable tests for establishing diagnosis and response assessment of ocular GVHD. The efficacy of systemic and topical treatment for ocular GVHD is summarized. It is important that all health professionals caring for HCT recipients have adequate knowledge of ocular GVHD to provide optimal care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362842PMC
February 2019

Clinical Impact of Pretransplant Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Colonization in Autologous and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 07 2;24(7):1476-1482. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are an emerging cause of morbidity and mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Three-hundred forty-eight consecutive patients transplanted at our hospital from July 2012 to January 2016 were screened for a pretransplant MDR-GNB colonization and evaluated for clinical outcomes. A pretransplant MDR-GNB colonization was found in 16.9% of allo-HSCT and in 9.6% of auto-HSCT recipients. Both in auto- and in allo-HSCT, carriers of a MDR-GNB showed no significant differences in overall survival (OS), transplant-related mortality (TRM), or infection-related mortality (IRM) compared with noncarriers. OS at 2 years for carriers compared with noncarriers was 85% versus 81% (P = .262) in auto-HSCT and 50% versus 43% (P = .091) in allo-HSCT. TRM at 2 years was 14% versus 5% (P = .405) in auto-HSCT and 31% versus 25% (P = .301) in allo-HSCT. IRM at 2 years was 14% versus 2% (P = .142) in auto-HSCT and 23% versus 14% (P = .304) in allo-HSCT. In multivariate analysis, only grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease was an independent factor for reduced OS (P < .001) and increased TRM (P < .001) and IRM (P < .001). During the first year after transplant, we collected 73 GNB bloodstream infectious (BSI) episodes in 54 patients, 42.4% of which sustained by a MDR-GNB. Rectal swabs positivity associated with the pathogen causing subsequent MDR-GNB BSI episodes in 13 of 31 (41.9%). Overall, OS at 4 months from MDR-GNB BSI episode onset was of 67.9%, with a 14-day attributed mortality of 12.9%, not being significantly different between carriers and noncarriers (P = .207). We conclude that in this extended single-center experience, a pretransplant MDR-GNB colonization did not significantly influence OS, TRM, and IRM both in auto- and allo-HSCT settings and that MDR-GNB attributed mortality can be controlled in carriers when an early pre-emptive antimicrobial therapy is started in case of neutropenic fever.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.02.021DOI Listing
July 2018

Adjuvant role of SeptiFast to improve the diagnosis of sepsis in a large cohort of hematological patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 04 12;53(4):410-416. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Hematology and BMT Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milano, Italy.

Febrile neutropenia and sepsis are common and life-threatening complications in hematological diseases. This study was performed retrospectively in 514 patients treated for febrile neutropenia at our institute, to investigate the clinical usefulness of a molecular tool, LightCycler® SeptiFast test (SF), to promptly recognize pathogens causing sepsis in hematological patients. We collected 1837 blood samples of 514 consecutive hematological patients. The time of processing is short. Overall, 757 microorganisms in 663 episodes were detected by molecular test and standard blood cultures (BC): 73.6% Gram-positive bacteria, 23.9% Gram-negative bacteria, and 2.5% fungal species. This large analysis demonstrated a significant episode-to episode agreement (71.9%) between the two methods, higher in negative samples (89.14%), and a specificity of 75.89%. Clinical variables that gave a statistically significant contribution to their concordance were absolute neutrophil count, ongoing antimicrobial therapy, timing of test execution, and organ localization of infection. The large analysis highlights the potential of molecular-based assays directly performed on blood samples, especially if implementing the detection of antibiotic resistance genes, which was lacking in the used study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-017-0039-7DOI Listing
April 2018

Enteric Microbiome Markers as Early Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: Results of a Prospective Study in Adult Patients.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 6;4(4):ofx215. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background: Infections and graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) still represent major, not easily predictable complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). Both conditions have been correlated to altered enteric microbiome profiles during the peritransplant period. The main objective of this study was to identify possible early microbiome-based markers useful in pretransplant risk stratification.

Methods: Stool samples were collected from 96 consecutive patients at the beginning of the pretransplant conditioning regimen (T) and at 10 (T) and 30 (T) days following transplant. When significant in univariate analysis, the identified microbiome markers were used in multivariate regression analyses, together with other significant clinical variables for allo-HSCT-related risk stratification. Four main outcomes were addressed: (1) septic complications, (2) GvHD, (3) relapse of the underlying disease, and (4) mortality.

Results: The presence of >5% proinflammatory Enterobacteriaceae at T was the only significant marker for the risk of microbiologically confirmed sepsis. Moreover, ≤10% Lachnospiraceae at T was the only significant factor for increased risk of overall mortality, including death from both infectious and noninfectious causes.Finally, a low bacterial alpha-diversity (Shannon index ≤ 1.3) at T was the only variable significantly correlating with an increased risk of GvHD within 30 days.

Conclusions: Microbiome markers can be useful in the very early identification of patients at risk for major transplant-related complications, offering new tools for individualized preemptive or therapeutic strategies to improve allo-HSCT outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofx215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5714175PMC
October 2017

NK cell recovery after haploidentical HSCT with posttransplant cyclophosphamide: dynamics and clinical implications.

Blood 2018 01 6;131(2):247-262. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Unit of Immunogenetics, Leukemia Genomics and Immunobiology.

The use of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis has revolutionized haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), allowing safe infusion of unmanipulated T cell-replete grafts. PT-Cy selectively eliminates proliferating alloreactive T cells, but whether and how it affects natural killer (NK) cells and their alloreactivity is largely unknown. Here we characterized NK cell dynamics in 17 patients who received unmanipulated haploidentical grafts, containing high numbers of mature NK cells, according to PT-Cy-based protocols in 2 independent centers. In both series, we documented robust proliferation of donor-derived NK cells immediately after HSCT. After infusion of Cy, a marked reduction of proliferating NK cells was evident, suggesting selective purging of dividing cells. Supporting this hypothesis, proliferating NK cells did not express aldehyde dehydrogenase and were killed by Cy in vitro. After ablation of mature NK cells, starting from day 15 after HSCT and favored by the high levels of interleukin-15 present in patients' sera, immature NK cells (CD62LNKG2AKIR) became highly prevalent, possibly directly stemming from infused hematopoietic stem cells. Importantly, also putatively alloreactive single KIR NK cells were eliminated by PT-Cy and were thus decreased in numbers and antileukemic potential at day 30 after HSCT. As a consequence, in an extended series of 99 haplo-HSCT with PT-Cy, we found no significant difference in progression-free survival between patients with or without predicted NK alloreactivity (42% vs 52% at 1 year, = NS). Our data suggest that the majority of mature NK cells infused with unmanipulated grafts are lost upon PT-Cy administration, blunting NK cell alloreactivity in this transplantation setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-05-780668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5757695PMC
January 2018

A New Clinicobiological Scoring System for the Prediction of Infection-Related Mortality and Survival after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Dec 12;23(12):2151-2158. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Infection-related mortality (IRM) is a substantial component of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). No scores have been developed to predict IRM before transplantation. Pretransplantation clinical and biochemical data were collected from a study cohort of 607 adult patients undergoing allo-HSCT between January 2009 and February 2017. In a training set of 273 patients, multivariate analysis revealed that age >60 years (P = .003), cytomegalovirus host/donor serostatus different from negative/negative (P < .001), pretransplantation IgA level <1.11 g/L (P = .004), and pretransplantation IgM level <.305 g/L (P = .028) were independent predictors of increased IRM. Based on these results, we developed and subsequently validated a 3-tiered weighted prognostic index for IRM in a retrospective set of patients (n = 219) and a prospective set of patients (n = 115). Patients were assigned to 3 different IRM risk classes based on this index score. The score significantly predicted IRM in the training set, retrospective validation set, and prospective validation set (P < .001, .044, and .011, respectively). In the training set, 100-day IRM was 5% for the low-risk group, 11% for the intermediate-riak group, and 16% for the high-risk groups. In the retrospective validation set, the respective 100-day IRM values were 7%, 17%, and 28%, and in the prospective set, they were 0%, 5%, and 7%. This score predicted also overall survival (P < .001 in the training set, P < 041 in the retrospective validation set, and P < .023 in the prospective validation set). Because pretransplantation levels of IgA/IgM can be modulated by the supplementation of enriched immunoglobulins, these results suggest the possibility of prophylactic interventional studies to improve transplantation outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.08.010DOI Listing
December 2017

Missing HLA C group 1 ligand in patients with AML and MDS is associated with reduced risk of relapse and better survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with fludarabine and treosulfan reduced toxicity conditioning.

Am J Hematol 2017 Oct 19;92(10):1011-1019. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Milan, Italy.

Reduced-toxicity conditioning with fludarabine and treosulfan is a dose-intensive regimen with enhanced anti-leukemia effect and acceptable toxicity in AML/MDS. HLA-C regulates natural-killer (NK) cell function by inhibiting Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and is divided into C1 and C2 epitopes. The missing-ligand theory suggests that missing recipient KIR ligands drives NK-alloreactivity after SCT, in the absence of HLA-mismatch by activating unlicensed donor NK cells. We analyzed SCT outcomes in 203 patients with AML/MDS, median age 58 years, given SCT from matched-siblings (n = 97) or matched-unrelated donors (n = 106), using two treosulfan doses (total 36 or 42 g/m ). 34% expressed one HLA-C group 1 allele (C1C1), 19% one HLA-C group 2 allele (C2C2), and 48% both KIR ligands (C1C2). Median follow-up was 48 months. 5-year relapse, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) rates were 38%, 27%, and 36%, respectively. Relapse rates were 43%, 45%, and 26% in patients expressing C1C1, C1C2, and C2C2 ligands, respectively (P = .03). Multivariate-analysis identified chemo-refractory disease (HR 3.1, P = .003), poor cytogenetics (HR 1.7, P = .08), female donor to male recipient (HR 0.4, P = .01) and C2C2 ligands (HR 0.4, P = .04) as independent factors predicting relapse. HLA-C ligands were not associated with GVHD or NRM. LFS was 33%, 30%, and 46%, respectively (P = .07). Chemorefractory disease (HR 3.1, P = .0004) and C2C2 group ligand (HR 0.6, P = .06) independently predicted LFS. Treosulfan dose did not predict any SCT outcome. In conclusion, missing HLA-C group 1 ligand is associated with reduced relapse risk, similar NRM and improved LFS, after HLA-matched SCT with treosulfan conditioning in AML/MDS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24827DOI Listing
October 2017

Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection Following Haploidentical Transplantation: Immune Recovery and Outcome.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 12 30;22(12):2250-2255. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Unit of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is increasingly recognized as a potentially life-threatening pathogen in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We retrospectively evaluated 54 adult patients who developed positivity to HHV-6 after alloSCT. The median time from alloSCT to HHV-6 reactivation was 34 days. HHV-6 was present in plasma samples from 31 patients, in bone marrow (BM) of 9 patients, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and liver or gut biopsy specimens from 33 patients, and in cerebrospinal fluid of 7 patients. Twenty-nine patients developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), mainly grade III-IV, and 15 had concomitant cytomegalovirus reactivation. The median absolute CD3 lymphocyte count was 207 cells/µL. We reported the following clinical manifestations: fever in 43 patients, skin rash in 22, hepatitis in 19, diarrhea in 24, encephalitis in 10, BM suppression in 18, and delayed engraftment in 11. Antiviral pharmacologic treatment was administered to 37 patients; nonetheless, the mortality rate was relatively high in this population (overall survival [OS] at 1 year, 38% ± 7%). A better OS was significantly associated with a CD3 cell count ≥200/µL at the time of HHV-6 reactivation (P = .0002). OS was also positively affected by the absence of acute GVHD grade III-IV (P = .03) and by complete disease remission (P = .03), but was not significantly influenced by steroid administration, time after alloSCT, type of antiviral prophylaxis, plasma viral load, or organ involvement. Although HHV-6 detection typically occurred early after alloSCT, better T cell immune reconstitution seems to have the potential to improve clinical outcomes. Our findings provide new insight into the interplay between HHV-6 and the transplanted immune system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.09.018DOI Listing
December 2016

Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Screening and Preventive Practice Recommendations from the CIBMTR and EBMT.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 08 14;22(8):1493-1503. Epub 2016 May 14.

Hospital Samaritano, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Associação da Medula Ossea - AMEO, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality. Long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have a substantial risk of developing MetS and cardiovascular disease, with an estimated prevalence of MetS of 31% to 49% among HCT recipients. Although MetS has not yet been proven to impact cardiovascular risk after HCT, an understanding of the incidence and risk factors for MetS in HCT recipients can provide the foundation to evaluate screening guidelines and develop interventions that may mitigate cardiovascular-related mortality. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to review literature and recommend practices appropriate to HCT recipients. Here we deliver consensus recommendations to help clinicians provide screening and preventive care for MetS and cardiovascular disease among HCT recipients. All HCT survivors should be advised of the risks of MetS and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition and ongoing risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4949101PMC
August 2016

High rate of hematological responses to sorafenib in FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Eur J Haematol 2016 Jun 21;96(6):629-36. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Unit of Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Relapse represents the most significant cause of failure of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and available therapies are largely unsatisfactory. In this study, we retrospectively collected data on the off-label use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, either alone or in association with hypomethylating agents and adoptive immunotherapy, in 13 patients with post-transplantation FLT3-ITD-positive AML relapses. Hematological response was documented in 12 of 13 patients (92%), and five of 13 (38%) achieved complete bone marrow remission. Treatment was overall manageable in the outpatient setting, although all patients experienced significant adverse events, especially severe cytopenias (requiring a donor stem cell boost in five patients) and typical hand-foot syndrome. None of the patients developed graft-vs.-host disease following sorafenib alone, whereas this was frequently observed when this was given in association with donor T-cell infusions. Six patients are alive and in remission at the last follow-up, and four could be bridged to a second allogeneic HSCT, configuring a 65 ± 14% overall survival at 100 d from relapse. Taken together, our data suggest that sorafenib might represent a valid treatment option for patients with FLT3-ITD-positive post-transplantation relapses, manageable also in combination with other therapeutic strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12647DOI Listing
June 2016

Post-transplantation Cyclophosphamide and Sirolimus after Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using a Treosulfan-based Myeloablative Conditioning and Peripheral Blood Stem Cells.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2015 Aug 19;21(8):1506-14. Epub 2015 May 19.

Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) performed using bone marrow (BM) grafts and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has gained much interest for the excellent toxicity profile after both reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning. We investigated, in a cohort of 40 high-risk hematological patients, the feasibility of peripheral blood stem cells grafts after a treosulfan-melphalan myeloablative conditioning, followed by a PTCy and sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (Sir-PTCy). Donor engraftment occurred in all patients, with full donor chimerism achieved by day 30. Post-HSCT recovery of lymphocyte subsets was broad and fast, with a median time to CD4 > 200/μL of 41 days. Cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15% and 7.5%, respectively, and were associated with a significant early increase in circulating regulatory T cells at day 15 after HSCT, with values < 5% being predictive of subsequent GVHD occurrence. The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 1 year were 12% and 17%, respectively. With a median follow-up for living patients of 15 months, the estimated 1-year overall and disease-free survival (DFS) was 56% and 48%, respectively. Outcomes were more favorable in patients who underwent transplantation in complete remission (1-year DFS 71%) versus patients who underwent transplantation with active disease (DFS, 34%; P = .01). Overall, myeloablative haploidentical HSCT with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and Sir-PTCy is a feasible treatment option: the low rates of GVHD and NRM as well as the favorable immune reconstitution profile pave the way for a prospective comparative trial comparing BM and PBSC in this specific transplantation setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.04.025DOI Listing
August 2015

Post-transplantation Cyclophosphamide and Sirolimus after Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using a Treosulfan-based Myeloablative Conditioning and Peripheral Blood Stem Cells.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2015 Aug 19;21(8):1506-14. Epub 2015 May 19.

Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) performed using bone marrow (BM) grafts and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has gained much interest for the excellent toxicity profile after both reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning. We investigated, in a cohort of 40 high-risk hematological patients, the feasibility of peripheral blood stem cells grafts after a treosulfan-melphalan myeloablative conditioning, followed by a PTCy and sirolimus-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis (Sir-PTCy). Donor engraftment occurred in all patients, with full donor chimerism achieved by day 30. Post-HSCT recovery of lymphocyte subsets was broad and fast, with a median time to CD4 > 200/μL of 41 days. Cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15% and 7.5%, respectively, and were associated with a significant early increase in circulating regulatory T cells at day 15 after HSCT, with values < 5% being predictive of subsequent GVHD occurrence. The 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 1 year were 12% and 17%, respectively. With a median follow-up for living patients of 15 months, the estimated 1-year overall and disease-free survival (DFS) was 56% and 48%, respectively. Outcomes were more favorable in patients who underwent transplantation in complete remission (1-year DFS 71%) versus patients who underwent transplantation with active disease (DFS, 34%; P = .01). Overall, myeloablative haploidentical HSCT with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and Sir-PTCy is a feasible treatment option: the low rates of GVHD and NRM as well as the favorable immune reconstitution profile pave the way for a prospective comparative trial comparing BM and PBSC in this specific transplantation setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.04.025DOI Listing
August 2015

Treosulfan based reduced toxicity conditioning followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis.

Hematol Oncol 2016 Sep 3;34(3):154-60. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy.

Allogeneic transplantation is the only potentially curative strategy for myelofibrosis, even in the era of new drugs that so far only mitigate symptoms. The choice to proceed to allogeneic transplantation is based on several variables including age, disease phase, degree of splenomegaly, donor availability, comorbidities and iron overload. These factors, along with conditioning regimen and time to transplantation, may influence the outcome of ASCT. We report 14 patients affected by myelofibrosis with a median age of 57 years (range, 41-76) receiving a treosulfan-fludarabine based reduced toxicity conditioning. Patients (pts) received a stem cell transplantation from an HLA identical (n = 10) or matched unrelated donor (n = 4). All pts had a complete myeloablation followed by engraftment and in 12 out of 13 evaluated pts donor chimerism was 100% at 1 month. In most cases a reduction of splenomegaly and a reduction (or resolution) of bone marrow fibrosis was observed. After a median follow-up of 39 months (range, 3-106), the 3-year probability of overall survival and disease free survival was 54 +/- 14% and 46 +/- 14%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 2 years was 39 +/- 15%. Causes of non-relapse mortality were: infection (n = 2), GvHD (n = 2) and haemorrhage (n = 1). We can conclude that a treosulfan and fludarabine based conditioning has a potent myeloablative and anti-disease activity although non-relapse mortality remains high in this challenging clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2183DOI Listing
September 2016

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for neuromyelitis optica.

Ann Neurol 2014 Mar 7;75(3):447-53. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit.

Neuromyelitis optica is a rare neurological autoimmune disorder characterized by a poor prognosis. Immunosuppression can halt disease progression, but some patients are refractory to multiple treatments, experiencing frequent relapses with accumulating disability. Here we report on durable clinical remissions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 2 patients suffering from severe forms of the disease. Immunological data evidenced disappearance of the pathogenic antibodies and regeneration of a naive immune system of donor origin. These findings correlated with evident clinical and radiological improvement in both patients, warranting extended clinical trials to investigate this promising therapeutic option.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.24079DOI Listing
March 2014

Receptor affinity and extracellular domain modifications affect tumor recognition by ROR1-specific chimeric antigen receptor T cells.

Clin Cancer Res 2013 Jun 25;19(12):3153-64. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Program in Immunology, Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Purpose: The adoptive transfer of T cells modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) comprised of an extracellular single-chain antibody (scFV) fragment specific for a tumor cell surface molecule, and linked to an intracellular signaling module, has activity in advanced malignancies. The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is a tumor-associated molecule expressed in prevalent B-lymphoid and epithelial cancers and is absent on normal mature B cells and vital tissues, making it a candidate for CAR T-cell therapy.

Experimental Design: We constructed ROR1-CARs from scFVs with different affinities and containing extracellular IgG4-Fc spacer domains of different lengths, and evaluated the ability of T cells expressing each CAR to recognize ROR1(+) hematopoietic and epithelial tumors in vitro, and to eliminate human mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) engrafted into immunodeficient mice.

Results: ROR1-CARs containing a short "Hinge-only" extracellular spacer conferred superior lysis of ROR1(+) tumor cells and induction of T-cell effector functions compared with CARs with long "Hinge-CH2-CH3" spacers. CARs derived from a higher affinity scFV conferred maximum T-cell effector function against primary CLL and ROR1(+) epithelial cancer lines in vitro without inducing activation-induced T-cell death. T cells modified with an optimal ROR1-CAR were equivalently effective as CD19-CAR-modified T cells in mediating regression of JeKo-1 MCL in immunodeficient mice.

Conclusions: Our results show that customizing spacer design and increasing affinity of ROR1-CARs enhances T-cell effector function and recognition of ROR1(+) tumors. T cells modified with an optimized ROR1-CAR have significant antitumor efficacy in a preclinical model in vivo, suggesting they may be useful to treat ROR1(+) tumors in clinical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3804130PMC
June 2013