Publications by authors named "Maria Teresa Junqueira Garcia"

7 Publications

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Developing an analytical method by HPLC for simultaneous quantification of methylene blue and metformin applied to in vitro skin permeation and retention studies.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Mar 5:e5112. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institute of Environmental, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp), Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to develop an HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of metformin (MET) and methylene blue (MB) in in vitro skin permeation/retention studies, in which retention was evaluated in the different layers of the skin [stratum corneum (SC) and the viable epidermis + dermis (VE + D)]. The method was validated considering the following parameters: specificity, linearity, quantitation limit (LOQ), recovery, precision and accuracy. Calibration curves were obtained using the following six matrices: methanol, water, methanolic extracts from the SC and VE + D spiked with the drugs and drugs extracted from the SC and VE + D. The precision, accuracy and LOQ of the method were evaluated in water and in VE + D and SC, applying the drug extraction process. The results show that the method is selective and linear for both drugs. The precision and accuracy values, independent of matrix and drug, were below the limit of 15%. The LOQ of MB was defined as 0.4 μg/ml in the VE + D and SC and 0.8 μg/ml in water. The LOQ of MET was defined as 0.8 μg/ml in the VE + D and SC and 0.4 μg/ml in the water. The recovery of the method was adequate, consistent and reproducible for the concentration range of 0.4-10 μg/ml for MB (73.3-92.1%) and 0.8-10.0 μg/mL for MET (72.4-94.4%). This method has a potential application in the development of formulation for skin delivery of MB and MET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5112DOI Listing
March 2021

Improvement of cutaneous delivery of methylene blue by liquid crystals.

Int J Pharm 2018 Sep 2;548(1):454-465. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 1524, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of composition and characteristics of liquid crystalline phases (LCPs) on cutaneous delivery of methylene blue (MB). LCPs were obtained by mixing Brij97® with water at various ratios; Brij97®:water at 8:2 (F8:2), 7:3 (F7:3), and 6:4 (F6:4) were selected, and MB was incorporated at 0.1%. F8:2 and F7:3 exhibited textures and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns corresponding to lamellar phase, whereas F6:4 displayed characteristics of hexagonal phase. All three LCPs were stable for 9 months, and exhibited thixotropic pseudoplastic behaviour. Increasing water content increased viscosity. All three LCPs released less (3.2- to 6.6-fold) MB than control gel (3.0% hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) + 0.1% MB), demonstrating their ability to sustain release. Despite the lower release, all LCPs improved skin retention of MB at 6 h post-application (1.3- to 2.1-fold) compared to the control gel. Among the LCPs, F8:2-mediated skin retention of MB was more pronounced, followed by F7:3. Consistent with the increased penetration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) also increased after treatment with the LCPs (2.0-2.8 fold), which suggests their influence on skin barrier. Irritation studies by Hen's Egg Test - Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) suggest that F7:3 and F6:4 may be better tolerated by the skin than F8:2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.07.003DOI Listing
September 2018

Alternative Methods to Animal Studies for the Evaluation of Topical/ Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems.

Curr Top Med Chem 2018 ;18(4):287-299

Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais Quimicas e Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema SP, Brazil.

It is critical to develop an effective understanding of the interaction between the drug, delivery system and skin in order to predict and assess skin penetration and permeation. Experimental models for the assessment of topical and transdermal delivery systems must permit evaluation of these complex interactions. Whilst in the past, animal models were commonly used, recent regulatory guidelines, based on 3R principles (refinement, reduction, replacement), encourage the rational use of animals. Alternative methods have been proposed for use in the development of topical and transdermal delivery systems which are often used in combination. We will review the current state of the art in alternative methods for topical and transdermal delivery systems development, including technologies that can assist in the characterization of skin penetration/permeation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026618666180412153214DOI Listing
June 2018

Chitosan-based mucoadhesive gel for oral mucosal toluidine blue O delivery: The influence of a non-ionic surfactant.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2017 Dec 31;20:48-54. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Av. Frei Paulino, 30, CEP: 38025-180, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been successfully employed in the treatment of oral cancer. Toluidine blue O (TBO) is a photosensitizer (PS) that has exhibited remarkable photocytotoxicity in a variety of tumour cells; however, its physicochemical properties, as well as the physicochemical properties of oral mucosa, prevent the drug from reaching the target site at a therapeutic concentration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Tween 80 (TW), which has shown potential as a penetration enhancer, on the mucosal retention of TBO for the PDT of oral cancer. 4% Chitosan-based mucoadhesive gels (CH gels) containing or not 5%TW were prepared (both containing 1%TBO), and their physicochemical properties (pH, rheology and mucoadhesion), TBO in vitro release profiles and TBO in vitro mucosal retention were evaluated. In vivo mucosal penetration studies of TBO followed by laser exposition were also carried out. The results showed that 4%CH gels containing 5%TW and 1%TBO have adequate mucoadhesive and rheological properties for oral mucosa use, although they present a slightly acid pH. TBO release studies showed that TW reduces TBO release, but it prolongs TBO release and increases TBO retention in the mucosa. In vivo studies showed that 4%CH gels containing 5%TW and 1%TBO cause an increase in the number of apoptotic cell, after laser exposition. In summary, 4%CH gels containing 5%TW may be a promising vehicle to optimize the penetration of TBO in oral mucosa and to improve the PDT response for the treatment of oral cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2017.08.009DOI Listing
December 2017

Using chitosan gels as a toluidine blue O delivery system for photodynamic therapy of buccal cancer: In vitro and in vivo studies.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2015 Mar 25;12(1):98-107. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

School of Pharmacy, University of Uberaba (UNIUBE), Av. Nenê Sabino, 1801, Bairro Universitário, CEP: 38055-500, Uberaba, MG, Brazil; School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus Diadema, Rua São Nicolau, 210, CEP: 09913-030, Diadema, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment that has demonstrated potential for the clinical treatment of buccal cancer. It is based on the photoactivation of a photosensitizer (PS) when irradiated by light at a specific wavelength. The light-excited PS generates reactive oxygen species that cause the destruction of tumor cells by apoptosis or necrosis. Toluidine Blue O (TBO) is a PS that has shown potential for PDT in cancer treatment. However, saliva and mechanical activities quickly remove the PS from the surface of the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the bioavailability of PS at the surface of target tissues is reduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of chitosan (CH) gels in TBO delivery to buccal tissue.

Methods: CH gels were obtained at different concentrations and their physico-chemical properties (pH and rheology), mucoadhesion, in vitro release profile, in vivo retention and in vivo efficacy by the ability to induce cell apoptosis were evaluated.

Results: CH-based mucoadhesive gels optimized the release and adherence of preparations at the target site. Specifically, 4% (w/w) CH gel showed adequate properties for buccal use, such as pH value, mucoadhesion, pseudoplastic behavior, extended release, minimal permeation and higher TBO retention by the mucosa. In vivo studies showed the potential of the gel to enhance TBO retention and induce cell apoptosis after laser irradiation.

Conclusion: 4% (w/w) CH based mucoadhesive gel can be explored as a TBO delivery system in the PDT of oral cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2014.11.003DOI Listing
March 2015

Chitosan-based mucoadhesive films containing 5-aminolevulinic acid for buccal cancer's treatment.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2014 Nov 12;140:266-75. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373, 21.941.902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new method to treat various kinds of tumors, including those of the oral cavity. The topical 5-ALA-PDT treatment for tumors of the oral mucosa is preferred, since when administered systemically, there is a general photosensitization drawback in the patient. However, 5-ALA is a hydrophilic molecule and its penetration and retention is limited by topical route, including oral mucosa. We propose a topical delivery system of chitosan-based mucoadhesive film, aiming to promote greater retention of 5-ALA in tissue. The chitosan (CHT) films (4% w/w) were prepared using the solvent evaporation/casting technique. They were tested without 5-ALA resulting in permeability to water vapor (W.V.P=2.15-8.54 g mm/(h cm(2)Pa) swelling ∼300.0% (±10.5) at 4 h or 24 h and in vitro residence time >24 h for all tests. CHT films containing 10.0% (w/w) 5-ALA have resulted in average weight of 0.22 g and thickness of 0.608 mm as suitable characteristics for oral application. In the presence of CHT films both in vitro permeation and retention of 5-ALA (1.0% or 10.0%) were increased. However, 10.0% 5-ALA presented highest values of permeation and retention (∼4 and 17 times respectively, compared to propylene glycol vehicle). On the other hand, in vitro mucoadhesion of CHT films was decreased (18.2-fold and 3.1-fold) by 5-ALA addition (1.0% or 10.0% respectively). However, CHT film containing 10.0% of 5-ALA can be a potential delivery system for topical use in the treatment of tumors of the oral cavity using PDT because it favored the retention of 5-ALA in this tissue and has shown convenient mucoadhesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.08.005DOI Listing
November 2014

Transdermal delivery of ketoprofen: the influence of drug-dioleylphosphatidylcholine interactions.

Pharm Res 2006 Aug;23(8):1776-85

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. do Café s/n, 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: Considering that most inflammatory diseases occur locally and near the body surface, transdermal delivery of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be an interesting strategy for delivering these drugs directly to the diseased site. To optimize ketoprofen (KP) transdermal delivery we investigated the influence of dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) on skin permeation.

Materials And Methods: The formulations studied were: i) a physical mixture of KP and DOPC and ii) DOPC and KP complex, in a molar ratio of 1:3, obtained by dissolution of the components in chloroform followed by drying under a N2 atmosphere. Both systems were dispersed in mineral oil and the in vitro percutaneous was assayed by absorption using a flow through diffusion cell. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and 1H NMR studies were carried out to characterize KP and DOPC interactions. Geometry optimizations using Density Functional Theory and semiempirical methods, as well as a flexible docking procedure were carried out to obtain a binding model for KP with DOPC. KP solubility and partition studies in the formulations, as well as skin irritation and hypersensitivity assays were also carried out.

Results: DSC determinations in the complex showed enthalpy and temperature depressions, indicating KP and DOPC interaction. In addition, dipole-dipole interactions between the KP carboxylic acid and OH groups in phospholipids were shown by 1H NMR studies. Based on the NMR studies, a KP-DOPC binding model is proposed, in which KP is involved by the two long aliphatic chains of the phospholipid. Solubility studies indicated that DOPC improved drug solubility. KP permeation was enhanced by both formulations tested, but the complex also increased its skin uptake. Such behavior could be attributed to the solubilizing, melting and enhancing effects of DOPC. Skin irritation and hypersensitivity were not significantly changed compared to control, suggesting that the formulation may be therapeutically explored for KP transdermal delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-006-9040-3DOI Listing
August 2006