Publications by authors named "Maria T Lopez-Urbina"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Abdominal dioctophymosis in a domestic cat from the Peruvian rainforest confirmed morphologically and molecularly.

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 18;83:102359. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Laboratorio de Epidemiologia y Economía Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación 2800, San Borja. Lima, Peru.

A case of abdominal dioctophymosis in a domestic cat was found in San Juan Bautista district, the Peruvian rainforest, in the Loreto department of Peru. The pet went to a veterinary clinic for a routine ovariohysterectomy during which a large nematode was found in the abdominal cavity. The nematode was morphologically identified as an adult female of Dioctophyme sp. A few morphological parameters, such as the vagina distance from the anterior part and the egg size, were different than D. renale. Partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and the small subunit 18S ribosomal RNA genes were compared with the references from public sequence database and showed a genetic identifies of 89.25% and 99.65% with D. renale, respectively. This is the first mitochondrial molecular analysis of a Dioctophyme specimen from South America and the results showed up to 12.5% nucleotide sequence variation in cox 1 gene of D. renale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2021.102359DOI Listing
April 2021

Morphological and molecular evidence of Oslerus osleri (Nematoda: Filaroididae) in the Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus).

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Jan 7;23:100532. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Veterinary Medicine, National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Oslerus osleri is a cosmopolitan filaroid nematode that parasitizes the respiratory system of domestic and wild canids. Natural infection by O. osleri is reported in the Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus) in this study. Nematodes, enclosed in small and compact fibrous nodules of 1 to 5 mm in diameter, were found on the surface of the trachea near the bronchial bifurcation on four Andean foxes during necropsy (one from Cuzco, Peru and three from Northwestern Patagonia in Argentina). The nematodes were identified as O. osleri by morphological and molecular methods. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses were performed amplifying the second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2), the partial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1), and the large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) genes. Sequences of the ITS-2 and LSU rRNA had a genetic variation of 1.5% and 1.0%, respectively, with previous sequences of O. osleri registered in Genbank. This is the first amplification of the cox1 gene of O. osleri and demonstrated an identity of 92% to Perostrongylus falciformis (KY365437), and 90% to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (KY779735) and Angiostrongylus costaricensis (AP017675).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2021.100532DOI Listing
January 2021

Cryptosporidium parvum as a risk factor of diarrhea occurrence in neonatal alpacas in Peru.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jan 22;119(1):243-248. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Cryptosporidiosis has been reported as an important cause of neonatal diarrhea and mortality in cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, but its impact on alpaca health has not been studied thoroughly. In this study, we have determined the prevalence and evaluated the role of cryptosporidiosis as a risk factor for diarrhea occurrence in newborn alpacas. During the calving season (January-March) of 2006, stool specimens (N = 1312) were collected from 24 herds of newborn alpacas in Puno and Cuzco, departments that account for the largest populations of alpacas in Peru. All the specimens were microscopically screened for Cryptosporidium spp. using the acid-fast technique. The association between Cryptosporidium detection and diarrhea was analyzed using χ test and generalized lineal model. Cryptosporidium species were determined by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 159 of 1312 (12.4%) newborn alpacas. Results of the analyses demonstrated that crypstosporidiosis was significantly associated with diarrhea (PR = 3.84; CI 2.54-5.81; p < 0.0001). Only Cryptosporidium parvum was detected in the 153 Cryptosporidium-infected animals. Thus, there is an association of C. parvum infection with diarrhea in neonatal alpacas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06468-7DOI Listing
January 2020

Alopecia a potential adverse side effect of albendazole use in alpacas.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2019 08 24;17:100297. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics Av. Circunvalacion 2800. San Borja Lima 41. Peru.

Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with anthelmintic activity. It is the treatment of choice for fasciolosis. The use of albendazole in South American camelids is common, however, there are no studies about the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of albendazole in alpacas and llamas. In the present study, a case of fiber loss (alopecia) in alpacas is described because of the suspected use of a high dose of albendazole. In a fasciolosis control program of an alpaca ranch located in the district of Nuñoa in Puno, Peru, 2184 alpacas were oral treated with albendazole (35-40 mg/kg). After 2 weeks of treatment the alpacas began to show loss of fiber in the abdomen, flanks and neck. The alpacas showed no other sign of disease. The alpacas recovered their fiber after 6 months. We suggest studies are needed to determine the safe dose of albendazole in alpacas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2019.100297DOI Listing
August 2019

Morphological and molecular identification of (Nematoda: Spiruridae) found in the Andean fox ().

J Parasit Dis 2018 Sep 24;42(3):449-454. Epub 2018 May 24.

1Department of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalacion 2800, San Borja, Lima 41, Lima, Peru.

Lesions compatible with spirocercosis were found in the esophagus and aorta of an Andean fox from Cuzco, Peru. The esophageal and aortic lesions were 5.5 and 1.5 cm in diameter, respectively. A total of 12 adult nematodes (6 males and 6 females) were collected from the esophageal lesion, and all were identified as by morphological and molecular methods. Molecular characterization was performed by analyzing two sources of the cox1 gene, and the sequences were compared with previous sequences from other work deposited in GenBank. Analysis of the partial cox1 gene from (n = 3) showed 2 haplotypes and had 95-99% nucleotide similarity to previously described sequences. Also, molecular analysis showed that is a very diverse group, due to the genetic variability of the partial sequences of the cox1 gene of . This study is the first to report finding of spirocercosis in the Andean fox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-018-1009-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104241PMC
September 2018

The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) as a natural intermediate host of Taenia omissa (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

Vet Parasitol 2017 Nov 9;246:93-95. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Three metacestodes were collected from the mesentery and the surface of the liver of three adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in a slaughterhouse located in Puno, Peru. Various features of the metacestodes were observed for morphological identification. A molecular diagnosis was performed by PCR-based sequencing of mitochondrial genes of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1). All metacestodes were identified as Taenia omissa by morphology and molecular methods The isolates from alpacas showed significant sequence similarity with previously reported isolates of T. omissa (95.7-98.1% in cox1 and 94.6-95.1% in nad1). Our report is the first to detect T. omissa metacestodes in alpacas and to reveal that alpacas are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.09.007DOI Listing
November 2017

First finding of nymphal stages of Linguatula serrata in a South American camelid, a vicuña from Peru.

Vet Parasitol 2017 Sep 21;244:21-24. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Linguatula serrata, a pentastomid, was found parasitizing the lungs of a vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) from Cuzco, Peru. A total of 13 larvae were found encysted in the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. All larvae were identified as nymphal stages of L. serrata by morphological methods Diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis amplifying the cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene of three nymphs. Nucleotide sequences from the isolates were compared to previous sequences from GenBank, and it showed high similarity between them (>99%). This finding constitutes the first detection of L. serrata in a South American camelid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.07.019DOI Listing
September 2017

Finding of pentastomes of genus Reighardia (Pentastomida) in the Belcher's gull (Larus belcheri).

Parasitol Int 2016 Jun 15;65(3):288-90. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Electronic address:

This report describes the finding of Reighardia sp. (Pentastomida) infecting the air sac of two Belcher's gulls (Larus belcheri) found dead on the beaches of Pucusana, a district in southern Lima, Peru. Three pentastomes were collected from two Belcher's gulls. Then, they were morphologically and molecular analyzed. Molecular characterization of the parasite was achieved by amplifying a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). Based on both morphological and molecular data the pentastomes were identified as pentastomes of the genus Reighardia. This is the first report showing that the Belcher's gull is a new natural definitive host for this pentastome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.02.006DOI Listing
June 2016

Evaluation of activity of triclabendazole against Taenia solium metacestode in naturally infected pigs.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2016 Jan 19;9(1):23-6. Epub 2015 Dec 19.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima 41, Peru.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in porcine cysticercosis.

Methods: Eighteen naturally infected cysticercosis pigs were divided into 3 groups of 6 individuals each. The first group was treated orally with TCBZ at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight, the second group was treated orally with oxfendazole at a single dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight and the third group received a placebo (control group). All animals were kept under the same management conditions. The pigs were euthanized 17 wk post-treatment and the number of surviving cysts in muscles was assessed and compared between groups.

Results: All pigs treated with oxfendazole had only degenerated cysts in their carcasses. In contrast, TCBZ had very little effect against the parasitic cysts. Cysts from pigs in the TCBZ group looked apparently normal after treatment. However, histological evaluation showed a mild to moderate degree of inflammation.

Conclusions: TCBZ is not an efficacious drug against Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine using a single dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2015.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6984010PMC
January 2016

The taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the red brocket deer (Mazama americana) as intermediate hosts of Taenia hydatigena in Peru, morphological and molecular evidence.

Vet Parasitol 2015 Sep 6;212(3-4):465-8. Epub 2015 Aug 6.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

In the present report metacestodes were collected from the mesentery of a taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and from the omentum of a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) in Peru. Various metacestodes parameters, including rostellar hook characteristics, were measured. Molecular analysis was performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from metacestode isolates. Metacestodes were identified as T. hydatigena by morphology and molecular methods. This constitutes the first molecular detection of T. hydatigena metacestodes in the taruca and the red brocket deer and demonstrates that these animal species are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.08.004DOI Listing
September 2015

New insights in cysticercosis transmission.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Oct 16;8(10):e3247. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, United States of America.

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199528PMC
October 2014

Occurrence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in alpacas in the Andean region.

Parasitol Int 2014 Feb 18;63(1):31-4. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Electronic address:

In this study, 352 fecal samples were analyzed for G. duodenalis from alpaca mothers and crias from three different areas of highland in Peru. The triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene of Giardia was amplified using a nested PCR protocol. Forty-six G. duodenalis-PCR positive samples were sequenced. G. duodenalis assemblage A was the most frequent followed by assemblage E. The former was seen in 37 animals whereas the latter was seen in nine. Most of the assemblage A infections were caused by the A1 subtype of sub-assemblage AI, except for three, which were caused by the A2 subtype of sub-assemblage AI. Assemblage A was found in all three geographic regions, while assemblage E was detected in crias from two regions. Among the four alpaca mothers positive for Giardia, three had assemblage AI and one had assemblage AII. Results of this study indicate that possible zoonotic transmission human to alpacas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2013.10.003DOI Listing
February 2014

Trombiculiasis caused by chigger mites Eutrombicula (Acari: Trombiculidae) in Peruvian alpacas.

Vet Parasitol 2012 Nov 19;190(1-2):294-6. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación 2800, Lima 41, Peru.

Trombiculiasis is an infestation caused by larvae members of the family Trombiculidae, common called chigger mites. In this study is presented the first case of trombiculiasis caused by the infestation of chigger mite Eutrombicula in alpacas from Peru. Twenty-two alpacas of a total of 130 animals were infested by Eutrombicula sp. The chigger mite location was only in the face skin folds and around the eyes. In addition, all alpacas infested had alopecia and dermatitis in the infected zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.06.012DOI Listing
November 2012

Efficacy of a single oral dose of oxfendazole against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected sheep.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 Mar;86(3):486-8

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

The efficacy of a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg of oxfendazole against Fasciola hepatica was evaluated in a controlled study in naturally infected sheep. Sheep were diagnosed by stool microscopy after sedimentation, and positive animals were randomized to oxfendazole (N = 20) or no treatment (N = 20). A new stool exam was performed 10 days after treatment. All stool microscopies were performed masked to the treatment group. No side effects were noticed. All sheep in the control group remained infected with similar counts of eggs per gram of stools. None of the animals in the treatment group showed Fasciola eggs in stools after 10 days of treatment. A single dose of oxfendazole is highly effective against F. hepatica, providing a new drug alternative for the control of fascioliasis or integrated zoonosis control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3284368PMC
March 2012

A new species of Atriotaenia (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) in Peru.

J Parasitol 2012 Aug 17;98(4):806-9. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalacion 2800, Lima 41, Lima, Peru.

Atriotaenia sanmarci n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is described as a parasite of the Andean hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae), from Cusco, Perú. The new species is primarily distinguished from related species by the distribution, and greater number, of testes, i.e., 194-223 versus 40-60 in Atriotaenia sandgroundi (Sandground, 1926) Baer, 1935, 47-73 in Atriotaenia procyonis (Chandler, 1942) Spasskii, 1951, and 21-84 in Atriotaenia incisa Railliet, 1899. Also, there are differences with respect to the larger dimensions of suckers (300-371 µm vs. 140 in A. sandgroundi, 83-134 in A. procyonis, 70-140 in A. incisa, and 155-192 in Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982) and in the cirrus pouch length (204-732 µm vs. 90 in A. sandgroundi, 200-220 in A. procyonis, 100-180 in A. incisa, and 150-205 in A. hastati). The new species differs from A. sandgroundi and A. hastati in having a larger body size (122-133 mm vs. 10.6 and 10, respectively). This cestode is the fifth species of Atriotaenia Sandground, 1926.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-2872.1DOI Listing
August 2012

Presence of Porocephalus clavatus (Arthropoda: Porocephalidae) in Peruvian Boidae snakes.

Vet Parasitol 2011 Sep 13;181(2-4):379-81. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Av. Circunvalación 2800, Lima 41, Peru.

The pentastome species, Porocephalus clavatus, has been found to infect the lungs of two species of snakes in the family Boidae family (Boa constrictor and Epicrates cenchria). The individual of B. constrictor was collected in the Amazonian rainforest of Departamento Loreto, Peru. The E. cenchria was recovered from the pet trade in Lima, Peru's capital city. A total of 22 P. clavatus were collected and examined from these two snakes. This is the first report of P. clavatus in Peru. The morphology of the parasites and the possible importance in public and animal health are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.04.005DOI Listing
September 2011

Occurrence of tapeworm Bertiella mucronata (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) in the Titi monkey Callicebus oenanthe from Peru: new definitive host and geographical record.

Vet Parasitol 2009 Jul 15;163(1-2):161-3. Epub 2009 Apr 15.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación 2800, Lima 41, Peru.

The presence of the cestode Bertiella mucronata (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is described from the small intestine of two Titi monkeys Callicebus oenanthe, from the Indañe community in Moyobamba, Peru. Six additional cestodes were studied and identified as B. mucronata. This finding constitutes the first report of the cestode in Peru and demonstrates that C. oenanthe is a new definitive host for this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.04.008DOI Listing
July 2009

The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929.

Vet Parasitol 2009 Mar 7;160(3-4):334-6. Epub 2008 Dec 7.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Av. Circunvalación, Lima 41, Peru.

This report describes the finding of Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929 (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae) infecting the small intestine of two Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782), collected from the locality "Abra La Raya", at Cusco, Peru. Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.11.030DOI Listing
March 2009