Publications by authors named "Maria Nirvana da Cruz Formiga"

9 Publications

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Neoadjuvant hypofractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcomas: Safety, feasibility, and early oncologic outcomes of a phase 2 trial.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 31;159:161-167. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Surgery, Department of Sarcoma, A C Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Optimal treatment of extremity soft tissue sarcomas (ESTS) is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate neoadjuvant chemotherapy (ChT) plus concomitant hypofractionated RT (hypo-RT) in local and distant disease relapse. Here we report safety, feasibility and early outcomes.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective, single arm study with a goal accrual of 70 patients. Between 2015 and 2018, 18 patients with histologically confirmed nonmetastatic ESTS were assigned to receive doxorubicin and ifosfamide for three neoadjuvant cycles, concomitant with hypo-RT (25 Gy in 5 fractions) followed by surgery. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary outcomes were pathologic response, wound complications (WC), and morbidity rates.

Results: Median follow-up was 29 months. At last follow-up, 13/18 patients were alive without evidence of local or systemic disease (DFS 72%), 1 had died due to metastatic disease, and 3 were alive with distant metastasis. One patient presented with local relapse within the irradiated field. Mean DFS time was 48.6 months (95% CI: 37.3-59.9). Six patients (33%) had no residual viable tumor detected in pathologic specimens (3 of these myxoid liposarcomas). There was a significant difference in WC among patients with acute RT skin toxicity. Six patients (33%) developed major WC. No grade 3 or 4 ChT adverse events were reported.

Conclusion: Despite the limited sample size, these early outcomes demonstrate that this treatment regimen is feasible and well tolerated with high rates of limb preservation, local control, and pathologic complete response, supporting further investigation in a multi-institutional setting.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02812654; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02812654.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2021.03.033DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in non-selected ovarian carcinoma patients in Brazil.

BMC Cancer 2019 Jan 3;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Medical Oncology, AC Camargo Cancer Center, Rua Professor Antonio Prudente 211, São Paulo, CEP: 01509-900, Brazil.

Background: BRCA1/2 pathogenic (P) and likely pathogenic (LP) germline variants are frequent among patients with ovarian carcinoma. However, these variants have not been extensively characterized in patients with ovarian cancer in Brazil.

Methods: In this retrospective study we evaluated clinical characteristics and BRCA1/2 genetic test results from patients with ovarian carcinoma who underwent genetic counseling at A.C.Camargo Cancer Center (Brazil) between 2015 and 2017 and had performed germline genetic testing of BRCA1/2 genes.

Results: Among 158 patients, 33 P and LP variants and were found (20.8%), 27 in BRCA1 and six in BRCA2, and six variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS). Thirteen percent of the patients did not have Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) results. Three P variants in BRCA1 were found in more than one patient: c.5266dupC (p.Gln1756Profs*74), c.3331_3334delCAAG (p.Gln1111Asnfs5*), and c.211A > G (p.Arg71Gly). One LP variant in BRCA1 had not been previously described, c.4153_4154delCT (p.Leu1385Ilefs*5). Patients with previous diagnosis of breast cancer were carriers of P or LP variant in 8 of 12 cases (66.7%), and patients with a family history of ovarian or breast cancer in first- or second-degree relatives were carriers of P or LP variant in 26.7% of cases compared to 16.9% for patients without family history (p = 0.166).

Conclusion: Prevalence of BRCA1/2 germline P and LP variants is slightly higher than previously described by the largest occidental studies, with a high prevalence of variant c.5266dupC (p.Gln1756Profs*74) in BRCA1 observed. Moreover, we identified a new LP variant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-5235-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319008PMC
January 2019

From colorectal cancer pattern to the characterization of individuals at risk: Picture for genetic research in Latin America.

Int J Cancer 2019 07 5;145(2):318-326. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

AC Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in Latin America and the Caribbean, with the highest rates reported for Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina. We provide a global snapshot of the CRC patterns, how screening is performed, and compared/contrasted to the genetic profile of Lynch syndrome (LS) in the region. From the literature, we find that only nine (20%) of the Latin America and the Caribbean countries have developed guidelines for early detection of CRC, and also with a low adherence. We describe a genetic profile of LS, including a total of 2,685 suspected families, where confirmed LS ranged from 8% in Uruguay and Argentina to 60% in Peru. Among confirmed LS, path_MLH1 variants were most commonly identified in Peru (82%), Mexico (80%), Chile (60%), and path_MSH2/EPCAM variants were most frequently identified in Colombia (80%) and Argentina (47%). Path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 variants were less common, but they showed important presence in Brazil (15%) and Chile (10%), respectively. Important differences exist at identifying LS families in Latin American countries, where the spectrum of path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 variants are those most frequently identified. Our findings have an impact on the evaluation of the patients and their relatives at risk for LS, derived from the gene affected. Although the awareness of hereditary cancer and genetic testing has improved in the last decade, it is remains deficient, with 39%-80% of the families not being identified for LS among those who actually met both the clinical criteria for LS and showed MMR deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587543PMC
July 2019

The germline mutational landscape of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in Brazil.

Sci Rep 2018 06 15;8(1):9188. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Centro de Paulista de Oncologia, Oncoclínicas, São Paulo, Brazil.

The detection of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential to the formulation of clinical management strategies, and in Brazil, there is limited access to these services, mainly due to the costs/availability of genetic testing. Aiming at the identification of recurrent mutations that could be included in a low-cost mutation panel, used as a first screening approach, we compiled the testing reports of 649 probands with pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants referred to 28 public and private health care centers distributed across 11 Brazilian States. Overall, 126 and 103 distinct mutations were identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Twenty-six novel variants were reported from both genes, and BRCA2 showed higher mutational heterogeneity. Some recurrent mutations were reported exclusively in certain geographic regions, suggesting a founder effect. Our findings confirm that there is significant molecular heterogeneity in these genes among Brazilian carriers, while also suggesting that this heterogeneity precludes the use of screening protocols that include recurrent mutation testing only. This is the first study to show that profiles of recurrent mutations may be unique to different Brazilian regions. These data should be explored in larger regional cohorts to determine if screening with a panel of recurrent mutations would be effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27315-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003960PMC
June 2018

BRCA1 deficiency is a recurrent event in early-onset triple-negative breast cancer: a comprehensive analysis of germline mutations and somatic promoter methylation.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2018 02 7;167(3):803-814. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Laboratory of Genomics and Molecular Biology, CIPE - A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: BRCA1 germline mutation is closely associated with triple-negative breast cancer. BRCA deficiency leads to impaired DNA repair and tumor development, and understanding this deficiency, in both hereditary and sporadic scenarios, is of great clinical and biological interest. Here, we investigated germline or somatic events that might lead to BRCA1 impairment in triple-negative breast cancer. We also analyzed the clinical implications associated with BRCA deficiency.

Methods: Next-generation sequencing for the BRCA1/2 genes and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for the BRCA1 gene were performed for mutation screening. A customized bisulfite next-generation sequencing approach was used for assessing BRCA1 promoter methylation status in tumor tissue.

Results: A total of 131 triple-negative cases were assessed, and germline pathogenic variants were detected in 13.0% of all cases and in 26% of cases diagnosed in young women. Most germline pathogenic variants (88.2%) occurred in the BRCA1 gene. BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation was detected in 20.6% of tumors; none of these tumors were in BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers. BRCA1 impairment by either germline or somatic events was significantly more frequent in young women (55% in those ≤ 40 years; 33% in those 41-50 years; 22% in those > 50 years of age) and associated with better overall and disease-free survival rates in this group of patients.

Conclusions: BRCA1 deficiency was recurrent in early-onset triple-negative breast cancer in Brazilian patients and associated with improved survival. With the new treatment modalities being investigated, including poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) inhibitor therapy, our results suggest that a significant proportion of young women with this subtype of tumor might benefit from PARP inhibitor treatment, which warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-017-4552-6DOI Listing
February 2018

Frequency of Thyroid Carcinoma in Brazilian TP53 p.R337H Carriers With Li Fraumeni Syndrome.

JAMA Oncol 2017 Oct;3(10):1400-1402

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Li Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is associated with a wide variety of tumors; nevertheless, thyroid carcinoma has not been evaluated in this syndrome. Due to the Brazilian founder mutation p.R337H, some tumors that have not been described in the classic LFS have been observed in a higher-than-expected prevalence in Brazil.

Objective: To determine the frequency of thyroid carcinoma in Brazilian carriers of a founder TP53 p.R337H mutation.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We reviewed medical records of patients with LFS with germline TP53 p.R337H mutation. For a better understanding of the correlation between thyroid carcinoma and LFS, tumor profile data of Brazilian carriers were analyzed. We included data from 193 patients with LFS with the TP53 p.R337H mutation from the database of the Department of Oncogenetics from the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Thyroid tumors found in this population were reviewed with regard to age at diagnosis, sex, histologic subtype, and other tumors presented by these patients.

Results: Overall, 101 of 193 TP53 p.R337H mutation carriers with LFS from 58 families were cancer affected and, among them, thyroid carcinoma presented a prevalence of 10.9% (3 men and 8 women). The mean age at diagnosis was 44 years (median [SD], 43 [14.77] years). All the cases were histologically classified as papillary carcinomas, with 2 of them exhibiting follicular variant. The most common other cancers in the patients with thyroid carcinoma were breast cancer (5 patients) and soft-tissue sarcoma (2 patients).

Conclusions And Relevance: Thyroid carcinoma may be associated with the Brazilian founder TP53 p.R337H mutation. Knowledge about this genotype/phenotype correlation is relevant to adjusting the LFS screening recommendations to these specific carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.6389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5824314PMC
October 2017

Is early response by (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography a predictor of long-term outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer?

J Gastrointest Oncol 2016 Jun;7(3):365-72

1 Department of Medical Oncology, 2 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Identify in advance responder patients to chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) would allow prompt interruption of ineffective therapies in non-responder patients. Hence, predictive markers are sought in numerous trials to detect responder patients, including tumor shrinkage measured by imaging methods. Usually, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) is used to evaluate tumor response in metastatic CRC, but these criteria are questionable with use of biological agents associated to chemotherapy. Our aim was correlate early metabolic response by (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)FDG-PET-CT) with long-term outcome in metastatic CRC in first-line therapy.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 36 patients with metastatic CRC in first-line treatment with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin (folinic acid), oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin (folinic acid), irinotecan (FOLFIRI) associated with cetuximab or bevacizumab. (18)FDG-PET-CT was performed at baseline and after two cycles of chemotherapy. The early metabolic response [standardized uptake value (SUV)] was measured to identify responder and non-responder patients and correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Median age was 58.5 years (range, 41-74 years). PFS was 15.5 months for responder and 13.3 months for non-responder (P=0.42), OS was 55.7 months for responder and not reached for non-responder. There was no correlation between delta-SUV and clinical and pathological variables analyzed. In the subgroup of patients who did not undergo resection of metastasis (45%), PFS was higher for responders (15.3×6.8 months, P=0.02).

Conclusions: According to our findings, early response by (18)FDG-PET-CT was not a predictor of long-term outcome for patients with metastatic CRC treated in the first-line chemotherapy with a monoclonal antibody.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo.2016.02.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880772PMC
June 2016

Aortic dissection during antiangiogenic therapy with sunitinib. A case report.

Sao Paulo Med J 2015 May-Jun;133(3):275-7. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Hospital A. C. Camargo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Context: Sunitinib is an antiangiogenic drug that has been approved for treating metastatic renal cancer. Its action as a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and other angiogenesis receptors may lead to adverse effects such as hypertension and heart failure. However, reports in the literature on an association between sunitinib therapy and acute aortic dissection are rare.

Case Report: We report the case of a 68-year-old man with metastatic renal carcinoma who developed acute aortic dissection during sunitinib therapy. He had no history of hypertension or any other risk factor for aortic dissection. After aortic dissection had been diagnosed, sunitinib was withdrawn and an aortic endoprosthesis was placed. Afterwards, the patient was treated clinically with antihypertensive drugs and new therapy for renal cancer consisting of temsirolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.

Conclusion: Hypertension is a common event when antiangiogenic drugs are used in oncology. However, knowledge of other severe cardiovascular events that may occur in these patients, such as acute aortic dissection, is important. Adequate control over arterial pressure and frequent monitoring of patients during the first days of antiangiogenic therapy is essential for early diagnosis of possible adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-3180.2013.7380002DOI Listing
January 2016