Publications by authors named "Maria Kavanagh"

7 Publications

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A study of the immune infiltrate and patient outcomes in esophageal cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2021 04;42(3):395-404

Department of Surgery, Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Group, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Objectives: Cancer patient outcomes and selection for novel therapies are heavily influenced by the immune contexture of the tumor microenvironment. Esophageal cancer is associated with poor outcomes. In contrast to colorectal cancer, where the immunoscore is increasingly used in prognostic staging, little is known about the immune cell populations in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and their clinical significance.

Methods: Tissue microarrays were constructed from resected tumor tissue of 72 EAC patients and 23 SCC patients. Immunohistochemical staining of CD3, CD8, CD56, CD68, CD45RO, CD69, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4, IL-17, TGF-β, FOXP3 and CD107a was performed. Positivity was examined in both the stromal and epithelial compartments. Statistical analysis was performed to identify differences in immune cell infiltration and functional phenotypes between cancer subtypes and tissue compartments.

Results: This study identified that esophageal tumors are enriched with CD45RO+ and CD8+ cells and such positivity is significantly higher in SCC compared with EAC. Furthermore, the expression of CD45RO positively correlates with that of CD8 within the tumors of both patient cohorts, suggesting a dominance of memory cytotoxic T cells. This is supported by strong positivity of degranulation marker CD107a in the stromal compartment of EAC and SCC tumors. Cytokine staining revealed a mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory profile within EAC tumors.

Conclusions: Esophageal tumors are enriched with memory cytotoxic T cells. Applying these measurements to a larger cohort will ascertain the clinical utility of assessing specific lymphocyte infiltrates in EAC and SCC tumors with regards to future immunotherapy use, patient prognosis and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa101DOI Listing
April 2021

High-Fat Diet Accelerates Carcinogenesis in a Mouse Model of Barrett's Esophagus via Interleukin 8 and Alterations to the Gut Microbiome.

Gastroenterology 2019 08 15;157(2):492-506.e2. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Irvine Cancer Research Center, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Background & Aims: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Progression from BE to cancer is associated with obesity, possibly due to increased abdominal pressure and gastroesophageal reflux disease, although this pathogenic mechanism has not been proven. We investigated whether environmental or dietary factors associated with obesity contribute to the progression of BE to EAC in mice.

Methods: Tg(ED-L2-IL1RN/IL1B)#Tcw mice (a model of BE, called L2-IL1B mice) were fed a chow (control) or high-fat diet (HFD) or were crossbred with mice that express human interleukin (IL) 8 (L2-IL1B/IL8 mice). Esophageal tissues were collected and analyzed for gene expression profiles and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Organoids were established from BE tissue of mice and cultured with serum from lean or obese individuals or with neutrophils from L2-IL1B mice. Feces from mice were analyzed by 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing and compared to 16s sequencing data from patients with dysplasia or BE. L2-IL1B were mice raised in germ-free conditions.

Results: L2-IL1B mice fed an HFD developed esophageal dysplasia and tumors more rapidly than mice fed the control diet; the speed of tumor development was independent of body weight. The acceleration of dysplasia by the HFD in the L2-IL1B mice was associated with a shift in the gut microbiota and an increased ratio of neutrophils to natural killer cells in esophageal tissues compared with mice fed a control diet. We observed similar differences in the microbiomes from patients with BE that progressed to EAC vs patients with BE that did not develop into cancer. Tissues from dysplasias of L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD contained increased levels of cytokines that are produced in response to CXCL1 (the functional mouse homolog of IL8, also called KC). Serum from obese patients caused organoids from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice to produce IL8. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD and from L2-IL1B/IL8 mice contained increased numbers of myeloid cells and cells expressing Cxcr2 and Lgr5 messenger RNAs (epithelial progenitors) compared with mice fed control diets. BE tissues from L2-IL1B mice raised in germ-free housing had fewer progenitor cells and developed less dysplasia than in L2-IL1 mice raised under standard conditions; exposure of fecal microbiota from L2-IL1B mice fed the HFD to L2-IL1B mice fed the control diet accelerated tumor development.

Conclusions: In a mouse model of BE, we found that an HFD promoted dysplasia by altering the esophageal microenvironment and gut microbiome, thereby inducing inflammation and stem cell expansion, independent of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662596PMC
August 2019

Altered T Cell Migratory Capacity in the Progression from Barrett Oesophagus to Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Microenviron 2019 Apr 4;12(1):57-66. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Surgery, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland.

Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) is an inflammation-driven cancer with poor prognosis and incidence is increasing rapidly. OAC arises from gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and reflux-induced Barrett oesophagus (BO). The role of T cells in this disease progression is not yet fully understood. We have previously demonstrated higher proportions of pro-tumour Th2 cells in BO tissue, implicating them in its pathogenesis. While a Th2 immune profile is thought to underlie the metaplastic transformation in BO and promote OAC development, our studies suggest that the abundance of Th2 cells in BO tissue is likely to occur through altered T cell recruitment. This study examined the chemokine networks governing T cell migration to oesophageal tissue during disease progression. Here, we have identified that circulating T cells in OAC patients, exhibit impaired migratory capacity with decreased frequencies of Th1-associated CXCR3 and Th17-associated CCR6 cells. Despite the abundance of Th1 chemokines RANTES (CCL5) and MIP-1α (CCL3) in OAC tumour, enrichments of intratumoural T cells expressing corresponding receptors were not observed. These data suggest that T cell infiltration of oesophageal tissue is compromised in OAC and suggest that future therapies targeting T cell trafficking should occur at the pre-neoplastic stage. This is supported by the finding that antagonism of Th2-biased CCR4 significantly reduces T cell migration in BO but not OAC patients. Since we have previously reported a predominant Th2 immune profile in BO, we suggest that chemokine receptor antagonism may be a viable treatment option to alleviate Th2-predominance in BO and interrupt progression to OAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12307-019-00220-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6529503PMC
April 2019

Parallel Profiles of Inflammatory and Effector Memory T Cells in Visceral Fat and Liver of Obesity-Associated Cancer Patients.

Inflammation 2016 Oct;39(5):1729-36

Department of Surgery, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland.

In the midst of a worsening obesity epidemic, the incidence of obesity-associated morbidities, including cancer, diabetes, cardiac and liver disease is increasing. Insights into mechanisms underlying pathological obesity-associated inflammation are lacking. Both the omentum, the principal component of visceral fat, and liver of obese individuals are sites of excessive inflammation, but to date the T cell profiles of both compartments have not been assessed or compared in a patient cohort with obesity-associated disease. We have previously identified that omentum is enriched with inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and T cells. Here, we compared the inflammatory profile of T cells in the omentum and liver of patients with the obesity-associated malignancy oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). Furthermore, we assessed the secreted cytokine profile in OAC patient serum, omentum and liver to assess systemic and local inflammation. We observed parallel T cell cytokine profiles and phenotypes in the omentum and liver of OAC patients, in particular CD69(+) and inflammatory effector memory T cells. This study reflects similar processes of inflammation and T cell activation in the omentum and liver, and may suggest common targets to modulate pathological inflammation at these sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-016-0407-2DOI Listing
October 2016

CCR1 antagonism attenuates T cell trafficking to omentum and liver in obesity-associated cancer.

Immunol Cell Biol 2016 07 5;94(6):531-7. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Department of Surgery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Obesity is a global health problem presenting serious risk of disease fuelled by chronic inflammation, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, liver disease and cancer. Visceral fat, in particular the omentum and liver of obese individuals are sites of excessive inflammation. We propose that chemokine-mediated trafficking of pro-inflammatory cells to the omentum and liver contributes to local and subsequent systemic inflammation. Oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (OAC) is an exemplar model of obesity and inflammation driven cancer. We have demonstrated that T cells actively migrate to the secreted factors from the omentum and liver of OAC patients and that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells bearing the chemokine receptor CCR5 are significantly more prevalent in these tissues compared to matched blood. The CCR5 ligand and inflammatory chemokine MIP-1α is also secreted at significantly higher concentrations in the omentum and liver of our OAC patient cohort compared to matched serum. Furthermore, we report that MIP-1α receptor antagonism can significantly reduce T cell migration to the secreted factors from OAC omentum and liver. These novel data suggest that chemokine receptor antagonism may have therapeutic potential to reduce inflammatory T cell infiltration to the omentum and liver and in doing so, may ameliorate pathological inflammation in obesity and obesity-associated cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2016.26DOI Listing
July 2016

Impact of the inflammatory microenvironment on T-cell phenotype in the progression from reflux oesophagitis to Barrett oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Lett 2016 Jan 28;370(1):117-24. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Department of Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, St. James's Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland. Electronic address:

The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), arising from reflux-induced Barrett oesophagus (BO), is increasing dramatically. T-cells have recently been implicated in the initiation of oesophagitis; however, their role in the progression from oesophagitis to BO and OAC has not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have examined the secreted cytokines from oesophageal tissue during disease progression but this study is the first to examine the activation phenotype and the inflammatory profile of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in human oesophagitis, BO and OAC tissue. Results demonstrated significantly higher levels of IL-4 producing CD4(+) T-cells and secreted levels of IL-6, confirming a Th2 phenotype in BO. In OAC tissue, both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were secreted, with significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 compared with normal oesophageal tissue. In addition, CD4(+) T-cells infiltrating OAC tissue displayed a decreased activation profile, with significantly lower CD45RO and CD69 expression compared with normal tissue. Data from this study suggest that factors in the tissue microenvironment may alter T-cell phenotype and function early during oesophageal disease progression and may represent targets for immune intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2015.10.019DOI Listing
January 2016

Inspiration and education: the conference convert.

Authors:
Maria Kavanagh

Int J Palliat Nurs 2004 Jul;10(7):328

University College Worcester, Worcester, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2004.10.7.14571DOI Listing
July 2004
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