Publications by authors named "Maria Kaźmierczak"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Parents' personality and maternal experiences in childcare as predictors of postpartum depression in couples in transition to parenthood.

Psychiatr Pol 2020 Oct 31;54(5):991-1005. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Uniwersytet Gdański, Instytut Psychologii.

Objectives: Analysis of interrelationships between the five global personality dimensions of both parents and mothers' experiences regarding feeding the baby/childcare, as well as determining their role as predictors of postpartum depression.

Methods: 223 first-time expectant couples participated in the study (I stage), and 143 couples from this group were examined about five months after the childbirth (II stage). The following questionnaires were used:the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Mother and Baby Scale (MBAS).

Results: EPDS scores were interrelated in couples. Both parents' Neuroticism measured before the childbirth was associated with higher levels of self-assessed and partner's postpartum depression. Mothers'Neuroticism negatively correlated with global confidence regarding childcare and the child's positive alertness during feeding (which was also associated with a higher female Extraversion). Maternal global confidence in childcare negatively correlated with postpartum depression in both partners. Perceived child's alertness and mother's global confidence significantly mediated the relationship between mothers' Neuroticism (and their Extraversion in the case of child's alertness), and theEPDS scorein women. Partners' similarity in Neuroticism was associated with worse functioning of mothers (higher EPDS scores, lack of confidence), whereas similarity in Openness to experience negatively correlated with fathers' EPDS score, and positively with mothers' global confidence.

Conclusions: Complex associations between postpartum depression scores and personality dimensions of men and women, and mother's experiences indicate the need to include fathers and couples in studies. Offering the possibility to meet with lactation consultants might be an essential element of support system for new parents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/81092DOI Listing
October 2020

Attachment goes to court: child protection and custody issues.

Attach Hum Dev 2021 Jan 11:1-52. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge , Cambridge, UK.

Attachment theory and research are drawn upon in many applied settings, including family courts, but misunderstandings are widespread and sometimes result in misapplications. The aim of this consensus statement is, therefore, to enhance understanding, counter misinformation, and steer family-court utilisation of attachment theory in a supportive, evidence-based direction, especially with regard to child protection and child custody decision-making. The article is divided into two parts. In the first, we address problems related to the use of attachment theory and research in family courts, and discuss reasons for these problems. To this end, we examine family court applications of attachment theory in the current context of the best-interest-of-the-child standard, discuss misunderstandings regarding attachment theory, and identify factors that have hindered accurate implementation. In the second part, we provide recommendations for the application of attachment theory and research. To this end, we set out three attachment principles: the child's need for familiar, non-abusive caregivers; the value of continuity of good-enough care; and the benefits of networks of attachment relationships. We also discuss the suitability of assessments of attachment quality and caregiving behaviour to inform family court decision-making. We conclude that assessments of caregiver behaviour should take center stage. Although there is dissensus among us regarding the use of assessments of attachment quality to inform child custody and child-protection decisions, such assessments are currently most suitable for targeting and directing supportive interventions. Finally, we provide directions to guide future interdisciplinary research collaboration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2020.1840762DOI Listing
January 2021

How Well Do Couples Care When They Are Expecting Their First Child? Family and Dyadic Predictors of Parental Sensitivity in Expectant Couples.

Front Psychiatry 2020 12;11:562707. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Clinical Child and Family Studies, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Belsky's points to family-of-origin (especially experiences of mistreatment in childhood) as well as personality and marital relations as determinants of parenting quality, including parental sensitive responsiveness. Parental sensitivity might be intuitively developed during pregnancy and affects perinatal mental health. However, there is a lack of studies investigating effects of family-of-origin and relationship perceptions on expectant couples' parental sensitive responsiveness. The aim of the presented study was to test mediation and moderation effects of perceived partner's empathic concern and retrospectively assessed abuse experienced in childhood on sensitive parental responsiveness operationalized as caretaking behaviors and emotional reactions to a crying life-like doll. One hundred eleven expectant couples ( = 222; age: = 28.4 years, = 3.03; age: = 29.2 years, = 3.31; relationship duration: = 6.8, = 3.43; gestational week: = 31.3, = 4.58) assessed the extent to which they experienced physical and emotional abuse from their parents in childhood and rated their current partner's empathic concern. In the experimental procedure, couples reacted to a crying life-like doll and were assessed by trained psychologists using the modified Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale to measure couples' sensitive responsiveness. The results confirmed a significant mediational effect of perceived women's (and not men's) empathic concern for the relationship between the reported experience of abuse in family-of-origin by expectant fathers (and not mothers) and couples' sensitivity. Support and interventions regarding couples' empathy and parenting competence can be offered to both mothers and fathers to identify those who are at risk of low parental sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.562707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688909PMC
November 2020

Do Physical Activity and Personality Matter for Hair Cortisol Concentration and Self-Reported Stress in Pregnancy? A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 1;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Family Studies and Quality of Life, Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gdańsk, 80-309 Gdańsk, Poland.

Background: Physical activity reduces psychosocial stress in pregnant women. Stress levels might be self-reported (psychosocial) or measured with biomarkers, one of which is hair cortisol concentration (HCC). Additionally, personality has been associated with stress and physical activity.

Methods: The first aim of our study was to explore the differences in self-reported stress assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and in HCC with regard to physical activity level in pregnant (N 29) and non-pregnant (N = 21) women. The second aim was to analyze the correlations among perceived stress, HCC, frequency of exercise and personality in the two groups separately.

Results: There was a significant difference in frequency of exercise and self-reported stress between the two groups, with a lower level in pregnant women, but no differences in HCC and in personality were found. In the group of pregnant women, there was a significant negative correlation between HCC and frequency of exercise sessions, with the latter correlating positively with openness to experience. In the group of non-pregnant women, perceived stress negatively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability. HCC correlated negatively with conscientiousness.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate the importance of physical activity programs dedicated to pregnant women for their life quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663188PMC
November 2020

Risk factors for anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: A web-based cross-sectional survey.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(30):e21279

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

Introduction: The article presents a protocol of a cross-sectional study of mental health of pregnant women in relation to the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The primary aim is to compare differences in anxiety and depression scores of pregnant women between countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The secondary aim is to assess demographic, economic, and social aspects affecting maternal anxiety and depression scores among pregnant women worldwide in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we will be able to compare differences in perception of the different aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic (social distancing, restrictions related to delivery) between countries and according to the epidemic status (number of infected patients, number of reported deaths). The comparisons will also be done according to the COVID-19 status of the participants.

Methods And Analysis: It is a web-based anonymous survey of pregnant women living in countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey is comprised of 3 sections:Web-based recruitment for health research has proven to be cost-effective and efficient. At current times with the COVID-19 pandemic, limited resources and social distancing restrictions, performing a mental health study involving pregnant women on a large international scale cannot be safely conducted without involving social-media.The fears of pregnant women fall into 3 categories: the medical condition, the economic status and the organization of daily activity.The study has received approval of the medical ethics committee and has been registered on Clinicaltrials.gov. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and made public through all available media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387043PMC
July 2020

Prenatal bonds among Polish expectant couples: a brief version of the parental antenatal attachment scales.

J Reprod Infant Psychol 2020 Aug 8:1-11. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Institute of Psychology, University of Gdańsk , Gdańsk, Poland.

Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Maternal and Paternal Attachment Scales (MAAS/PAAS) in a Polish sample of expectant couples.

Background: A parental prenatal bond is important for the psychological and health outcomes of children and parents. The MAAS/PAAS is one of the well-established measures for parental prenatal bonding. However, there is a lack of Polish investigations of the factor structure and construct validity of these scales.

Methods: The sample consisted of 341 Polish expectant couples who were surveyed about their prenatal bond, closeness with their unborn child, relationship satisfaction, and gender-role attitudes towards parenthood. The reliability and construct validity of the MAAS/PAAS were evaluated. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and a Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) were conducted.

Results: The obtained results did not confirm the original factor structures of the MAAS/PAAS. However, in the proposed  single 11-item version for the MAAS/PAAS, two factors equivalent to the original structure were extracted. The scale reliability for the brief MAAS/PAAS version was good. The construct validity was confirmed.

Conclusion: The single Polish brief version for the MAAS/PAAS is a reliable and valid measure to use in Polish context. The obtained results support the importance of couple functioning for the MAAS/PAAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2020.1805419DOI Listing
August 2020

Birth as a neuro-psycho-social event: An integrative model of maternal experiences and their relation to neurohormonal events during childbirth.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(7):e0230992. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, Qld, Australia.

Background: Psychological aspects of labor and birth have received little attention within maternity care service planning or clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to propose a model demonstrating how neurohormonal processes, in particular oxytocinergic mechanisms, not only control the physiological aspects of labor and birth, but also contribute to the subjective psychological experiences of birth. In addition, sensory information from the uterus as well as the external environment might influence these neurohormonal processes thereby influencing the progress of labor and the experience of birth.

Methodology: In this new model of childbirth, we integrated the findings from two previous systematic reviews, one on maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during physiological childbirth and one meta-synthesis of women´s subjective experiences of physiological childbirth.

Findings: The neurobiological processes induced by the release of endogenous oxytocin during birth influence maternal behaviour and feelings in connection with birth in order to facilitate birth. The psychological experiences during birth may promote an optimal transition to motherhood. The spontaneous altered state of consciousness, that some women experience, may well be a hallmark of physiological childbirth in humans. The data also highlights the crucial role of one-to-one support during labor and birth. The physiological importance of social support to reduce labor stress and pain necessitates a reconsideration of many aspects of modern maternity care.

Conclusion: By listening to women's experiences and by observing women during childbirth, factors that contribute to an optimized process of labor, such as the mothers' wellbeing and feelings of safety, may be identified. These observations support the integrative role of endogenous oxytocin in coordinating the neuroendocrine, psychological and physiological aspects of labor and birth, including oxytocin mediated. decrease of pain, fear and stress, support the need for midwifery one-to-one support in labour as well as the need for maternity care that optimizes the function of these neuroendocrine processes even when birth interventions are used. Women and their partners would benefit from understanding the crucial role that endogenous oxytocin plays in the psychological and neuroendocrinological process of labor.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230992PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386571PMC
September 2020

Early infant temperament shapes the nature of mother-infant bonding in the first postpartum year.

Infant Behav Dev 2020 02 2;58:101428. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Psychology, Bowdoin College, 6900 College Station, Brunswick, ME 04086, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This study examined longitudinal relations between maternal bonding and infant temperament in the first nine months after birth.

Design: Our sample consisted of 281 women, enrolled at five maternity hospitals, who completed questionnaires during the first week (T1), at six weeks (T2) and nine months postpartum (T3). Maternal bonding was assessed using the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale at T1 and T2 and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at T3. Infant temperament was measured using the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire, completed by the mothers at T2 and T3.

Results: The results of a path model showed a long-term effect flowing from the child to the mother, with infant temperament at T2 predicting maternal bonding at T3 over and above stability in bonding. At T3, bonding was linked more strongly to child temperament at T2 than to child temperament assessed concurrently at T3. Maternal bonding did predict infant temperament, but this was true only of bonding reported at T1 and infant temperament at T2, that is, not of bonding assessed at T2 and infant temperament at T3.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that maternal bonding in the first week postpartum may temporarily affect child temperament, but infant's temperament several weeks after birth - rather than several months postpartum - plays a pervasive role in shaping the long-lasting nature of the mother-child relationship. Our findings thus seem to support the suggestion that the early postpartum weeks represent an important period in the development of maternal bonding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2020.101428DOI Listing
February 2020

Is it too much for me? General self-efficacy and emotional reactions to infant's cry.

J Reprod Infant Psychol 2019 Nov 8:1-14. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland.

: In the three experimental conditions we examined the role of the exposure to recorded infant's cry (at high and at lower frequency) or laughter and the level of participants' general self-efficacy on emotional reactions to the infant's cry.: Infant's cry can trigger empathic, sensitive responses or elicit frustration and anxiety of the caregiver. General caregiver's self-efficacy serves as a predictor of more sensitive reactions to distress cues of a child.: An experimental study with three conditions - exposure to infant cry at high frequency, infant cry at lower frequency or infant laughter, was conducted on the sample of 192 childless undergraduates. Exposure to the selected stimulus was preceded by the General Self-Efficacy Scale and followed by the My Emotions Scale for the assessment of participants' emotional reactions to the presented infant crying or laughter.: Participants with high self-efficacy exposed to the child's cry at high frequency presented the highest level of child-oriented emotional reactions and lower level of self-oriented reactions as compared to participants with low self-efficacy.: Results suggest that general self-efficacy can serve as a supportive factor in sensitive responding to the high-frequency cry. Improving caregivers' self-efficacy can reduce the risk of insensitive, disturbed parenthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2019.1687858DOI Listing
November 2019

Can Personality Factors and Body Esteem Predict Imagery Ability in Dancers?

Sports (Basel) 2019 May 29;7(6). Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti 66100, Italy.

Dancing is mainly regarded as a form of art, which has been linked to the expression of emotions. Imagery is a well-known technique for enhancing performance. Additionally, specific personality traits are likely to facilitate performance. In the dancer's performance, regarding the body as a tool is crucial. The following study examines personality and perceived body esteem as predictors of imagery ability in professional dancers. We analyzed two experimental groups, namely ballet dancers and professional dancers of other styles, and a control group. A sample of 249 people took part in the study: 155 women and 94 men aged 18-56 years. Participants filled in The Imagination in Sport Questionnaire and Polish adaptations of the Big Five Inventory-Short and the Body Esteem Scale. Results indicated that while each experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of their imagery ability, there were no differences between the two experimental groups. Findings revealed that personality traits, mainly higher openness to experience, and body esteem, mainly related to physical condition, were significant predictors of higher imagery ability in all groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports7060131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628101PMC
May 2019

Empathy and social closeness toward refugees from Syria: The mediating role of cultural intelligence.

J Community Psychol 2019 06 19;47(5):1014-1031. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

University of Gdansk.

The predictors of social closeness toward refugees are rarely examined. In this study (N = 337), higher cultural intelligence (CQ) and higher empathy were defined as predictors of higher social closeness (lower social distance [the Social Distance Scale] and warmer feelings [the Feeling Thermometer]) toward refugees from Syria. This is the target group of prejudice and intensive coverage in the European mass media. The obtained results indicated that other-oriented empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking) and the motivational CQ predicted higher social closeness and warmer feelings toward refugees from Syria. Empathic personal distress predicted lower social closeness and colder feelings toward this group. Motivational CQ consistently served as the mediator of the relationship between empathy dimensions and social closeness toward Syrian refugees. Our findings reveal the previously unexplored correlations between empathy dimensions and cultural intelligence factors, including the mediational effects in predicting social closeness toward Syrian refugees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22169DOI Listing
June 2019

Women's psychological experiences of physiological childbirth: a meta-synthesis.

BMJ Open 2018 10 18;8(10):e020347. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Research Centre for Midwifery Science, Zuyd University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objective: To synthesise qualitative studies on women's psychological experiences of physiological childbirth.

Design: Meta-synthesis.

Methods: Studies exploring women's psychological experiences of physiological birth using qualitative methods were eligible. The research group searched the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, SocINDEX and Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection. We contacted the key authors searched reference lists of the collected articles. Quality assessment was done independently using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Studies were synthesised using techniques of meta-ethnography.

Results: Eight studies involving 94 women were included. Three third order interpretations were identified: 'maintaining self-confidence in early labour', 'withdrawing within as labour intensifies' and 'the uniqueness of the birth experience'. Using the first, second and third order interpretations, a line of argument developed that demonstrated 'the empowering journey of giving birth' encompassing the various emotions, thoughts and behaviours that women experience during birth.

Conclusion: Giving birth physiologically is an intense and transformative psychological experience that generates a sense of empowerment. The benefits of this process can be maximised through physical, emotional and social support for women, enhancing their belief in their ability to birth and not disturbing physiology unless it is necessary. Healthcare professionals need to take cognisance of the empowering effects of the psychological experience of physiological childbirth. Further research to validate the results from this study is necessary.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42016037072.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196808PMC
October 2018

Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

Infant Ment Health J 2015 May-Jun;36(3):243-50. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Medical University of Gdansk.

Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21508DOI Listing
January 2016

Temperament and the mother-infant dyad: associations with breastfeeding and formula feeding with a bottle.

Infant Ment Health J 2015 May-Jun;36(3):243-50. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Medical University of Gdansk.

Breastfeeding supports the formation of an emotional bond between mothers and their children. The feeding method is associated with both the child's temperament and the mother's perception of herself and the child. Therefore, the present study focuses on the feeding method, mothers' reaction during feeding, and infants' temperament traits. Ninety-eight mothers with children aged 3 to 5 months participated in the study. Children were assessed with the Children Development Scale (A. Matczak et al., 2007) to measure their temperament. Mothers completed the Mother and Baby Scale (D. Wolke & I. St James-Roberts, 1987, as cited in T.B. Brazelton & K. Nugent, 1995), which measures mothers' evaluation of their children's behaviors during feeding and their overall experiences with their children's care. The results show that breastfed newborns, as compared to bottle-fed newborns, demonstrate higher vigor, which includes activity and the intensity of reaction. Bottle-fed children demonstrate higher regularity than do breastfed children. Mothers who bottle-feed their children perceive themselves to be less confident in the feeding domain than do mothers who breastfeed. Our results indicate that children's temperament might be an important factor in the decision regarding the feeding method. The study supports the idea of promoting knowledge of children's behaviors during feeding among mothers even before their children are born, such as during antenatal classes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/imhj.21508DOI Listing
January 2016

Couvade syndrome among Polish expectant fathers.

Med Sci Monit 2013 Feb 21;19:132-8. Epub 2013 Feb 21.

Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Background: The aim of the conducted study was to analyze the phenomenon of Couvade Syndrome amongst fathers expecting their children in Poland. The authors examined the frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects as well as their associations with male empathy.

Material And Methods: The research involved 143 expectant fathers. All subjects attended antenatal classes, and their female partners were in their third trimester. Before the start of classes, participants were asked to fill in the following questionnaires: a survey for measurement of Couvade Syndrome (which includes a set of 16 symptoms identified by Lipkin and Lamb (19) and translated into Polish), and the Empathic Sensitiveness Scale (SWE). Although participants, on average, did not experience Couvade Syndrome, they did experience symptoms that are commonly linked with the syndrome, namely those related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence).

Results: The results indicate that expectant fathers experience couvade symptoms related to weight (weight gain, changes in appetite and flatulence). The only empathic component that positively correlates with Couvade Syndrome is personal distress, i.e. the tendency to take on the negative emotions of others. Demographic characteristics are not associated with Couvade Syndrome.

Conclusions: The frequency of couvade symptoms in male subjects is associated with male empathy. In other words, men who are emotionally sensitive or prone to distress may physiologically experience the pregnancy of their female partners, which can be interpreted as compathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.883791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628883PMC
February 2013

Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders.

Med Sci Monit 2012 Feb;18(2):CR119-124

Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Background: Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress.

Material/methods: The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22-36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES).

Results: The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically - as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance.

Conclusions: The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3560578PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/msm.882467DOI Listing
February 2012