Publications by authors named "Maria J Schymura"

80 Publications

Racial Disparities in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Hodgkin Lymphoma Enrolled in the New York State Medicaid Program.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Center for Oncology Hematology Outcomes Research and Training (COHORT) and Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California, USA.

We examined the impact of race/ethnicity and age on survival in a publicly insured cohort of children and adolescent/young adults (AYA; 15-39 years) with Hodgkin lymphoma, adjusting for chemotherapy using linked Medicaid claims. We identified 1231 Medicaid-insured patients <1-39 years diagnosed with classical Hodgkin lymphoma between 2005 and 2015, in the New York State Cancer Registry. Chemotherapy regimens were based on contemporary therapeutic regimens. Cox proportional hazards regression models quantified associations of patient, disease, and treatment variables with overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS), and are presented as hazard ratios (HR) with confidence intervals (95% CIs). At median follow-up of 6.6 years,  = 1108 (90%) patients were alive; 5-year OS was 92% in children <15 years. In multivariable models, Black (vs. White) patients had 1.6-fold increased risk of death (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.02-2.46;  = 0.042). Stage III/IV (vs. I/II) was associated with 1.9-fold increased risk of death (HR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.25-2.78;  = 0.002) and treatment at a non-National Cancer Institute (NCI) affiliate was associated with worse DSS (HR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.47-4.98;  = 0.001). In this Medicaid-insured cohort of children and AYAs with Hodgkin lymphoma, Black race/ethnicity remained associated with inferior OS in multivariable models adjusted for disease, demographic, and treatment data. Further work is needed to identify dimensions of health care access not mediated by insurance, as findings suggest additional factors are contributing to observed cancer disparities in vulnerable pediatric and AYA populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jayao.2021.0131DOI Listing
October 2021

Temporal association of prostate cancer incidence with World Trade Center rescue/recovery work.

Occup Environ Med 2021 10 10;78(10):699-706. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, Division of Biostatistics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA

Background: The World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on 11 September 2001 created a hazardous environment with known and suspected carcinogens. Previous studies have identified an increased risk of prostate cancer in responder cohorts compared with the general male population.

Objectives: To estimate the length of time to prostate cancer among WTC rescue/recovery workers by determining specific time periods during which the risk was significantly elevated.

Methods: Person-time accruals began 6 months after enrolment into a WTC cohort and ended at death or 12/31/2015. Cancer data were obtained through linkages with 13 state cancer registries. New York State was the comparison population. We used Poisson regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% CIs; change points in rate ratios were estimated using profile likelihood.

Results: The analytic cohort included 54 394 male rescue/recovery workers. We observed 1120 incident prostate cancer cases. During 2002-2006, no association with WTC exposure was detected. Beginning in 2007, a 24% increased risk (HR: 1.24, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.32) was observed among WTC rescue/recovery workers when compared with New York State. Comparing those who arrived earliest at the disaster site on the morning of 11 September 2001 or any time on 12 September 2001 to those who first arrived later, we observed a positive, monotonic, dose-response association in the early (2002-2006) and late (2007-2015) periods.

Conclusions: Risk of prostate cancer was significantly elevated beginning in 2007 in the WTC combined rescue/recovery cohort. While unique exposures at the disaster site might have contributed to the observed effect, screening practices including routine prostate specific antigen screening cannot be discounted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2021-107405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458078PMC
October 2021

Cancer Incidence in World Trade Center Rescue and Recovery Workers: 14 Years of Follow-Up.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: Statistically significantly increased cancer incidence has been reported from 3 cohorts of World Trade Center (WTC) disaster rescue and recovery workers. We pooled data across these cohorts to address ongoing public concerns regarding cancer risk 14 years after WTC exposure.

Methods: From a combined deduplicated cohort of 69 102 WTC rescue and recovery workers, a sample of 57 402 workers enrolled before 2009 and followed through 2015 was studied. Invasive cancers diagnosed in 2002-2015 were identified from 13 state cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess cancer incidence. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were estimated from Cox regression to examine associations between WTC exposures and cancer risk.

Results: Of the 3611 incident cancers identified, 3236 were reported as first-time primary (FP) cancers, with an accumulated 649 724 and 624 620 person-years of follow-up, respectively. Incidence for combined FP cancers was below expectation (SIR = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93 to 0.99). Statistically significantly elevated SIRs were observed for melanoma-skin (SIR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.24 to 1.64), prostate (SIR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.26), thyroid (SIR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.57 to 2.09), and tonsil (SIR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.91) cancer. Those arriving on September 11 had statistically significantly higher aHRs than those arriving after September 17, 2001, for prostate (aHR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.33 to 1.95) and thyroid (aHR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.81) cancers, with a statistically significant exposure-response trend for both.

Conclusions: In the largest cohort of 9/11 rescue and recovery workers ever studied, overall cancer incidence was lower than expected, and intensity of WTC exposure was associated with increased risk for specific cancer sites, demonstrating the value of long-term follow-up studies after environmental disasters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab165DOI Listing
September 2021

Cancer survival among World Trade Center rescue and recovery workers: A collaborative cohort study.

Am J Ind Med 2021 10 19;64(10):815-826. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, New York, USA.

Background: World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed responders may be eligible to receive no-cost medical monitoring and treatment for certified conditions, including cancer. The survival of responders with cancer has not previously been investigated.

Methods: This study compared the estimated relative survival of WTC-exposed responders who developed cancer while enrolled in two WTC medical monitoring and treatment programs in New York City (WTC-MMTP responders) and WTC-exposed responders not enrolled (WTC-non-MMTP responders) to non-responders from New York State (NYS-non-responders), all restricted to the 11-southernmost NYS counties, where most responders resided. Parametric survival models estimated cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Follow-up ended at death or on December 31, 2016.

Results: From January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2016, there were 2,037 cancer cases and 303 deaths (248 cancer-related deaths) among WTC-MMTP responders, 564 cancer cases, and 143 deaths (106 cancer-related deaths) among WTC-non-MMTP responders, and 574,075 cancer cases and 224,040 deaths (158,645 cancer-related deaths) among the NYS-non-responder population. Comparing WTC-MMTP responders with NYS-non-responders, the cancer-specific mortality hazard ratio (HR) was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.64-0.82), and all-cause mortality HR was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.58-0.72). The cancer-specific HR was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.78-1.14), and all-cause mortality HR was 0.93 (95% CI = 0.79-1.10) comparing WTC-non-MMTP responders to the NYS-non-responder population.

Conclusions: WTC-MMTP responders had lower mortality compared with NYS-non-responders, after controlling for demographic factors and temporal trends. There may be survival benefits from no-out-of-pocket-cost medical care which could have important implications for healthcare policy, however, other occupational and socioeconomic factors could have contributed to some of the observed survival advantage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515734PMC
October 2021

Impact of healthcare services on thyroid cancer incidence among World Trade Center-exposed rescue and recovery workers.

Am J Ind Med 2021 10 18;64(10):861-872. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Fire Department of the City of New York, Bureau of Health Services, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Background: A recent study of World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed firefighters and emergency medical service workers demonstrated that elevated thyroid cancer incidence may be attributable to frequent medical testing, resulting in the identification of asymptomatic tumors. We expand on that study by comparing the incidence of thyroid cancer among three groups: WTC-exposed rescue/recovery workers enrolled in a New York State (NYS) WTC-medical monitoring and treatment program (MMTP); WTC-exposed rescue/recovery workers not enrolled in an MMTP (non-MMTP); and the NYS population.

Methods: Person-time began on 9/12/2001 or at enrollment in a WTC cohort and ended at death or on 12/31/2015. Cancer data were obtained through linkages with 13 state cancer registries. We used Poisson regression to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MMTP and non-MMTP participants. NYS rates were used as the reference. To estimate potential changes over time in WTC-associated risk, change points in RRs were estimated using profile likelihood.

Results: The thyroid cancer incidence rate among MMTP participants was more than twice that of NYS population rates (RR = 2.31; 95% CI = 2.00-2.68). Non-MMTP participants had a risk similar to NYS (RR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.72-1.28). We observed no change points in the follow-up period.

Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that no-cost screening (a benefit provided by WTC-MMTPs) is associated with elevated identification of thyroid cancer. Given the high survival rate for thyroid cancer, it is important to weigh the costs and benefits of treatment, as many of these cancers were asymptomatic and may have been detected incidentally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23277DOI Listing
October 2021

Epidemiology of cervical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma among women living with HIV compared to the general population in the United States.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Objectives: Cervical cancer risk overall is elevated among women living with HIV (WLH). However, it is unclear whether risks of cervical cancer are similarly elevated across histologic subtypes.

Methods: Data were utilized from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study, a linkage of 12 US HIV and cancer registries during 1996-2016. Cervical cancers were categorized as adenocarcinoma (AC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or other histologic type. Standardized incidence ratios were estimated to compare rates of AC and SCC in WLH compared to the general population. For WLH, risk factors for AC and SCC were evaluated using Poisson regression. All-cause 5-year survival was estimated by HIV status and histology.

Results: Overall, 62,615 cervical cancers were identified, including 609 in WLH. Compared to the general population, incidence of AC was 1.47-times higher (95%CI: 1.03-2.05) and incidence of SCC was 3.62-times higher among WLH (95%CI: 3.31-3.94). Among WLH, there was no difference in AC rates by race/ethnicity or HIV transmission group, although SCC rates were lower among White women (vs. Black, adjusted rate ratio (aRR)=0.53; 95%CI: 0.38-0.73) and higher among women who inject drugs (vs. heterosexual transmission; aRR=1.44; 95%CI: 1.17-1.78). Among WLH, 5-year overall survival was similar for AC (46.2%) and SCC (43.8%), but notably lower than women without HIV.

Conclusions: Among WLH, AC rates were modestly elevated whereas SCC rates were greatly elevated compared to the general population. These findings suggest that there may be differences in the impact of immunosuppression and HIV status in the development of AC compared to SCC, given their common etiology in HPV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab561DOI Listing
June 2021

Can Oncology Practice Claims Data Replace Physician Reporting to State Cancer Registries?

J Registry Manag 2020 ;47(3):113-117

Background: Recently, the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program facilitated the linkage of claims data from oncology practices to cancer registry data. Since physician reporting places a burden on oncology practices and presents a challenge for cancer registries, the question arises as to whether claims data can replace physician reporting. Using data reported to the New York State Cancer Registry, we evaluated the information that would be lost if oncology practices were to cease reporting abstracted data to the registry.

Methods: We identified cancer cases diagnosed in 2017 and reported by 3 oncology practices. We estimated the proportion of cases reported solely by these practices and examined characteristics of these cases compared to those reported by multiple sources. We used Match*Pro to link cases reported by the oncology practices to claims data and examined the availability of claims data for these cases.

Results: The 3 oncology practices reported 3,224 malignant tumors diagnosed in 2017. Of these, 233 (7.2%) were reported solely by the practices. Cases reported by an oncology practice only tended to be older than those reported by multiple sources and were statistically significantly more likely to be non-Hispanic White and less likely to be a first reportable cancer, early stage, or receive treatment. Of the 233 sole report tumors, 5 (2.1%) were not captured in claims data.

Conclusions: Most cancers reported by oncology practices were also reported by other sources or were included in claims data. However, relying on claims data for these cases would result in missing data items and a small number of unreported cancers. These results may help to optimize oncology practice reporting by informing reporting requirements to balance the need for complete data with the convenience of obtaining data through automated means.
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June 2021

Combining Three Cohorts of World Trade Center Rescue/Recovery Workers for Assessing Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 3;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Three cohorts including the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY), the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR), and the General Responder Cohort (GRC), each funded by the World Trade Center Health Program have reported associations between WTC-exposures and cancer. Results have generally been consistent with effect estimates for excess incidence for all cancers ranging from 6 to 14% above background rates. Pooling would increase sample size and de-duplicate cases between the cohorts. However, pooling required time consuming steps: obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals and legal agreements from entities involved; establishing an honest broker for managing the data; de-duplicating the pooled cohort files; applying to State Cancer Registries (SCRs) for matched cancer cases; and finalizing analysis data files. Obtaining SCR data use agreements ranged from 6.5 to 114.5 weeks with six states requiring >20 weeks. Records from FDNY ( = 16,221), WTCHR ( = 29,372), and GRC ( = 33,427) were combined de-duplicated resulting in 69,102 unique individuals. Overall, 7894 cancer tumors were matched to the pooled cohort, increasing the number cancers by as much as 58% compared to previous analyses. Pooling resulted in a coherent resource for future research for studies on rare cancers and mortality, with more representative of occupations and WTC- exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913216PMC
February 2021

Association between preexisting mental illnesses and mortality among medicaid-insured women diagnosed with breast cancer.

Soc Sci Med 2021 02 23;270:113643. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, One University Place, Rensselaer, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Background: We investigated the impact of preexisting mental illnesses on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among Medicaid-insured women diagnosed with breast cancer.

Methods: Data from the New York State Cancer Registry for 10,444 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 2004 to 2016 and aged <65 years at diagnosis were linked with Medicaid claims. Women were categorized as having depression or a severe mental illness (SMI) if they had at least three relevant diagnosis claims with at least one claim within three years prior to breast cancer diagnosis. SMI included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychotic disorders. Estimated menopausal status was determined by age (premenopausal age <50; postmenopausal age ≥50). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: Preexisting SMI was associated with greater all-cause (HR = 1.36; 95%CI 1.18, 1.57) and cancer-specific (HR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.03, 1.44) mortality compared to those with no mental illnesses. No association was observed between preexisting depression and mortality. Among racial/ethnic subgroups, the association between SMI and all-cause mortality was observed among non-Hispanic white (HR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.19, 1.83) and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (HR = 2.59; 95% 1.15, 5.87) women. Additionally, mortality hazards were greatest among women with preexisting SMI that were postmenopausal (HR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.25, 1.78), obese (HR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.26, 1.98), and had documented tobacco use (HR = 1.42; 95%CI 1.13, 1.78).

Conclusion: Women with preexisting SMI prior to breast cancer diagnosis have an elevated mortality hazard and should be monitored and treated by a coordinated cross-functional clinical team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113643DOI Listing
February 2021

The Impact of Liver Transplantation on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mortality in the United States.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 03 16;30(3):513-520. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carries a poor prognosis. Liver transplantation (LT) is potentially curative for localized HCC. We evaluated the impact of LT on U.S. general population HCC-specific mortality rates.

Methods: The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the U.S. transplant registry with 17 cancer registries. We calculated age-standardized incidence (1987-2017) and incidence-based mortality (IBM) rates (1991-2017) for adult HCCs. We partitioned population-level IBM rates by cancer stage and calculated counterfactual IBM rates assuming transplanted cases had not received a transplant.

Results: Among 129,487 HCC cases, 45.9% had localized cancer. HCC incidence increased on average 4.0% annually [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.6-4.5]. IBM also increased for HCC overall (2.9% annually; 95% CI = 1.7-4.2) and specifically for localized stage HCC (4.8% annually; 95% CI = 4.0-5.5). The proportion of HCC-related transplants jumped sharply from 6.7% (2001) to 18.0% (2002), and further increased to 40.0% (2017). HCC-specific mortality declined among both nontransplanted and transplanted cases over time. In the absence of transplants, IBM for localized HCC would have increased at 5.3% instead of 4.8% annually.

Conclusions: LT has provided survival benefit to patients with localized HCC. However, diagnosis of many cases at advanced stages, limited availability of donor livers, and improved mortality for patients without transplants have limited the impact of transplantation on general population HCC-specific mortality rates.

Impact: Although LT rates continue to rise, better screening and treatment modalities are needed to halt the rising HCC mortality rates in the United States..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052263PMC
March 2021

Assessment of Birth Defects and Cancer Risk in Children Conceived via In Vitro Fertilization in the US.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2022927. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Epidemiology Program, Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston.

Importance: Children with birth defects have a greater risk of developing cancer, but this association has not yet been evaluated in children conceived with in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Objective: To assess whether the association between birth defects and cancer is greater in children conceived via IVF compared with children conceived naturally.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study of live births, birth defects, and cancer from Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, and Texas included 1 000 639 children born to fertile women and 52 776 children conceived via IVF (using autologous oocytes and fresh embryos) during 2004-2016 in Massachusetts and North Carolina, 2004-2015 in New York, and 2004-2013 in Texas. Children were followed up for an average of 5.7 years (6 008 985 total person-years of exposure). Data analysis was conducted from April 1 to August 31, 2020.

Exposures: Conception by IVF for state residents who gave birth to liveborn singletons during the study period. Birth defect diagnoses recorded by statewide registries.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cancer diagnosis as recorded by state cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for birth defect-cancer associations separately in fertile and IVF groups.

Results: A total of 1 000 639 children (51.3% boys; 69.7% White; and 38.3% born between 2009-2012) were in the fertile group and 52 776 were in the IVF group (51.3% boys; 81.3% White; and 39.6% born between 2009-2012). Compared with children without birth defects, cancer risks were higher among children with a major birth defect in the fertile group (hazard ratio [HR], 3.15; 95% CI, 2.40-4.14) and IVF group (HR, 6.90; 95% CI, 3.73-12.74). The HR of cancer among children with a major nonchromosomal defect was 2.07 (95% CI, 1.47-2.91) among children in the fertile group and 4.04 (95% CI, 1.86-8.77) among children in the IVF group. The HR of cancer among children with a chromosomal defect was 15.45 (95% CI, 10.00-23.86) in the fertile group and 38.91 (95% CI, 15.56-97.33) in the IVF group.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that among children with birth defects, those conceived via IVF were at greater risk of developing cancer compared with children conceived naturally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.22927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596575PMC
October 2020

Variation in Adequate Lymph Node Yield for Gastric, Lung, and Bladder Cancer: Attributable to the Surgeon, Pathologist, or Hospital?

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Oct 6;27(11):4093-4106. Epub 2020 May 6.

Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise (SHORE), Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: The Commission on Cancer recently released quality-of-care measures regarding adequate lymphadenectomy for colon, gastric, lung, and bladder cancer. There is currently little information regarding variation in adequate lymph node yield (ALNY) for gastric, lung, and bladder cancer.

Methods: The New York State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System were queried for stage I-III gastric, stage I-II lung, and stage II-III bladder cancer resections from 2004 to 2014. Hierarchical models assessed factors associated with ALNY (gastric ≥ 15; lung ≥ 10; bladder ≥ 2). Additionally, the proportions of variation attributable to surgeons, pathologists, and hospitals were estimated among Medicare patients.

Results: Among 3716 gastric, 18,328 lung, and 1512 bladder cancer resections, there were low rates of ALNY (gastric = 53%, lung = 36%, bladder = 67%). When comparing 2004-2006 and 2012-2014, there was significant improvement in ALNY for gastric cancer (39% vs. 68%), but more modest improvement for lung (33% vs. 38%) and bladder (65% vs. 71%) cancer. Large provider-level variation existed for each organ system. After controlling for patient-level factors/variation, the majority of variation was attributable to hospitals (gastric: surgeon = 4%, pathologist = 2.8%, hospital = 40%; lung: surgeon = 13.8%, pathologist = 1.5%, hospital = 18.3%) for gastric and lung cancer. For bladder cancer, most of the variation was attributable to pathologists (surgeon = 3.3%, pathologist = 10.5%, hospital = 6.2%).

Conclusions: ALNY rates are low for gastric, lung, and bladder cancer, with only modest improvement over time for lung and bladder cancer. Given that the proportion of variation attributable to the surgeon, pathologist, and hospital is different for each organ system, future quality improvement initiatives should target the underlying causes, which vary by individual organ system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08509-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus and antidiabetic drugs on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among Medicaid-insured women diagnosed with breast cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 06 1;66:101710. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, One University Place, Rensselaer, NY, United States; Bureau of Cancer Epidemiology, New York State Department of Health, 150 Broadway, Suite 361, Albany, NY, United States.

Background: We investigated the influence preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and antidiabetic drugs have on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among Medicaid-insured women diagnosed with breast cancer.

Methods: 9221 women aged <64 years diagnosed with breast cancer and reported to the New York State (NYS) Cancer Registry from 2004 to 2016 were linked with Medicaid claims. Preexisting T2DM was determined by three diagnosis claims for T2DM with at least one claim prior to breast cancer diagnosis and a prescription claim for an antidiabetic drug within three months following breast cancer diagnosis. Estimated menopausal status was determined by age (premenopausal age <50; postmenopausal age ≥50). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 %CI) were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for confounders.

Results: Women with preexisting T2DM had greater all-cause (HR = 1.40; 95 %CI 1.21, 1.63), cancer-specific (HR = 1.24; 95 %CI 1.04, 1.47), and cardiovascular-specific (HR = 2.46; 95 %CI 1.54, 3.90) mortality hazard compared to nondiabetic women. In subgroup analyses, the association between T2DM and all-cause mortality was found among non-Hispanic White (HR 1.78 95 %CI 1.38, 2.30) and postmenopausal (HR = 1.47; 95 %CI 1.23, 1.77) women, but not among other race/ethnicity groups or premenopausal women. Additionally, compared to women prescribed metformin, all-cause mortality hazard was elevated among women prescribed sulfonylurea (HR = 1.44; 95 %CI 1.06, 1.94) or insulin (HR = 1.54; 95 %CI 1.12, 2.11).

Conclusion: Among Medicaid-insured women with breast cancer, those with preexisting T2DM have an increased mortality hazard, especially when prescribed sulfonylurea or insulin. Further research is warranted to determine the role antidiabetic drugs have on survival among women with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101710DOI Listing
June 2020

Centralizing Rectal Cancer Surgery: What Is the Impact of Travel on Patients?

Dis Colon Rectum 2020 03;63(3):319-325

Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise (SHORE), Department of Surgery, Division of Colorectal Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.

Background: It is unclear what impact centralizing rectal cancer surgery may have on travel burden for patients.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the impact of centralizing rectal cancer surgery to high-volume centers on patient travel distance.

Design: This is a population-based study.

Settings: The New York State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System were queried for patients with rectal cancer undergoing proctectomy.

Patients: Patients with stage I to III rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection between 2004 and 2014 were included.

Main Outcome Measures: The outcome of interest was travel distance calculated as the straight-line distance between the centroid of the patient residence zip code and the hospital zip code. Mean distance was compared by using the Student t test.

Results: A total of 5860 patients met inclusion criteria. The total number of hospitals performing proctectomies for rectal cancer decreased between 2004 and 2014. The average number of proctectomies performed at high-volume centers (20+ resections/year) increased from 16.6 to 24.4 during this time. The average number of miles traveled by patients was 12.1 miles in 2004, and this increased to 15.4 in 2014. If proctectomies were centralized to high-volume centers, there would be 11 facilities. The mean distance traveled would be 24.5 miles.

Limitations: This study is subject to the limitations of an administrative data set. There are no patient preference or referral data.

Conclusions: The number of hospitals performing rectal cancer resections in New York State is decreasing and volume by center is increasing. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean distance traveled by patients over time. If rectal cancer resections were centralized to high-volume centers, the mean travel distance would increase by 9.5 miles. There would be a 321% increase in the number of patients having to travel 50+ miles for surgery. Any plan for centralization in New York State will require careful planning to avoid placing undue travel burden on patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B138. CENTRALIZACIÓN DE LA CIRUGÍA DE CÁNCER RECTAL: ¿CUÁL ES EL IMPACTO DEL VIAJE PARA LOS PACIENTES?: No está claro qué impacto puede tener la centralización de la cirugía de cáncer rectal en la carga de viaje para los pacientes.Determinar el impacto de centralizar la cirugía de cáncer rectal en centros de alto volumen sobre la distancia de viaje del paciente.Este es un estudio basado en cohorte poblacional.El Registro de Cáncer del Estado de Nueva York y el Sistema Cooperativo de Planificación e Investigación Estatal fueron consultados para pacientes con cáncer rectal sometidos a proctectomía.Pacientes con cáncer rectal en estadio I-III que se sometieron a resección quirúrgica entre 2004-2014.El resultado de interés fue la distancia de viaje calculada como la distancia en línea recta entre el centroide de la residencia del paciente y el código postal del hospital. La distancia media se comparó mediante la prueba t de Student.Un total de 5,860 pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. El número total de hospitales que realizaron proctectomías para cáncer rectal disminuyó entre 2004-2014. El número promedio de proctectomías realizadas en centros de alto volumen (más de 20 resecciones/año) aumentó de 16.6 a 24.4 durante este tiempo. El número promedio de millas recorridas por los pacientes fue de 12.1 millas en 2004 y esto aumentó a 15.4 en 2014. Si las proctectomías se centralizaran en centros de alto volumen, habría 11 instalaciones. La distancia media recorrida sería de 24.5 millas.Limitaciones inherentes a un conjunto de datos administrativos. No existen datos sobre preferencia del paciente o sobre referencia de los mismos.El número de hospitales que realizan resecciones de cáncer rectal en Nueva York está disminuyendo y el volumen por centro está aumentando. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la distancia media recorrida por los pacientes a lo largo del tiempo. Si las resecciones por cáncer rectal se centralizaran en centros de gran volumen, la distancia media de viaje aumentaría 9.5 millas. Habría un aumento del 321% en el número de pacientes que tienen que viajar más de 50 millas para la cirugía. Cualquier plan de centralización en Nueva York requerirá una planificación cuidadosa para evitar imponer una carga de viaje excesiva a los pacientes. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B138.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001581DOI Listing
March 2020

Complications and Survivorship Trends After Primary Debulking Surgery for Ovarian Cancer.

J Surg Res 2020 02 24;246:34-41. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Ob/Gyn, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia.

Background: We examined factors associated with postoperative complications, 1-year overall and cancer-specific survival after epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) diagnosis.

Methods: Patients who underwent surgery for EOC between 2004 and 2013 were included. Multivariable models analyzed postoperative complications, overall survival, and cancer-specific survival.

Results: Among 5223 patients, surgical complications were common. Postoperative complications correlated with increased odds of overall and disease-specific survival at 1 y. Receipt of chemotherapy was similar among women with and without postoperative complications and was independently associated with a reduction in the hazard of overall and disease-specific death at 1-year. Extensive pelvic and upper abdomen surgery resulted in 2.26 times the odds of postoperative complication, but was associated with longer 1-year overall 0.53 (0.35, 0.82) and disease-specific survival 0.54 (0.34, 0.85).

Conclusions: Although extent of surgery was associated with complications, the survival benefit from comprehensive surgery offset the risk. Tailored surgical treatment for women with EOC may improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.08.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6917987PMC
February 2020

A Population-Based Study of 90-Day Hospital Cost and Utilization Associated With Robotic Surgery in Colon and Rectal Cancer.

J Surg Res 2020 01 13;245:136-144. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Surgery, Surgical Health Outcomes & Research Enterprise, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.

Background: The role of robotic surgery in colorectal cancer remains contentious with most data arising from small, single-institution studies.

Methods: Stage I-III colorectal cancer resections from 2008 to 2014 were identified in New York State. Propensity score-adjusted negative binomial models were used to compare cost and utilization between robotic, laparoscopic, and open resections.

Results: A total of 12,218 patients were identified. For colectomy, the robotic-to-open conversion rate was 3%, and the laparoscopic-to-open conversion rate was 13%. For rectal resection, the robotic-to-open conversion rate was 7% and the laparoscopic-to-open conversion rate was 32%. In intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in cost across the surgical approaches, both in overall and stratified analyses. Both laparoscopic and robotic approaches were associated with decreased 90-d hospital utilization compared with open surgery in intention-to-treat analyses.

Conclusions: Robotic and laparoscopic colorectal cancer resections were not associated with a hospital cost benefit after 90 d compared with open but were associated with decreased hospital utilization. Conversion to open resection was common, and efforts should be made to prevent them. Future research should continue to measure how robotic and laparoscopic approaches can add value to the health care system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.07.052DOI Listing
January 2020

Surgeon, Hospital, and Geographic Variation in Minimally Invasive Colectomy.

Ann Surg 2019 06;269(6):1109-1116

Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise (SHORE), Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.

Objective: To identify sources of variation in the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for colectomy.

Background: MIS is associated with decreased analgesic use, shorter length of stay, and faster postoperative recovery. This study identified factors explaining variation in MIS use for colectomy.

Methods: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System was queried for scheduled admissions in which a colectomy was performed for neoplastic, diverticular, or inflammatory bowel disease between 2008 and 2015. Mixed-effects analyses were performed assessing surgeon, hospital, and geographic variation and factors associated with an MIS approach.

Results: Among 45,714 colectomies, 68.1% were performed using an MIS approach. Wide variation in the rate of MIS was present across 1253 surgeons (median 50%, interquartile range 10.9%-84.2%, range 0.3%-99.7%). Calculating intraclass correlation coefficients after controlling for case-mix, 62.8% of the total variation in MIS usage was attributable to surgeon variation compared with 28.5% attributable to patient variation, 7% attributable to hospital variation, and 1.6% attributable to geographic variation. Surgeon-years in practice since residency/fellowship completion explained 19.2% of the surgeon variation, surgeon volume explained 5.2%, hospital factors explained 0.1%, and patient factors explained 0%.

Conclusions: Wide surgeon variation exists regarding an MIS approach for colectomy, and most of the total variation is attributable to individual surgeon practices-much of which is related to year of graduation. As increasing surgeon age is inversely proportional to the rate of MIS, patient referral and/or providing tailored training to older surgeons may be constructive targets in increasing the use of MIS and reducing healthcare utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002694DOI Listing
June 2019

Association of In Vitro Fertilization With Childhood Cancer in the United States.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 06 3;173(6):e190392. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Importance: In vitro fertilization (IVF) is associated with birth defects and imprinting disorders. Because these conditions are associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer, many of which originate in utero, descriptions of cancers among children conceived via IVF are imperative.

Objective: To compare the incidence of childhood cancers among children conceived in vitro with those conceived naturally.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective, population-based cohort study linking cycles reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinical Outcomes Reporting System from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2012, that resulted in live births from September 1, 2004, to December 31, 2013, to the birth and cancer registries of 14 states, comprising 66% of United States births and 75% of IVF-conceived births, with follow-up from September 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014. The study included 275 686 children conceived via IVF and a cohort of 2 266 847 children, in which 10 births were randomly selected for each IVF birth. Statistical analysis was performed from April 1, 2017, to October 1, 2018.

Exposure: In vitro fertilization.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cancer diagnosed in the first decade of life.

Results: A total of 321 cancers were detected among the children conceived via IVF (49.1% girls and 50.9% boys; mean [SD] age, 4.6 [2.5] years for singleton births and 5.9 [2.4] years for multiple births), and a total of 2042 cancers were detected among the children not conceived via IVF (49.2% girls and 50.8% boys; mean [SD] age, 6.1 [2.6] years for singleton births and 4.7 [2.6] years for multiple births). The overall cancer rate (per 1 000 000 person-years) was 251.9 for the IVF group and 192.7 for the non-IVF group (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.00-1.36). The rate of hepatic tumors was higher among the IVF group than the non-IVF group (hepatic tumor rate: 18.1 vs 5.7; hazard ratio, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.29-4.70); the rates of other cancers did not differ between the 2 groups. There were no associations with specific IVF treatment modalities or indication for IVF.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found a small association of IVF with overall cancers of early childhood, but it did observe an increased rate of embryonal cancers, particularly hepatic tumors, that could not be attributed to IVF rather than to underlying infertility. Continued follow-up for cancer occurrence among children conceived via IVF is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6547076PMC
June 2019

Hospital and surgeon variation in positive circumferential resection margin among rectal cancer patients.

Am J Surg 2019 11 28;218(5):881-886. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise, Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Epidemiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate variation in positive CRM at the surgeon and hospital levels and assess impact on disease-specific survival.

Methods: Patients with stage I-III rectal cancer were identified in New York State. Bayesian hierarchical regressions estimated observed-to-expected (O/E) ratios for each surgeon/hospital. Competing-risks analyses estimated disease-specific survival among patients who were treated by surgeons/hospitals with O/E > 1 compared to those with O/E ratio ≤ 1.

Results: Among 1,251 patients, 208 (17%) had a positive CRM. Of the 345 surgeons and 118 hospitals in the study, 99 (29%) and 48 (40%) treated a higher number of patients with CRM than expected, respectively. Patients treated by surgeons with O/E > 1 (HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.16, 1.67) and those treated at hospitals with O/E > 1 (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.85) had worse disease-specific survival.

Discussion: Surgeon and hospital performance in positive CRM is associated with worse prognosis suggesting opportunities to enhance referral patterns and standardize care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.02.029DOI Listing
November 2019

Characteristics and survival of children with acute leukemia with Down syndrome or other birth defects in New York State.

Cancer Epidemiol 2018 12 13;57:68-73. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

New York State Congenital Malformations Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA.

Background: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among DS children have been studied extensively using data from clinical trials or institutional reports. The purpose of this study was to link population-based cancer and birth defects data to evaluate characteristics and survival of children with acute leukemia according to the presence of DS or other birth defects.

Methods: ALL and AML cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2012 among children aged 0-14 years were obtained from the New York State Cancer Registry. Birth defect status (DS, other birth defects, or no birth defects) was determined by linking with birth defects data. Associations between birth defect status and demographic characteristics were evaluated using contingency table analysis. Ten-year survival was calculated by birth defect status and other potential prognostic factors. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was also performed.

Results: Among 2941 ALL children, 1.6% had DS, 3.8% had other birth defects, and 94.5% had no birth defects. Birth defect status was significantly associated with age at ALL diagnosis. Survivals were similar among three groups. Among 563 AML children, 11.0% had DS, 6.0% had other birth defects, and 83.0% had no birth defects. Children with DS were more likely to be diagnosed with AML at a younger age and showed the best survival.

Conclusion: Age at leukemia diagnosis was significantly associated with the birth defect status. Comparable survival was observed for ALL children. However, AML children with DS demonstrated superior survival compared to children with other birth defects or no birth defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2018.10.004DOI Listing
December 2018

Effect of Hepatocellular Carcinoma on Mortality Among Individuals With Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Infection in New York City, 2001-2012.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jul 16;5(7):ofy144. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Viral Hepatitis Program, Bureau of Communicable Disease, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Queens, New York.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complication of chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infection. New York City (NYC) has a high prevalence of HBV and HCV, and infected persons likely face increased mortality from HCC and other causes. We describe the mortality profile of NYC residents with HBV or HCV, emphasizing the contributions of HCC and HIV coinfection.

Methods:  Two existing data sets were combined to examine all individuals diagnosed with HBV or HCV in NYC first reported to the Health Department during 2001-2012 and their HCC, HIV, and vital status. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of HCC diagnosis by viral hepatitis status, whereas Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the hazard of death by HCC/HIV status.

Results: In total, 120 952 and 127 933 individuals were diagnosed with HBV or HCV, respectively. HCV-infected individuals had 17% higher odds of HCC diagnosis than HBV-infected individuals and 3.2 times higher odds of HIV coinfection. Those with HCV were twice as likely to die during the study period (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.96-2.12). The risk of death increased for those with HIV or HCC and was highest for those with both conditions.

Conclusions: HCC and HIV represent substantial risks to survival for both HBV- and HCV-infected individuals. Individuals with HBV need close monitoring and treatment, when indicated, and routine HCC screening. Those with HCV need increased, timely access to curative medications before developing liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6041961PMC
July 2018

Risk of Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer Diagnoses Among HIV-Infected Individuals in the United States.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 09;110(9):959-966

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD.

Background: Although people living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA) are at higher risk for many cancers, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer rates are lower in this patient population. Because these tumors are often screen-detected, these inverse associations could be driven by HIV-related differences in utilization of cancer screening.

Methods: We ascertained incident breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer in PLWHA using data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1996-2012). Comparisons with general population cancer rates were made using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), overall and stratified by tumor stage/size, breast cancer estrogen receptor status, and colorectal site. We also examined the potential effect of study design and unmeasured confounding on inverse standardized incidence ratios.

Results: Compared with the general population, PLWHA had lower rates of invasive breast (SIR = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.58 to 0.68), prostate (SIR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.51), proximal colon (SIR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.75), distal colon (SIR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.59), and rectal cancers (SIR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.77). Reduced risk persisted across tumor stage/size for prostate and colorectal cancers. Although distant-stage breast cancer rates were not reduced (SIR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.20), HIV-infected women had lower rates of large (>5 cm) breast tumors (SIR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.83). The magnitude of these inverse standardized incidence ratios could not plausibly be attributed to case underascertainment, out-migration, or unmeasured confounding.

Conclusions: Breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer rates are markedly lower among PLWHA, including rates of distant-stage/large tumors that are not generally screen-detected. This set of inverse HIV-cancer associations is therefore unlikely to be due primarily to differential screening and may instead represent biological relationships requiring future investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136931PMC
September 2018

Geographic epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma, viral hepatitis, and socioeconomic position in New York City.

Cancer Causes Control 2017 Jul 1;28(7):779-789. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Division of Disease Control, Bureau of Communicable Disease, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 42-09 28th St, Long Island City, NY, 11101, USA.

Purpose: Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) incidence and mortality rates are increasing in the United States. New York City (NYC) has a high burden of liver cancer risk factors, including hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) infection, which disproportionately affect persons of low socioeconomic position. Identifying neighborhoods with HCC disparities is essential to effectively define targeted cancer control strategies.

Methods: New York State Cancer Registry data from 1 January 2001 through 31 December 2012 were matched with NYC HCV and HBV surveillance data. HCC data were aggregated to NYC Zip Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs). Moran's I cluster analysis, Poisson regression, and geographically weighted Poisson regression were used to identify hotspots in HCC incidence and to examine the spatial associations with viral hepatitis rates, poverty, and uninsured status.

Results: Among NYC residents, 8,827 HCC cases were diagnosed during 2001-2012. Significant clustering was detected in the HCC rates (Moran's I = 0.25) with the strongest clustering found in HCC patients with comorbid HCV infection (Moran's I = 0.47). Poverty and uninsured status were associated (p < 0.05) with increased rates of HCC patients with HBV or HCV infection. Neighborhoods with high rates of HCC without viral hepatitis infection had lower rates of poverty and uninsured status.

Conclusions: The geographic variation in HCC highlights the need for neighborhood-targeted interventions to address risk factors and barriers to care. The clusters of HCC by viral hepatitis status may serve as a basis for healthcare policymakers and practitioners to prioritize neighborhoods for cancer screening and control efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-017-0897-8DOI Listing
July 2017

Nonelective colon cancer resection: A continued public health concern.

Surgery 2017 06 23;161(6):1609-1618. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise, Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.

Background: Little is known regarding recent trends in the rate of nonelective colon cancer resection in the United States and its impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes.

Methods: The New York State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning & Research Cooperative System identified stage I-III colon cancer resections from 2004-2011. Propensity-matched analyses assessed differences in short-term adverse outcomes and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival between elective and nonelective colon cancer operations. Further analyses assessed the association among patient, surgeon, and hospital-level factors and outcomes within the nonelective operation group.

Results: Among 26,420 patients, 26.5% underwent nonelective operations. There was no significant change in the rate of nonelective resection from 2004-2011 (P = .25). Nonelective operations were independently associated with greater odds of 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.87-4.06), stoma creation (OR = 4.49, 95% CI = 3.95-5.09), intensive care unit admission (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.53-1.84), complications (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.18-2.52), and discharge to another health care facility (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 2.26-2.68), longer duration of stay (incidence rate ratio = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.76-1.83), and worse disease-specific (hazard ratio = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.61-1.88) and overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.55-1.75). Other than an association among high-volume surgeons, adequate lymph node yield, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy and lower mortality, no other potentially modifiable factors were associated with survival after nonelective operations.

Conclusion: Nonelective colon cancer resection remains a concerning public health issue with >25% of cases being performed on a nonelective basis and an independent association with poor short-term and long-term survival compared with elective operations. Given that few potentially modifiable factors appear to have an impact on survival after nonelective operations, these findings highlight the importance of adherence to colon cancer screening guidelines to limit the number of nonelective colon cancer resections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2017.01.001DOI Listing
June 2017

Surgeon-, pathologist-, and hospital-level variation in suboptimal lymph node examination after colectomy: Compartmentalizing quality improvement strategies.

Surgery 2017 05 11;161(5):1299-1306. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Surgical Health Outcomes & Research Enterprise, Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.

Background: The goals of this study were to characterize the variation in suboptimal lymph node examination for patients with colon cancer across individual surgeons, pathologists, and hospitals and to examine if this variation affects 5-year, disease-specific survival.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by merging the New York State Cancer Registry with the Statewide Planning & Research Cooperative System, Medicaid, and Medicare claims to identify resections for stages I-III colon cancer from 2004-2011. Multilevel logistic regression models characterized variation in suboptimal lymph node examination (<12 lymph nodes). Multilevel competing-risks Cox models were used for survival analyses.

Results: The overall rate of suboptimal lymph node examination was 32% in 12,332 patients treated by 1,503 surgeons and 814 pathologists at 187 hospitals. Patient-level predictors of suboptimal lymph node examination were older age, male sex, nonscheduled admission, lesser stage, and left colectomy procedure. Hospital-level predictors of suboptimal lymph node examination were a nonacademic status, a rural setting, and a low annual number of resections for colon cancer. The percent of the total clustering variance attributed to surgeons, pathologists, and hospitals was 8%, 23%, and 70%, respectively. Increasing the pathologist and hospital-specific rates of suboptimal lymph node examination were associated with worse 5-year, disease-specific survival.

Conclusion: There was a large variation in suboptimal lymph node examination between surgeons, pathologists, and hospitals. Collaborative efforts that promote optimal examination of lymph nodes may improve prognosis for colon cancer patients. Given that 93% of the variation was attributable to pathologists and hospitals, endeavors in quality improvement should focus on these 2 settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2016.11.029DOI Listing
May 2017

The impact of age on complications, survival, and cause of death following colon cancer surgery.

Br J Cancer 2017 01 5;116(3):389-397. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise (SHORE), Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Background: Given scarce data regarding the relationship among age, complications, and survival beyond the 30-day postoperative period for oncology patients in the United States, this study identified age-related differences in complications and the rate and cause of 1-year mortality following colon cancer surgery.

Methods: The NY State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System identified stage I-III colon cancer resections (2004-2011). Multivariable logistic regression and survival analyses assessed the relationship among age (<65, 65-74, ⩾75), complications, 1-year survival, and cause of death.

Results: Among 24 426 patients surviving >30 days, 1-year mortality was 8.5%. Older age groups had higher complication rates, and older age and complications were independently associated with 1-year mortality (P<0.0001). Increasing age was associated with a decrease in the proportion of deaths from colon cancer with a concomitant increase in the proportion of deaths from cardiovascular disease. Older age and sepsis were independently associated with higher risk of colon cancer-specific death (65-74: HR=1.59, 95% CI=1.26-2.00; ⩾75: HR=2.57, 95% CI=2.09-3.16; sepsis: HR=2.58, 95% CI=2.13-3.11) and cardiovascular disease-specific death (65-74: HR=3.72, 95% CI=2.29-6.05; ⩾75: HR=7.02, 95% CI=4.44-11.10; sepsis: HR=2.33, 95% CI=1.81-2.99).

Conclusions: Older age and sepsis are associated with higher 1-year overall, cancer-specific, and cardiovascular-specific mortality, highlighting the importance of geriatric assessment, multidisciplinary care, and cardiovascular optimisation for older patients and those with infectious complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2016.421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5294480PMC
January 2017

Variation in Delayed Time to Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Disease-Specific Survival in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients.

Ann Surg Oncol 2017 Jun 13;24(6):1610-1617. Epub 2016 Oct 13.

Surgical Health Outcomes & Research Enterprise, Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: There is a paucity of literature quantifying the extent to which time to adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer patients varies between individual surgeons, medical oncologists, and hospitals.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by merging the New York State Cancer Registry with the Statewide Planning & Research Cooperative System and Medicare claims to identify stage III colon cancer patients from 2004 to 2009 who underwent resection and received adjuvant chemotherapy. Multilevel logistic regression models characterized variation in delayed time to adjuvant chemotherapy (>8 weeks vs. ≤8 weeks). Multilevel competing-risks Cox proportional hazards models assessed the effect of delayed time to adjuvant chemotherapy on disease-specific survival.

Results: The proportion of delayed time to adjuvant chemotherapy was 36 % in 1133 patients treated by 516 surgeons and 351 medical oncologists at 163 hospitals. After controlling for case-mix, the majority of the clustering variation (72 %) in delayed time to adjuvant chemotherapy is attributed to differences between medical oncologists. Risk-adjusted surgeon-specific, medical oncologist-specific, and hospital-specific probabilities of delayed time to adjuvant chemotherapy ranged from 30 to 38, 17 to 59, and 27 to 43 %, respectively. Delayed time to adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with disease-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1.24, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.45).

Conclusions: These findings suggest there is substantial variation in time to adjuvant chemotherapy among stage III colon cancer patients. Reasons for delays may be due to system factors that influence individual providers to make varying decisions on the time of initiation. Future research should identify what these factors may be and how to address them to promote better delivery of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-016-5622-4DOI Listing
June 2017

Association Among Blood Transfusion, Sepsis, and Decreased Long-term Survival After Colon Cancer Resection.

Ann Surg 2017 08;266(2):311-317

*Surgical Health Outcomes and Research Enterprise (SHORE), Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY †Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY ‡New York State Cancer Registry, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY §Center for Colon and Rectal Surgery, Florida Hospital Medical Group, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, FL.

Objective: To investigate the potential additive effects of blood transfusion and sepsis on colon cancer disease-specific survival, cardiovascular disease-specific survival, and overall survival after colon cancer surgery.

Background: Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with infectious complications and increased risk of cancer recurrence through systemic inflammatory effects. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested an association among sepsis, subsequent systemic inflammation, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, no study has investigated the association among transfusion, sepsis, and disease-specific survival in postoperative patients.

Methods: The New York State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System were queried for stage I to III colon cancer resections from 2004 to 2011. Propensity-adjusted survival analyses assessed the association of perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, sepsis, and 5-year colon cancer disease-specific survival, cardiovascular disease-specific survival, and overall survival.

Results: Among 24,230 patients, 29% received a transfusion and 4% developed sepsis. After risk adjustment, transfusion and sepsis were associated with worse colon cancer disease-specific survival [(+)transfusion: hazard ratio (HR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.30; (+)sepsis: HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.44-2.35; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.87-2.76], cardiovascular disease-specific survival [(+)transfusion: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33; (+)sepsis: HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.14-2.31; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.58-2.63], and overall survival [(+)transfusion: HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29; (+)sepsis: HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.48-2.09; (+)transfusion/(+)sepsis: HR 2.36, 95% CI 2.07-2.68] relative to (-)transfusion/(-)sepsis. Additional analyses suggested an additive effect with those who both received a blood transfusion and developed sepsis having even worse survival.

Conclusions: Perioperative blood transfusions are associated with shorter survival, independent of sepsis, after colon cancer resection. However, receiving a transfusion and developing sepsis has an additive effect and is associated with even worse survival. Restrictive perioperative transfusion practices are a possible strategy to reduce sepsis rates and improve survival after colon cancer surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000001990DOI Listing
August 2017
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