Publications by authors named "Maria J Guillen Sacoto"

36 Publications

TAOK1 is associated with neurodevelopmental disorder and essential for neuronal maturation and cortical development.

Hum Mutat 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Thousand and one amino-acid kinase 1 (TAOK1) is a MAP3K protein kinase, regulating different mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, thereby modulating a multitude of processes in the cell. Given the recent finding of TAOK1 involvement in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), we investigated the role of TAOK1 in neuronal function and collected a cohort of 23 individuals with mostly de novo variants in TAOK1 to further define the associated NDD. Here, we provide evidence for an important role for TAOK1 in neuronal function, showing that altered TAOK1 expression levels in the embryonic mouse brain affect neural migration in vivo, as well as neuronal maturation in vitro. The molecular spectrum of the identified TAOK1 variants comprises largely truncating and nonsense variants, but also missense variants, for which we provide evidence that they can have a loss of function or dominant-negative effect on TAOK1, expanding the potential underlying causative mechanisms resulting in NDD. Taken together, our data indicate that TAOK1 activity needs to be properly controlled for normal neuronal function and that TAOK1 dysregulation leads to a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly comprising similar facial features, developmental delay/intellectual disability and/or variable learning or behavioral problems, muscular hypotonia, infant feeding difficulties, and growth problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24176DOI Listing
February 2021

CDK19-related disorder results from both loss-of-function and gain-of-function de novo missense variants.

Genet Med 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Center for Medical Genetics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To expand the recent description of a new neurodevelopmental syndrome related to alterations in CDK19.

Methods: Individuals were identified through international collaboration. Functional studies included autophosphorylation assays for CDK19 Gly28Arg and Tyr32His variants and in vivo zebrafish assays of the CDK19 and CDK19.

Results: We describe 11 unrelated individuals (age range: 9 months to 14 years) with de novo missense variants mapped to the kinase domain of CDK19, including two recurrent changes at residues Tyr32 and Gly28. In vitro autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation assays revealed that kinase activity of protein was lower for p.Gly28Arg and higher for p.Tyr32His substitutions compared with that of the wild-type protein. Injection of CDK19 messenger RNA (mRNA) with either the Tyr32His or the Gly28Arg variants using in vivo zebrafish model significantly increased fraction of embryos with morphological abnormalities. Overall, the phenotype of the now 14 individuals with CDK19-related disorder includes universal developmental delay and facial dysmorphism, hypotonia (79%), seizures (64%), ophthalmologic anomalies (64%), and autism/autistic traits (56%).

Conclusion: CDK19 de novo missense variants are responsible for a novel neurodevelopmental disorder. Both kinase assay and zebrafish experiments showed that the pathogenetic mechanism may be more diverse than previously thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01091-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Expanding the phenotype of PIGS-associated early onset epileptic developmental encephalopathy.

Epilepsia 2021 Feb 7;62(2):e35-e41. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Neuromuscular Disorders, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

The phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class S protein (PIGS) gene has recently been implicated in a novel congenital disorder of glycosylation resulting in autosomal recessive inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) deficiency. Previous studies described seven patients with biallelic variants in the PIGS gene, of whom two presented with fetal akinesia and five with global developmental delay and epileptic developmental encephalopathy. We present the molecular and clinical characteristics of six additional individuals from five families with unreported variants in PIGS. All individuals presented with hypotonia, severe global developmental delay, microcephaly, intractable early infantile epilepsy, and structural brain abnormalities. Additional findings include vision impairment, hearing loss, renal malformation, and hypotonic facial appearances with minor dysmorphic features but without a distinctive facial gestalt. Four individuals died due to neurologic complications. GPI anchoring studies performed on one individual revealed a significant decrease in GPI-APs. We confirm that biallelic variants in PIGS cause vitamin pyridoxine-responsive epilepsy due to inherited GPI deficiency and expand the genotype and phenotype of PIGS-related disorder. Further delineation of the molecular spectrum of PIGS-related disorders would improve management, help develop treatments, and encourage the expansion of diagnostic genetic testing to include this gene as a potential cause of neurodevelopmental disorders and epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16801DOI Listing
February 2021

Congenital cervical spine malformation due to bi-allelic RIPPLY2 variants in spondylocostal dysostosis type 6.

Clin Genet 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Leipzig, Saxony, Germany.

RIPPLY2 is an essential part of the formation of somite patterning during embryogenesis and in establishment of rostro-caudal polarity. Here, we describe three individuals from two families with compound-heterozygous variants in RIPPLY2 (NM_001009994.2): c.238A > T, p.(Arg80*) and c.240-4 T > G, p.(?), in two 15 and 20-year-old sisters, and a homozygous nonsense variant, c.238A > T, p.(Arg80*), in an 8 year old boy. All patients had multiple vertebral body malformations in the cervical and thoracic region, small or absent rib involvement, myelopathies, and common clinical features of SCDO6 including scoliosis, mild facial asymmetry, spinal spasticity and hemivertebrae. The nonsense variant can be classified as likely pathogenic based on the ACMG criteria while the splice variants must be classified as a variant of unknown significance. With this report on two further families, we confirm RIPPLY2 as the gene for SCDO6 and broaden the phenotype by adding myelopathy with or without spinal canal stenosis and spinal spasticity to the symptom spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13916DOI Listing
January 2021

An autosomal dominant neurological disorder caused by de novo variants in FAR1 resulting in uncontrolled synthesis of ether lipids.

Genet Med 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Laboratory Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Amsterdam Gastroenterology Endocrinology Metabolism, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: In this study we investigate the disease etiology in 12 patients with de novo variants in FAR1 all resulting in an amino acid change at position 480 (p.Arg480Cys/His/Leu).

Methods: Following next-generation sequencing and clinical phenotyping, functional characterization was performed in patients' fibroblasts using FAR1 enzyme analysis, FAR1 immunoblotting/immunofluorescence, and lipidomics.

Results: All patients had spastic paraparesis and bilateral congenital/juvenile cataracts, in most combined with speech and gross motor developmental delay and truncal hypotonia. FAR1 deficiency caused by biallelic variants results in defective ether lipid synthesis and plasmalogen deficiency. In contrast, patients' fibroblasts with the de novo FAR1 variants showed elevated plasmalogen levels. Further functional studies in fibroblasts showed that these variants cause a disruption of the plasmalogen-dependent feedback regulation of FAR1 protein levels leading to uncontrolled ether lipid production.

Conclusion: Heterozygous de novo variants affecting the Arg480 residue of FAR1 lead to an autosomal dominant disorder with a different disease mechanism than that of recessive FAR1 deficiency and a diametrically opposed biochemical phenotype. Our findings show that for patients with spastic paraparesis and bilateral cataracts, FAR1 should be considered as a candidate gene and added to gene panels for hereditary spastic paraplegia, cerebral palsy, and juvenile cataracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01027-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Heterozygous Variants in KDM4B Lead to Global Developmental Delay and Neuroanatomical Defects.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 12 23;107(6):1170-1177. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA; The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

KDM4B is a lysine-specific demethylase with a preferential activity on H3K9 tri/di-methylation (H3K9me3/2)-modified histones. H3K9 tri/di-demethylation is an important epigenetic mechanism responsible for silencing of gene expression in animal development and cancer. However, the role of KDM4B on human development is still poorly characterized. Through international data sharing, we gathered a cohort of nine individuals with mono-allelic de novo or inherited variants in KDM4B. All individuals presented with dysmorphic features and global developmental delay (GDD) with language and motor skills most affected. Three individuals had a history of seizures, and four had anomalies on brain imaging ranging from agenesis of the corpus callosum with hydrocephalus to cystic formations, abnormal hippocampi, and polymicrogyria. In mice, lysine demethylase 4B is expressed during brain development with high levels in the hippocampus, a region important for learning and memory. To understand how KDM4B variants can lead to GDD in humans, we assessed the effect of KDM4B disruption on brain anatomy and behavior through an in vivo heterozygous mouse model (Kdm4b), focusing on neuroanatomical changes. In mutant mice, the total brain volume was significantly reduced with decreased size of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and ventriculomegaly. This report demonstrates that variants in KDM4B are associated with GDD/ intellectual disability and neuroanatomical defects. Our findings suggest that KDM4B variation leads to a chromatinopathy, broadening the spectrum of this group of Mendelian disorders caused by alterations in epigenetic machinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820620PMC
December 2020

Defining the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of X-linked MSL3-related disorder.

Genet Med 2021 Feb 11;23(2):384-395. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Institute of Human Genetics, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: We sought to delineate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of female and male individuals with X-linked, MSL3-related disorder (Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome).

Methods: Twenty-five individuals (15 males, 10 females) with causative variants in MSL3 were ascertained through exome or genome sequencing at ten different sequencing centers.

Results: We identified multiple variant types in MSL3 (ten nonsense, six frameshift, four splice site, three missense, one in-frame-deletion, one multi-exon deletion), most proven to be de novo, and clustering in the terminal eight exons suggesting that truncating variants in the first five exons might be compensated by an alternative MSL3 transcript. Three-dimensional modeling of missense and splice variants indicated that these have a deleterious effect. The main clinical findings comprised developmental delay and intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Autism spectrum disorder, muscle tone abnormalities, and macrocephaly were common as well as hearing impairment and gastrointestinal problems. Hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis emerged as a consistent magnetic resonance image (MRI) finding. Females and males were equally affected. Using facial analysis technology, a recognizable facial gestalt was determined.

Conclusion: Our aggregated data illustrate the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of X-linked, MSL3-related disorder (Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome). Our cohort improves the understanding of disease related morbidity and allows us to propose detailed surveillance guidelines for affected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-00993-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862064PMC
February 2021

NCKAP1 Disruptive Variants Lead to a Neurodevelopmental Disorder with Core Features of Autism.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 11;107(5):963-976

Center for Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China; Hunan Key Laboratory of Animal Models for Human Diseases, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligences Technology (CEBSIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200000, China. Electronic address:

NCKAP1/NAP1 regulates neuronal cytoskeletal dynamics and is essential for neuronal differentiation in the developing brain. Deleterious variants in NCKAP1 have been identified in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability; however, its clinical significance remains unclear. To determine its significance, we assemble genotype and phenotype data for 21 affected individuals from 20 unrelated families with predicted deleterious variants in NCKAP1. This includes 16 individuals with de novo (n = 8), transmitted (n = 6), or inheritance unknown (n = 2) truncating variants, two individuals with structural variants, and three with potentially disruptive de novo missense variants. We report a de novo and ultra-rare deleterious variant burden of NCKAP1 in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders which needs further replication. ASD or autistic features, language and motor delay, and variable expression of intellectual or learning disability are common clinical features. Among inherited cases, there is evidence of deleterious variants segregating with neuropsychiatric disorders. Based on available human brain transcriptomic data, we show that NCKAP1 is broadly and highly expressed in both prenatal and postnatal periods and demostrate enriched expression in excitatory neurons and radial glias but depleted expression in inhibitory neurons. Mouse in utero electroporation experiments reveal that Nckap1 loss of function promotes neuronal migration during early cortical development. Combined, these data support a role for disruptive NCKAP1 variants in neurodevelopmental delay/autism, possibly by interfering with neuronal migration early in cortical development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674997PMC
November 2020

Heterozygous de novo variants in CSNK1G1 are associated with syndromic developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder.

Clin Genet 2020 Dec 12;98(6):571-576. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

The gamma-1 isoform of casein kinase 1, the protein encoded by CSNK1G1, is involved in the growth and morphogenesis of cells. This protein is expressed ubiquitously among many tissue types, including the brain, where it regulates the phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and plays a role in synaptic transmission. One prior individual with a de novo variant in CSNK1G presenting with severe developmental delay and early-onset epilepsy has been reported. Here we report an updated clinical history of this previously published case, as well as four additional individuals with de novo variants in CSNK1G1 identified via microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization, exome, or genome sequencing. All individuals (n = 5) had developmental delay. At least three individuals had diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder. All participants were noted to have dysmorphic facial features, although the reported findings varied widely and therefore may not clearly be recognizable. None of the participants had additional major malformations. Taken together, our data suggest that CSNK1G1 may be a cause of syndromic developmental delay and possibly autism spectrum disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13851DOI Listing
December 2020

De Novo and Bi-allelic Pathogenic Variants in NARS1 Cause Neurodevelopmental Delay Due to Toxic Gain-of-Function and Partial Loss-of-Function Effects.

Authors:
Andreea Manole Stephanie Efthymiou Emer O'Connor Marisa I Mendes Matthew Jennings Reza Maroofian Indran Davagnanam Kshitij Mankad Maria Rodriguez Lopez Vincenzo Salpietro Ricardo Harripaul Lauren Badalato Jagdeep Walia Christopher S Francklyn Alkyoni Athanasiou-Fragkouli Roisin Sullivan Sonal Desai Kristin Baranano Faisal Zafar Nuzhat Rana Muhammed Ilyas Alejandro Horga Majdi Kara Francesca Mattioli Alice Goldenberg Helen Griffin Amelie Piton Lindsay B Henderson Benyekhlef Kara Ayca Dilruba Aslanger Joost Raaphorst Rolph Pfundt Ruben Portier Marwan Shinawi Amelia Kirby Katherine M Christensen Lu Wang Rasim O Rosti Sohail A Paracha Muhammad T Sarwar Dagan Jenkins Jawad Ahmed Federico A Santoni Emmanuelle Ranza Justyna Iwaszkiewicz Cheryl Cytrynbaum Rosanna Weksberg Ingrid M Wentzensen Maria J Guillen Sacoto Yue Si Aida Telegrafi Marisa V Andrews Dustin Baldridge Heinz Gabriel Julia Mohr Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz Sylvain Debard Bruno Senger Frédéric Fischer Conny van Ravenwaaij Annemarie J M Fock Servi J C Stevens Jürg Bähler Amina Nasar John F Mantovani Adnan Manzur Anna Sarkozy Desirée E C Smith Gajja S Salomons Zubair M Ahmed Shaikh Riazuddin Saima Riazuddin Muhammad A Usmani Annette Seibt Muhammad Ansar Stylianos E Antonarakis John B Vincent Muhammad Ayub Mona Grimmel Anne Marie Jelsig Tina Duelund Hjortshøj Helena Gásdal Karstensen Marybeth Hummel Tobias B Haack Yalda Jamshidi Felix Distelmaier Rita Horvath Joseph G Gleeson Hubert Becker Jean-Louis Mandel David A Koolen Henry Houlden

Am J Hum Genet 2020 08 31;107(2):311-324. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Neuromuscular Disorders, University College London (UCL) Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N 3BG, UK. Electronic address:

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are ubiquitous, ancient enzymes that charge amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules, the essential first step of protein translation. Here, we describe 32 individuals from 21 families, presenting with microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, seizures, peripheral neuropathy, and ataxia, with de novo heterozygous and bi-allelic mutations in asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (NARS1). We demonstrate a reduction in NARS1 mRNA expression as well as in NARS1 enzyme levels and activity in both individual fibroblasts and induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs). Molecular modeling of the recessive c.1633C>T (p.Arg545Cys) variant shows weaker spatial positioning and tRNA selectivity. We conclude that de novo and bi-allelic mutations in NARS1 are a significant cause of neurodevelopmental disease, where the mechanism for de novo variants could be toxic gain-of-function and for recessive variants, partial loss-of-function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413890PMC
August 2020

Biallelic ZNF407 mutations in a neurodevelopmental disorder with ID, short stature and variable microcephaly, hypotonia, ocular anomalies and facial dysmorphism.

J Hum Genet 2020 Dec 31;65(12):1115-1123. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey.

We describe five members of a consanguineous Pakistani family (Family I) plus two affected children from families of different ethnic origins presenting with neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping features. All affected individuals from families have intellectual disability (ID), ranging from mild to profound, and reduced motor and cognitive skills plus variable features including short stature, microcephaly, developmental delay, hypotonia, dysarthria, deafness, visual problems, enuresis, encopresis, behavioural anomalies, delayed pubertal onset and facial dysmorphism. We first mapped the disease locus in the large family (Family I), and by exome sequencing identified homozygous ZNF407 c.2814_2816dup (p.Val939dup) in four affected members where DNA samples were available. By exome sequencing we detected homozygous c.2405G>T (p.Gly802Val) in the affected member of Family II and compound heterozygous variants c.2884C>G (p.Arg962Gly) and c.3642G>C (p.Lys1214Asn) in the affected member of Family III. Homozygous c.5054C>G (p.Ser1685Trp) has been reported in two brothers with an ID syndrome. Affected individuals we present did not exhibit synophrys, midface hypoplasia, kyphosis, 5th finger camptodactyly, short 4th metatarsals or limited knee mobility observed in the reported family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-0812-0DOI Listing
December 2020

De Novo Variants in the ATPase Module of MORC2 Cause a Neurodevelopmental Disorder with Growth Retardation and Variable Craniofacial Dysmorphism.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 08 20;107(2):352-363. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

GeneDx, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD 20877, USA.

MORC2 encodes an ATPase that plays a role in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Heterozygous variants in MORC2 have been reported in individuals with autosomal-dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2Z and spinal muscular atrophy, and the onset of symptoms ranges from infancy to the second decade of life. Here, we present a cohort of 20 individuals referred for exome sequencing who harbor pathogenic variants in the ATPase module of MORC2. Individuals presented with a similar phenotype consisting of developmental delay, intellectual disability, growth retardation, microcephaly, and variable craniofacial dysmorphism. Weakness, hyporeflexia, and electrophysiologic abnormalities suggestive of neuropathy were frequently observed but were not the predominant feature. Five of 18 individuals for whom brain imaging was available had lesions reminiscent of those observed in Leigh syndrome, and five of six individuals who had dilated eye exams had retinal pigmentary abnormalities. Functional assays revealed that these MORC2 variants result in hyperactivation of epigenetic silencing by the HUSH complex, supporting their pathogenicity. The described set of morphological, growth, developmental, and neurological findings and medical concerns expands the spectrum of genetic disorders resulting from pathogenic variants in MORC2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413887PMC
August 2020

mutations in the X-linked gene cause intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder-like features.

J Med Genet 2020 12 14;57(12):808-819. Epub 2020 May 14.

Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire Médecine Translationnelle et Anomalies du Développement (TRANSLAD), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Dijon, Dijon, France.

Introduction: Pigmentary mosaicism (PM) manifests by pigmentation anomalies along Blaschko's lines and represents a clue toward the molecular diagnosis of syndromic intellectual disability (ID). Together with new insights on the role for lysosomal signalling in embryonic stem cell differentiation, mutations in the X-linked transcription factor 3 () have recently been reported in five patients. Functional analysis suggested these mutations to result in ectopic nuclear gain of functions.

Materials And Methods: Subsequent data sharing allowed the clustering of variants identified by exome sequencing on DNA extracted from leucocytes in patients referred for syndromic ID with or without PM.

Results: We describe the detailed clinical and molecular data of 17 individuals harbouring a variant, including the patients that initially allowed reporting as a new disease-causing gene. The 12 females and 5 males presented with pigmentation anomalies on Blaschko's lines, severe ID, epilepsy, storage disorder-like features, growth retardation and recognisable facial dysmorphism. The variant was at a mosaic state in at least two male patients. All variants were missense except one splice variant. Eleven of the 13 variants were localised in exon 4, 2 in exon 3, and 3 were recurrent variants.

Conclusion: This series further delineates the specific storage disorder-like phenotype with PM ascribed to mutation in exons 3 and 4. It confirms the identification of a novel X-linked human condition associated with mosaicism and dysregulation within the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, as well as a link between lysosomal signalling and human development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106508DOI Listing
December 2020

The recurrent postzygotic pathogenic variant p.Glu47Lys in RHOA causes a novel recognizable neuroectodermal phenotype.

Hum Mutat 2020 03 24;41(3):591-599. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

RHOA is a member of the Rho family of GTPases that are involved in fundamental cellular processes including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. RHOA can stimulate the formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions and is a key regulator of actomyosin dynamics in various tissues. In a Genematcher-facilitated collaboration, we were able to identify four unrelated individuals with a specific phenotype characterized by hypopigmented areas of the skin, dental anomalies, body asymmetry, and limb length discrepancy due to hemihypotrophy of one half of the body, as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Using whole-exome and ultra-deep amplicon sequencing and comparing genomic data of affected and unaffected areas of the skin, we discovered that all four individuals carried the identical RHOA missense variant, c.139G>A; p.Glu47Lys, in a postzygotic state. Molecular modeling and in silico analysis of the affected p.Glu47Lys residue in RHOA indicated that this exchange is predicted to specifically alter the interaction of RHOA with its downstream effectors containing a PKN-type binding domain and thereby disrupts its ability to activate signaling. Our findings indicate that the recurrent postzygotic RHOA missense variant p.Glu47Lys causes a specific mosaic disorder in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23964DOI Listing
March 2020

Missense variants in TAF1 and developmental phenotypes: challenges of determining pathogenicity.

Hum Mutat 2019 Oct 23. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities (IBR), Staten Island, NY, USA.

We recently described a new neurodevelopmental syndrome (TAF1/MRXS33 intellectual disability syndrome) (MIM# 300966) caused by pathogenic variants involving the X-linked gene TAF1, which participates in RNA polymerase II transcription. The initial study reported eleven families, and the syndrome was defined as presenting early in life with hypotonia, facial dysmorphia, and developmental delay that evolved into intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have now identified an additional 27 families through a genotype-first approach. Familial segregation analysis, clinical phenotyping, and bioinformatics were capitalized on to assess potential variant pathogenicity, and molecular modelling was performed for those variants falling within structurally characterized domains of TAF1. A novel phenotypic clustering approach was also applied, in which the phenotypes of affected individuals were classified using 51 standardized Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. Phenotypes associated with TAF1 variants show considerable pleiotropy and clinical variability, but prominent among previously unreported effects were brain morphological abnormalities, seizures, hearing loss, and heart malformations. Our allelic series broadens the phenotypic spectrum of TAF1/MRXS33 intellectual disability syndrome and the range of TAF1 molecular defects in humans. It also illustrates the challenges for determining the pathogenicity of inherited missense variants, particularly for genes mapping to chromosome X. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187541PMC
October 2019

Widening of the genetic and clinical spectrum of Lamb-Shaffer syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder due to SOX5 haploinsufficiency.

Genet Med 2020 03 3;22(3):524-537. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

INSERM U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, Paris, France.

Purpose: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved.

Methods: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated.

Results: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated.

Conclusions: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0657-0DOI Listing
March 2020

De Novo Variants Disrupting the HX Repeat Motif of ATN1 Cause a Recognizable Non-Progressive Neurocognitive Syndrome.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 03 28;104(3):542-552. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Polyglutamine expansions in the transcriptional co-repressor Atrophin-1, encoded by ATN1, cause the neurodegenerative condition dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) via a proposed novel toxic gain of function. We present detailed phenotypic information on eight unrelated individuals who have de novo missense and insertion variants within a conserved 16-amino-acid "HX repeat" motif of ATN1. Each of the affected individuals has severe cognitive impairment and hypotonia, a recognizable facial gestalt, and variable congenital anomalies. However, they lack the progressive symptoms typical of DRPLA neurodegeneration. To distinguish this subset of affected individuals from the DRPLA diagnosis, we suggest using the term CHEDDA (congenital hypotonia, epilepsy, developmental delay, digit abnormalities) to classify the condition. CHEDDA-related variants alter the particular structural features of the HX repeat motif, suggesting that CHEDDA results from perturbation of the structural and functional integrity of the HX repeat. We found several non-homologous human genes containing similar motifs of eight to 10 HX repeat sequences, including RERE, where disruptive variants in this motif have also been linked to a separate condition that causes neurocognitive and congenital anomalies. These findings suggest that perturbation of the HX motif might explain other Mendelian human conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407605PMC
March 2019

SLC35A2-CDG: Functional characterization, expanded molecular, clinical, and biochemical phenotypes of 30 unreported Individuals.

Hum Mutat 2019 07 24;40(7):908-925. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Metabolic Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, Institute for Child Health UCL, London, UK.

Pathogenic de novo variants in the X-linked gene SLC35A2 encoding the major Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter required for proper protein and lipid glycosylation cause a rare type of congenital disorder of glycosylation known as SLC35A2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG; formerly CDG-IIm). To date, 29 unique de novo variants from 32 unrelated individuals have been described in the literature. The majority of affected individuals are primarily characterized by varying degrees of neurological impairments with or without skeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, most affected individuals do not show abnormalities in serum transferrin N-glycosylation, a common biomarker for most types of CDG. Here we present data characterizing 30 individuals and add 26 new variants, the single largest study involving SLC35A2-CDG. The great majority of these individuals had normal transferrin glycosylation. In addition, expanding the molecular and clinical spectrum of this rare disorder, we developed a robust and reliable biochemical assay to assess SLC35A2-dependent UDP-galactose transport activity in primary fibroblasts. Finally, we show that transport activity is directly correlated to the ratio of wild-type to mutant alleles in fibroblasts from affected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6661012PMC
July 2019

The ubiquitin ligase UBE3B, disrupted in intellectual disability and absent speech, regulates metabolic pathways by targeting BCKDK.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 02 11;116(9):3662-3667. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Eugene McDermott Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390;

Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome (KOS) is a recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability and lack of speech. KOS is caused by inactivating mutations in , but the underlying biological mechanisms are completely unknown. We found that loss of in mice resulted in growth retardation, decreased grip strength, and loss of vocalization. The brains of mice had hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlarged ventricles, and decreased thickness of the somatosensory cortex. cortical neurons had abnormal dendritic morphology and synapses. We identified 22 UBE3B interactors and found that branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK) is an in vivo UBE3B substrate. Since BCKDK targets several metabolic pathways, we profiled plasma and cortical metabolomes from mice. Nucleotide metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were among the pathways perturbed. Substrate-induced mitochondrial respiration was reduced in skeletal muscle but not in liver of mice. To assess the relevance of these findings to humans, we identified three KOS patients who had compound heterozygous mutations. We discovered changes in metabolites from similar pathways in plasma from these patients. Collectively, our results implicate a disease mechanism in KOS, suggest that it is a metabolic encephalomyopathy, and provide an entry to targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1818751116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397573PMC
February 2019

De novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of intellectual disability with behavioral problems and dysmorphisms.

Eur J Hum Genet 2019 05 24;27(5):738-746. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Human Genetics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0292-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462006PMC
May 2019

Spatially clustering de novo variants in CYFIP2, encoding the cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, cause intellectual disability and seizures.

Eur J Hum Genet 2019 05 21;27(5):747-759. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Institute of Medical Genetics, University of Zurich, Schlieren-Zurich, Switzerland.

CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0331-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461771PMC
May 2019

Recessive mutations in ATP8A2 cause severe hypotonia, cognitive impairment, hyperkinetic movement disorders and progressive optic atrophy.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2018 05 31;13(1):86. Epub 2018 May 31.

Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Background: ATP8A2 mutations have recently been described in several patients with severe, early-onset hypotonia and cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of patients with ATP8A2 mutations.

Methods: An observational study was conducted at multiple diagnostic centres. Clinical data is presented from 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with ATP8A2 mutations. We compare their features with 3 additional patients that have been previously reported in the medical literature.

Results: Eleven patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations were identified, with a mean age of 9.4 years (range 2.5-28 years). All patients with ATP8A2 mutations (100%) demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders, specifically chorea or choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) and facial dyskinesia (18%). Optic atrophy was observed in 78% of patients for whom funduscopic examination was performed. Symptom onset in all (100%) was noted before 6 months of age, with 70% having symptoms noted at birth. Feeding difficulties were common (91%) although most patients were able to tolerate pureed or thickened feeds, and 3 patients required gastrostomy tube insertion. MRI of the brain was normal in 50% of the patients. A smaller proportion was noted to have mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Functional studies were performed on differentiated induced pluripotent cells from one child, which confirmed a decrease in ATP8A2 expression compared to control cells.

Conclusions: ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as the cause of a novel neurological phenotype characterized by global developmental delays, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders, the latter being an important distinguishing feature. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation in older children. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this complex neurologic disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-018-0825-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048855PMC
May 2018

BCL11B mutations in patients affected by a neurodevelopmental disorder with reduced type 2 innate lymphoid cells.

Brain 2018 08;141(8):2299-2311

Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6061686PMC
August 2018

Dual Molecular Effects of Dominant RORA Mutations Cause Two Variants of Syndromic Intellectual Disability with Either Autism or Cerebellar Ataxia.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 05 12;102(5):744-759. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Service de Génétique Médicale, CHU Nantes, 9 quai Moncousu, 44093 Nantes Cedex 1, France; l'institut du thorax, INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, 44007 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

RORα, the RAR-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha, is essential for cerebellar development. The spontaneous mutant mouse staggerer, with an ataxic gait caused by neurodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, was discovered two decades ago to result from homozygous intragenic Rora deletions. However, RORA mutations were hitherto undocumented in humans. Through a multi-centric collaboration, we identified three copy-number variant deletions (two de novo and one dominantly inherited in three generations), one de novo disrupting duplication, and nine de novo point mutations (three truncating, one canonical splice site, and five missense mutations) involving RORA in 16 individuals from 13 families with variable neurodevelopmental delay and intellectual disability (ID)-associated autistic features, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Consistent with the human and mouse data, disruption of the D. rerio ortholog, roraa, causes significant reduction in the size of the developing cerebellum. Systematic in vivo complementation studies showed that, whereas wild-type human RORA mRNA could complement the cerebellar pathology, missense variants had two distinct pathogenic mechanisms of either haploinsufficiency or a dominant toxic effect according to their localization in the ligand-binding or DNA-binding domains, respectively. This dichotomous direction of effect is likely relevant to the phenotype in humans: individuals with loss-of-function variants leading to haploinsufficiency show ID with autistic features, while individuals with de novo dominant toxic variants present with ID, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Our combined genetic and functional data highlight the complex mutational landscape at the human RORA locus and suggest that dual mutational effects likely determine phenotypic outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.02.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986661PMC
May 2018

De novo variants in are associated with hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and autism.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2017 Nov 21;3(6). Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, USA.

Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified seven unrelated individuals with global developmental delay, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and an increased frequency of short stature, ataxia, and autism with de novo heterozygous frameshift, nonsense, splice, and missense variants in the () gene. EBF3 is a member of the collier/olfactory-1/early B-cell factor (COE) family of proteins, which are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. COE proteins are highly evolutionarily conserved and regulate neuronal specification, migration, axon guidance, and dendritogenesis during development and are essential for maintaining neuronal identity in adult neurons. Haploinsufficiency of may affect brain development and function, resulting in developmental delay, intellectual disability, and behavioral differences observed in individuals with a deleterious variant in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/mcs.a002097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5701309PMC
November 2017

Missense variants in the chromatin remodeler are associated with neurodevelopmental disability.

J Med Genet 2018 08 2;55(8):561-566. Epub 2017 Sep 2.

McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: The list of Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery has expanded rapidly during the last 5 years. A few missense variants in the chromatin remodeler have been found in several large-scale sequencing efforts focused on uncovering the genetic aetiology of autism.

Objectives: To explore whether variants in are associated with a human phenotype.

Methods: We used GeneMatcher to identify other physicians caring for patients with variants in . We also explored the epigenetic consequences of one of these variants in cultured fibroblasts.

Results: Here we describe six heterozygous missense variants in a cohort of patients with autism, speech apraxia, developmental delay and facial dysmorphic features. Importantly, three of these variants occurred de novo. We also report on a subject with a de novo deletion covering a large fraction of the gene without any obvious neurological phenotype. Finally, we demonstrate increased levels of the closed chromatin modification H3K27me3 in fibroblasts from a subject carrying a de novo variant in .

Conclusions: Our results suggest that variants in can lead to diverse phenotypic outcomes; however, the neurodevelopmental phenotype appears to be limited to patients with missense variants, which is compatible with a dominant negative mechanism of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-104759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5834353PMC
August 2018

Human germline hedgehog pathway mutations predispose to fatty liver.

J Hepatol 2017 10 21;67(4):809-817. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease. Activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in the progression of NAFLD and proposed as a therapeutic target; however, the effects of Hh signaling inhibition have not been studied in humans with germline mutations that affect this pathway.

Methods: Patients with holoprosencephaly (HPE), a disorder associated with germline mutations disrupting Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, were clinically evaluated for NAFLD. A combined mouse model of Hh signaling attenuation (Gli2 heterozygous null: Gli2) and diet-induced NAFLD was used to examine aspects of NAFLD and hepatic gene expression profiles, including molecular markers of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation.

Results: Patients with HPE had a higher prevalence of liver steatosis compared to the general population, independent of obesity. Exposure of Gli2 mice to fatty liver-inducing diets resulted in increased liver steatosis compared to wild-type mice. Similar to humans, this effect was independent of obesity in the mutant mice and was associated with decreased expression of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes, and increased expression of PPARγ, a potent anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory regulator. Interestingly, tumor suppressors p53 and p16INK4 were found to be downregulated in the Gli2 mice exposed to a high-fat diet.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that germline mutations disrupting Hh signaling promotes liver steatosis, independent of obesity, with reduced fibrosis. While Hh signaling inhibition has been associated with a better NAFLD prognosis, further studies are required to evaluate the long-term effects of mutations affecting this pathway. Lay summary: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess fat deposition in the liver predominantly due to high calorie intake and a sedentary lifestyle. NAFLD progression is usually accompanied by activation of the Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway leading to fibrous buildup (scar tissue) and inflammation of the liver tissue. For the first time patients with holoprosencephaly, a disease caused by SHH signaling mutations, are shown to have increased liver steatosis independent of obesity. This observation was recapitulated in a mouse model of attenuated SHH signaling that also showed increased liver steatosis but with decreased fibrosis and inflammation. While SHH inhibition is associated with a good NAFLD prognosis, this increase in liver fat accumulation in the context of SHH signaling inhibition must be studied prospectively to evaluate its long-term effects, especially in individuals with Western-type dietary habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2017.06.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613974PMC
October 2017

In-depth investigations of adolescents and adults with holoprosencephaly identify unique characteristics.

Genet Med 2018 01 22;20(1):14-23. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

PurposeWith improved medical care, some individuals with holoprosencephaly (HPE) are surviving into adulthood. We investigated the clinical manifestations of adolescents and adults with HPE and explored the underlying molecular causes.MethodsParticipants included 20 subjects 15 years of age and older. Clinical assessments included dysmorphology exams, cognitive testing, swallowing studies, ophthalmic examination, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Genetic testing included chromosomal microarray, Sanger sequencing for SHH, ZIC2, SIX3, and TGIF, and whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 10 trios.ResultsSemilobar HPE was the most common subtype of HPE, seen in 50% of the participants. Neurodevelopmental disabilities were found to correlate with HPE subtype. Factors associated with long-term survival included HPE subtype not alobar, female gender, and nontypical facial features. Four participants had de novo pathogenic variants in ZIC2. WES analysis of 11 participants did not reveal plausible candidate genes, suggesting complex inheritance in these cases. Indeed, in two probands there was a history of uncontrolled maternal type 1 diabetes.ConclusionIndividuals with various HPE subtypes can survive into adulthood and the neurodevelopmental outcomes are variable. Based on the facial characteristics and molecular evaluations, we suggest that classic genetic causes of HPE may play a smaller role in this cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2017.68DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5763157PMC
January 2018

Missense variant in UBA2 associated with aplasia cutis congenita, duane anomaly, hip dysplasia and other anomalies: A possible new disorder involving the SUMOylation pathway.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Mar 22;173(3):758-761. Epub 2017 Jan 22.

GeneDx, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

We report a patient with aplasia cutis congenita, Duane anomaly, hip dysplasia, and other anomalies who had a de novo missense variant in UBA2, which encodes for a protein involved in the SUMOylation pathway. It has previously been suggested that UBA2 haploinsufficiency underlies scalp defects in the 19q13.11 deletion syndrome. We propose that disturbance of the SUMOylation pathway, mediated by pathogenic variants in UBA2, is a novel mechanism for aplasia cutis congenita and other phenotypic abnormalities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38078DOI Listing
March 2017