Publications by authors named "Maria Inês Basso Bernardi"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antimicrobial and biofilm anti-adhesion activities of silver nanoparticles and farnesol against endodontic microorganisms for possible application in root canal treatment.

Arch Oral Biol 2019 Nov 17;107:104481. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and biofilm anti-adhesion activities of poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-PVA) and farnesol against Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Design: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) of the solutions, as well as the effect on the biofilm biomass were evaluated. The biofilm anti-adhesion activity was evaluated using bovine root dentine treated with the solutions after 3 min of contact and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU mL) counting. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's, the paired Student's t-test or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests (α = 0.05).

Results: The MIC and MMC values (MIC/MMC) of the AgNPs-PVA and farnesol against E. faecalis were 42.5/50 μM and 0.85/1.0%, respectively. For C. albicans, the values were 27.5/37.5 μM and 1.75/2.5%; and for P. aeruginosa, 32.5/32.5 μM and 2.5/2.75%, respectively. Both solutions showed reduced biofilm biomass (p < 0.05). SEM analysis showed that dentine blocks treated with both solutions had lower biofilm formation than the control (saline), except for C. albicans. In the CFU mL counting, biofilm cells were viable in the all groups in comparison with control (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: AgNPs-PVA and farnesol showed antimicrobial and biofilm anti-adhesion activities, as well as potential for use as coadjuvant in endodontic treatment, and may be an option as auxiliary procedure for root canal disinfection or to inhibit biofilm formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.104481DOI Listing
November 2019

Synthesis, characterization and application of Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles in a composite resin.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 Mar 17;96:391-401. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

University of São Paulo - USP, Physics Institute of São Carlos - IFSC, Department of Physics and Materials Science, São Carlos, São Paulo 13566-590, Brazil. Electronic address:

The biofilm accumulation over the composite resin restorations can contribute to the formation of secondary caries. In this way, antibacterial restorative composite resins are highly desired. Then, the purpose of this study was to modify a composite resins using Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), evaluate the antibacterial and mechanical properties of the modified composite resin. The ZnO/AgNPs were synthesized by two different routes, polymeric precursor and coprecipitation methods, and characterized by thermal decomposition, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area by N desorption/desorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antibacterial activity of composite resin specimens (4 mm in height and 2 mm in diameter; n = 15) modified by ZnO/Ag nanoparticles was performed against 7-days Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Colony forming units (CFU/mL) were used to evaluate the bacterial activity. Additionally, the morphology and the bacteria adherence area were analyzed by SEM images. Cylindrical specimens (6 mm in height and 4 mm in diameter; n = 20) of the composite resin containing ZnO/Ag NPs were prepared to perform compressive strength in a universal mechanical test machine, and the surface of fractured specimens was analyzed by EDX element mapping to verify NPs homogeneity. The normal distribution was confirmed and the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test for pair comparison were performed. The nanospheres of ZnO/Ag lead to a better biofilm inhibition, than nanoplates. No difference on compressive strength was found for the composite resin modified by ZnO/Ag nanoplates. Based on these results, this material could be a good option as a new restorative material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.10.063DOI Listing
March 2019

Titanium dioxide and modified titanium dioxide by silver nanoparticles as an anti biofilm filler content for composite resins.

Dent Mater 2019 02 7;35(2):e36-e46. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo State - UNESP, Araraquara, SP 14801-903, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a composite resin modified by TiO and TiO/Ag nanoparticles and their influence over different properties.

Methods: TiO and TiO/Ag NPs were synthesized by polymeric precursor and microwave-assisted hydrothermal methods and then, characterized by different techniques. Direct contact test was performed using Filtek™ Z350XT blended with 0.5; 1 and 2% (wt.) of NPs against Streptococcus mutans to determine the best concentration to the other tests. After that, the modified composite resin was tested against S. mutans 7-day biofilm (CFU/mL). Also, compressive and diametral tensile strength (n=40), degree of conversion (n=25) and surface roughness (n=50) was performed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparison at 5% significance level.

Results: The direct contact test demonstrates that by increasing the nanoparticle content, the bacterial growth is significantly reduceed (p<0.05). The inclusion of 2% of TiO/Ag NPs significantly decreased (p<0.05) the biofilm accumulation of S. mutans on the composite resin surface compared to the control Group. The TiO NPs treated with an organosilane increased compressive strength of composite resin (p<0.05). Degree of conversion remained unchanged (p>0.05) and the surface roughness increased with the NPs (p<0.05), except for the TiO by polymeric precursor Group (p>0.05).

Significance: The development of an antibacterial dental restorative material that hinder S. mutans biofilm without sacrificing the mechanical and physical properties is desirable in dental material science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2018.11.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Zinc oxide 3D microstructures as an antimicrobial filler content for composite resins.

Microsc Res Tech 2017 Jun 8;80(6):634-643. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara, SP, 14801-903, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a composite resin modified by 3D zinc oxide (ZnO) microstructures and to verify possible alterations on its mechanical properties. ZnO was synthesized by hydrothermal approach and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area by Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ZnO against Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans were determinated. The composite resin Filtek Z350XT (3M of Brazil) was blended with 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1% in weight of ZnO and submitted to antibacterial assay by direct contact test against S. mutans, the leading cause of dental caries and the most cariogenic oral streptococci. Additionally, it was performed compressive and diametral tensile strength tests of the modified composite resin. Microrods and hollow microrods of ZnO were obtained and its MIC values were found to be 125 μg/mL for S. mutans, 500 μg/mL for C. albicans and 62.5 μg/mL for S. aureus. For the tested concentrations, it was not found MIC against E. coli. The direct contact test showed a significant antibacterial capacity of modified composite resin (p > 0.05 for all concentrations). The compressive and diametral tensile strength remains no changed after inclusion of microparticles (p > 0.05 for all concentrations). The modification of the composite resin with small amounts of ZnO microparticles significantly inhibited the S. mutans growth on resin surface without significant alterations of its mechanical strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22840DOI Listing
June 2017

Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Silicate Cements.

Braz Dent J 2016 Sep-Oct;27(5):508-514

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC) are calcium silicate cements. They have similar physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties. The addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) to PC provides radiopacity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may improve some properties of cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AgNPs on physicochemical/mechanical properties and antibacterial activity of white MTA (WMTA) and PC associated with ZrO2. The following materials were evaluated: WMTA; PC 70% + ZrO2 30%; WMTA+ AgNPs; and PC 70% + ZrO2 30% + AgNPs. The study evaluated radiopacity, setting time, pH, compressive strength and solubility. For radiopacity analysis, radiographs were made alongside an aluminum (Al) step wedge. To evaluate the antibacterial activity, direct contact test was performed on planktonic cells and Enterococcus faecalis biofilm induced on bovine root dentin for 14 days. The experimental periods were 5 and 15 h. Data were obtained as CFU mL-1. The obtained data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests (p<0.05). The addition of AgNPs to WMTA increased the pH, lowered the solubility and the initial and final setting times. The addition of AgNPs to PC/ZrO2 maintained the pH, lowered the solubility, and increased the setting time and compressive strength. The radiopacity of all materials was higher than 4 mmAl. The addition of AgNPs promoted an increase in antibacterial activity for calcium silicate cements and favored the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201600689DOI Listing
April 2017

Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements.

J Appl Oral Sci 2016 May-Jun;24(3):204-10

- Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora, Araraquara, SP, Brasil.

Objective: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC) and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn).

Material And Methods: White MTA (Angelus, Brazil); PC (70%)+ZrO2 (30%); PC (60%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (10%); PC (50%)+ZrO2 (30%)+HAn (20%) were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1) in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance.

Results: There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p>0.05) and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05). The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10%) and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20%) (p<0.05). MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05). All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05). Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05) after the post-manipulation period of 2 days.

Conclusions: The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%), the final setting time and the E. faecalis antibiofilm activity of the cement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-775720150422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5022225PMC
December 2016

Radiopacity and cytotoxicity of Portland cement associated with niobium oxide micro and nanoparticles.

J Appl Oral Sci 2014 Nov-Dec;22(6):554-9

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is composed of Portland Cement (PC) and bismuth oxide (BO). Replacing BO for niobium oxide (NbO) microparticles (Nbµ) or nanoparticles (Nbη) may improve radiopacity and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity and cytotoxicity of the materials: (1) PC; (2) White MTA; (3) PC+30% Nbµ; (4) PC+30% Nbη.

Material And Methods: For the radiopacity test, specimens of the different materials were radiographed along an aluminum step-wedge. For cell culture assays, Saos-2 osteoblastic-cells (ATCC HTB-85) were used. Cell viability was evaluated through MTT assay, and bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity assay.

Results: The results demonstrated higher radiopacity for MTA, followed by Nbµ and Nbη, which had similar values. Cell culture analysis showed that PC and PC+NbO associations promoted greater cell viability than MTA.

Conclusions: It was concluded that the combination of PC+NbO is a potential alternative for composition of MTA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-775720140209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4307770PMC
November 2015

Calcium Silicate-Based Cements Associated with Micro- and Nanoparticle Radiopacifiers: Physicochemical Properties and Bioactivity.

Int Sch Res Notices 2015 23;2015:874283. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, University of Estadual Paulista (UNESP), 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two formulations of calcium silicate-based cements containing additives (CSCM) or resin (CSCR), associated with radiopacifying agents zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and niobium oxide (Nb2O5) as micro- and nanoparticles; calcium tungstate (CaWO4); and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3). MTA Angelus was used as control. Methods. Surface features and bioactivity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and the chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS-X). Results. CSCM and CSCR presented larger particle sizes than MTA. Hydroxyapatite deposits were found on the surface of some materials, especially when associated with the radiopacifier with ZrO2 nanoparticles. All the cements presented calcium, silicon, and aluminum in their composition. Conclusion. Both calcium silicate-based cements presented composition and bioactivity similar to MTA when associated with the radiopacifiers evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/874283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4897117PMC
June 2016

Effect of zirconium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles on physicochemical properties and antibiofilm activity of a calcium silicate-based material.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 6;2014:975213. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Humaitá 1680, P.O. Box 331, 14.801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibiofilm activity against Enterococcus faecalis, compressive strength. and radiopacity of Portland cement (PC) added to zirconium oxide (ZrO2), as radiopacifier, with or without nanoparticulated zinc oxide (ZnO). The following experimental materials were evaluated: PC, PC + ZrO2, PC + ZrO2 + ZnO (5%), and PC + ZrO2 + ZnO (10%). Antibiofilm activity was analyzed by using direct contact test (DCT) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, for 5 h or 15 h. The analysis was conducted by using the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The compressive strength was performed in a mechanical testing machine. For the radiopacity tests, the specimens were radiographed together with an aluminium stepwedge. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests, with level of significance at 5%. The results showed that all materials presented similar antibiofilm activity (P > 0.05). The addition of nanoparticulated ZnO decreased the compressive strength of PC. All materials presented higher radiopacity than pure PC. It can be concluded that the addition of ZrO2 and ZnO does not interfere with the antibiofilm activity and provides radiopacity to Portland cement. However, the presence of ZnO (5% or 10%) significantly decreased the compressive strength of the materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/975213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241313PMC
November 2015

Radiopacity, pH and antimicrobial activity of Portland cement associated with micro- and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide and niobium oxide.

Dent Mater J 2014 29;33(4):466-70. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista.

The aim of this study was to evaluate some properties of the calcium silicate materials Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC) with microparticulated (micro) and nanoparticulated (nano) zirconium oxide (ZrO2) or niobium oxide (Nb2O5). The experimental materials: White PC (PC), MTA-Angelus(®) (MTA), PC+ZrO2micro, PC+ZrO2nano, PC+Nb2O5micro and PC+Nb2O5nano were submitted to radiopacity and pH evaluations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms was assessed by agar diffusion test. MTA presented higher radiopacity than other materials. However, all materials except PC presented higher radiopacity than recommended by ISO/ADA. MTA promoted higher pH values in all analyzed periods (p≤0.05). At the initial periods, PC and PC+ZrO2micro showed pH similar to MTA. All materials showed antimicrobial activity against the evaluated microorganisms. In conclusion, ZrO2 and Nb2O5 could be alternative radiopacifiers to be added to calcium silicate materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2013-328DOI Listing
July 2016

Use of nanoparticulate zinc oxide as intracanal medication in endodontics: pH and antimicrobial activity.

Acta Odontol Latinoam 2013 ;26(3):144-8

The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH and antimicrobial activity of micro or nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO) pastes with or without calcium hydroxide (CH). The following medications were evaluated: microparticulate ZnO + polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400; nanoparticulate ZnO + PEG 400; PEG 400; CH + microparticulate ZnO + PEG 400 and CH + nanoparticulate ZnO + PEG 400. The pH was assessed between 12 hours and 28 days, using a digital pH meter. The antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC-9212), Candida albicans (ATCC-10231), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC-27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-6538) and Kocuria rhizophila (ATCC-9341) was determined in triplicate using agar diffusion test. The results were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn and ANOVA/Tukey tests with 5% significance. The highest pH values were found for CH+ZnO, with higher values for nanoparticulate ZnO after 12 hours and 21 days (p < 0.05). CH+ZnO medication promoted higher growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa and lower against E. faecalis. Calcium hydroxide pastes have higher pH and antimicrobial activity when associated with either micro- or nanoparticulate zinc oxide.
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November 2014
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