Publications by authors named "Maria Ida Bonetti"

10 Publications

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Multilineage Dysplasia as Assessed by Immunophenotype in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Prognostic Tool in a Genetically Undefined Category.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 30;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Struttura Operativa Dipartimentale Ematologia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, 50134 Firenze, Italy.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) "with myelodysplasia-related changes (MRC)" is considered a separate entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms. While anamnestic and cytogenetic criteria provide objective attribution to this subset, with clear unfavorable prognostic significance, the actual role of multi-lineage dysplasia (MLD) as assessed by morphology is debated. The aim of our work was to study MLD by a technique alternative to morphology, which is multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), in a large series of 302 AML patients intensively treated at our Center. The correlation with morphology we observed in the unselected analysis reiterated the capability of the MFC-based approach at highlighting dysplasia. MLD data, estimated through an immune-phenotypic score (IPS), provided no insight into prognosis when considered overall nor within well-defined genetic categories. Of interest, IPS-related dysplasia conveyed significant prognostic information when we focused on genetically undefined patients, triple-negative for , and (TN-AML). In this context, the lack of dysplastic features (IPS_0) correlated with a significantly higher CR rate and longer survival compared to patients showing dysplasia in one or both (neutrophil and erythroid) cell lineages. The impact of IPS category maintained its validity after censoring at allogeneic HSCT and in a multivariate analysis including baseline and treatment-related covariates. In a subgroup featured by the lack of genetic determinants, our data could help address the relative unmet needs in terms of risk assessment and treatment strategy, and provide insight into prediction of response in the rapidly evolving therapeutic scenario of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693580PMC
October 2020

Early peripheral blast cell clearance predicts minimal residual disease status and refines disease prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

Am J Hematol 2020 11 19;95(11):1304-1313. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

SOD Ematologia, Università di Firenze, AOU Careggi, Florence, Italy.

Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is increasingly used in risk stratification. However, several issues around this use are unresolved, including, among others, the most suitable time-point(s) for its application. Overall, late assessments appear more effective at distinguishing outcome but, in some studies, the early evaluations were already highly informative, anticipating the value of later ones. Our work integrated MRD with peripheral blast clearance (PBC), a treatment-related biomarker previously demonstrated to be a powerful predictor of response. From 2007 to 2014, we have studied 120 patients treated according to the NILG 02-06 trial and who achieved CR after induction. Patients in PBC-defined categories (separated by a 1.5-log threshold) showed significantly different probabilities of attaining MRD negativity, after either induction (MRD1) or consolidation (MRD2). Peripheral blast clearance combined with MRD1 largely anticipated MRD2-related information: when both biomarkers predicted chemosensitive disease (PBC /MRD1 ), the rate of MRD2-negativity was 90%, and DFS and OS estimates were 68% and 76% at 3 years, respectively. When both markers were unfavorable (PBC /MRD1 ), rates of MRD2 negativity, DFS, and OS were 20%, 34%, and 24%, respectively, at 3 years. In fact, MRD2 added prognostic value only in cases with discordant PBC/MRD1 data. Our data support a reasoned timing for MRD-based therapeutic decisions, modulated on individual chemosensitivity, an approach we have implemented in a forthcoming prospective multi-center trial by Gruppo Italiano Malattie EMatologiche dell'Adulto (GIMEMA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25942DOI Listing
November 2020

Early peripheral clearance of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes in AML: centralized analysis of a randomized trial.

Blood Adv 2020 01;4(2):301-311

Unità Operativa di Ematologia, Ospedale dell'Angelo, Mestre-Venezia, Italy.

Although genetics is a relevant risk factor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can be minimally informative and/or not readily available for the early identification of patients at risk for treatment failure. In a randomized trial comparing standard vs high-dose induction (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00495287), we studied early peripheral blast cell clearance (PBC) as a rapid predictive assay of chemotherapy response to determine whether it correlates with the achievement of complete remission (CR), as well as postremission outcome, according to induction intensity. Individual leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIPs) identified pretherapy by flow cytometry were validated and quantified centrally after 3 days of treatment, expressing PBC on a logarithmic scale as the ratio of absolute LAIP+ cells on day 1 and day 4. Of 178 patients, 151 (84.8%) were evaluable. Patients in CR exhibited significantly higher median PBC (2.3 log) compared with chemoresistant patients (1.0 log; P < .0001). PBC < 1.0 predicted the worst outcome (CR, 28%). With 1.5 log established as the most accurate cutoff predicting CR, 87.5% of patients with PBC >1.5 (PBChigh, n = 96) and 43.6% of patients with PBC ≤1.5 (PBClow, n = 55) achieved CR after single-course induction (P < .0001). CR and PBChigh rates were increased in patients randomized to the high-dose induction arm (P = .04) and correlated strongly with genetic/cytogenetic risk. In multivariate analysis, PBC retained significant predictive power for CR, relapse risk, and survival. Thus, PBC analysis can provide a very early prediction of outcome, correlates with treatment intensity and disease subset, and may support studies of customized AML therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988394PMC
January 2020

-double-mutated acute myeloid leukemia displays a unique phenotypic profile: a reliable screening method and insight into biological features.

Haematologica 2017 03 10;102(3):529-540. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Unità Funzionale di Ematologia, Università degli Studi, AOU Careggi, Firenze, Italy.

Mutations in CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α () occur in 5-10% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia. -double-mutated cases usually bear biallelic N- and C-terminal mutations and are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Identification of mutants is challenging because of the variety of mutations, intrinsic characteristics of the gene and technical issues. Several screening methods (fragment-length analysis, gene expression array) have been proposed especially for large-scale clinical use; although efficient, they are limited by specific concerns. We investigated the phenotypic profile of blast and maturing bone marrow cell compartments at diagnosis in 251 cases of acute myeloid leukemia. In this cohort, 16 (6.4%) patients had two mutations, whereas ten (4.0%) had a single mutation. First, we highlighted that the -double-mutated subset displays recurrent phenotypic abnormalities in all cell compartments. By mutational analysis after cell sorting, we demonstrated that this common phenotypic signature depends on -double-mutated multi-lineage involvement. From a multidimensional study of phenotypic data, we developed a classifier including ten core and widely available parameters. The selected markers on blasts (CD34, CD117, CD7, CD15, CD65), neutrophil (SSC, CD64), monocytic (CD14, CD64) and erythroid (CD117) compartments were able to cluster -double-mutated cases. In a validation set of 259 AML cases from three independent centers, our classifier showed excellent performance with 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. We have, therefore, established a reliable screening method, based upon multidimensional analysis of widely available phenotypic parameters. This method provides early results and is suitable for large-scale detection of -double-mutated status, allowing gene sequencing to be focused in selected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2016.151910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5394975PMC
March 2017

Multilineage dysplasia as assessed by immunophenotype has no impact on clinical-biological features and outcome of NPM1-mutated acute myeloid leukemia.

Exp Hematol 2015 Oct 20;43(10):869-879.e22. Epub 2015 Jun 20.

Unità Funzionale di Ematologia, Università degli Studi, AOU Careggi, Florence, Italy; Istituto Toscano Tumori, Florence, Italy.

The presence of multilineage dysplasia (MLD) by morphology at diagnosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) defines a separate subset in the World Health Organization classification with still-debated prognostic value. A major controversy concerns MLD's role in NPM1-mutated (NPM1⁺) AML, which correlates with good prognosis. We used flow cytometry (FC), an emerging technique for assessing dysplasia, to investigate MLD in NPM1⁺ AML by an immunophenotypic score (IPS), a technique previously adopted in myelodysplastic syndrome. Eighty-five intensively treated NPM1⁺ AML cases were studied. Patients were grouped according to the combination of data in maturing cell compartments. FC-assessed dysplasia showed a significant correlation with morphology-assessed dysplasia, showing the efficacy of this method in highlighting dysplasia in AML. Except for MLD, IPS did not influence any patient- or disease-related characteristics at diagnosis. Furthermore, IPS did not influence complete remission rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival. By investigating NPM1 status on separated cell compartments, we established a correlation between FC-assessed MLD and belonging to AML clone. This study shows that dysplasia evaluated by immunophenotype has no impact on clinical-biological characteristics or on outcome of NPM1⁺ AML. Dysplasia is part of the spectrum of NPM1⁺ AML, and the prognostic stratification of this category of patients should not be based upon it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2015.06.003DOI Listing
October 2015

CXCR4 expression accounts for clinical phenotype and outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2014 Sep 5;86(5):340-9. Epub 2014 Feb 5.

UF di Ematologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Università degli Studi, Firenze, and Istituto Toscano Tumori, Florence, Italy.

Background: In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), CXCR4 expression has been correlated with leukocytosis and prognosis.

Methods: We quantified CXCR4 expression by flow cytometry on leukemic cells in 142 AML patients.

Results: We confirm a correlation between high CXCR4 expression and leukemic burden. Furthermore, we documented a correlation with platelet count, dysplastic megakaryopoiesis, hepato-splenomegaly and extra-hematological disease. NPM1-mutated AML displayed a significantly higher intensity of CXCR4 compared to NPM1-wt cases: it is conceivable its clinical phenotype to be driven by high CXCR4 expression.

Conclusions: CXCR4 expression resulted in an independent prognostic factor. Our data support CXCR4 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.b.21156DOI Listing
September 2014

CXCR4 expression accounts for clinical phenotype and outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2014 Jan 24. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

UF di Ematologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Università degli Studi, Firenze; Istituto Toscano Tumori, Florence, Italy.

Background. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), CXCR4 expression has been correlated with leukocytosis and prognosis. Methods. We quantified CXCR4 expression by flow cytometry on leukemic cells in 142 AML patients. Results. We confirm a correlation between high CXCR4 expression and leukemic burden. Furthermore, we documented a correlation with platelet count, dysplastic megakaryopoiesis, hepato-splenomegaly and extra-hematological disease. NPM1-mutated AML displayed a significantly higher intensity of CXCR4 compared to NPM1-wt cases: it is conceivable its clinical phenotype to be driven by high CXCR4 expression. Conclusions. CXCR4 expression resulted an independent prognostic factor. Our data support CXCR4 targeting as a potential therapeutic strategy. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cytob.21156DOI Listing
January 2014

Rosiglitazone promotes the differentiation of Langerhans cells and inhibits that of other dendritic cell types from CD133 positive hematopoietic precursors.

Histol Histopathol 2014 03 24;29(3):323-32. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Dendritic cells and their precursors express PPAR-gamma, whose stimulation has inhibitory effects on the maturation and function of dendritic cells in vivo. Dendritic cells can differentiate in vitro from CD133+ progenitors; the influence of PPAR-gamma stimulation on this process is unknown. We have addressed the effect of PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone, at a concentration as used in clinics, on the differentiation of dendritic cells from human CD133+ progenitors. Cells were harvested from cord blood by density gradient and immunomagnetic separation, and cultured for 18 days with fetal calf serum, cytokines and 1 μmol/L rosiglitazone. Analyses included flow cytometry, electron microscopy and mixed lymphocyte reaction. As expected, control cells generated without rosiglitazone were dendritic, expressed MHC-II, CD80, CD83 and CD86 and stimulated mixed reaction potently. A minority of cells expressed the Langerhans cell marker CD207/langerin, but none contained Birbeck granules. With rosiglitazone much fewer cells were generated; they were all dendritic, expressed differentiation and maturation-related antigens in higher percentage and were better stimulators of lymphocytes than those generated without the drug. The vast majority of cells expressed CD207/langerin and many contained Birbeck granules, i.e. were full-fledged Langerhans cells. We conclude that stimulation of PPAR-gamma, while negatively affecting the number of generated cells, promotes the maturation of human cord blood CD133 positive precursors into efficient, immunostimulating dendritic cells with a Langerhans cell phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-29.323DOI Listing
March 2014

Dendritic cells with lymphocyte-stimulating activity differentiate from human CD133 positive precursors.

Blood 2011 Apr 8;117(15):3983-95. Epub 2011 Feb 8.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

CD133 is a hallmark of primitive myeloid progenitors. We have addressed whether human cord blood cells selected for CD133 can generate dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells in particular, in conditions that promote that generation from CD34(+) progenitors. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and anti-TGF-β1 antibody, respectively, were added in some experiments. With TGF-β, monocytoid cells were recognized after 7 days. Immunophenotypically immature dendritic cells were present at day 14. After 4 more days, the cells expressed CD54, CD80, CD83, and CD86 and were potent stimulators in mixed lymphocyte reaction; part of the cells expressed CD1a and langerin, but not Birbeck granules. Without TGF-β, only a small fraction of cells acquired a dendritic shape and expressed the maturation-related antigens, and lymphocytes were poorly stimulated. With anti-TGF-β, the cell growth was greatly hampered, CD54 and langerin were never expressed, and lymphocytes were stimulated weakly. In conclusion, CD133(+) progenitors can give rise in vitro, through definite steps, to mature, immunostimulatory dendritic cells with molecular features of Langerhans cells, although without Birbeck granules. Addition of TGF-β1 helps to stimulate cell growth and promotes the acquisition of mature immunophenotypical and functional features. Neither langerin nor Birbeck granules proved indispensable for lymphocyte stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-08-299735DOI Listing
April 2011

Microfibrils: a cornerstone of extracellular matrix and a key to understand Marfan syndrome.

Ital J Anat Embryol 2009 Oct-Dec;114(4):201-24

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Italy.

The extracellular matrix is made of collagen, reticular, elastic and oxytalan fibers, amorphous ground substance and adhesive proteins playing a structural role, such as fibronectin; the basement membrane is a specialized matrix compartment which adheres to non-connective tissues and is continuous with the remaining matrix thanks to reticular fibers, anchoring fibrils, collagen VI filaments and oxytalan fibers. Microfibrils are constituents of elastic and oxytalan fibers that confer mechanical stability and limited elasticity to tissues, contribute to growth factor regulation, and play a role in tissue development and homeostasis. The microfibril core is made of the glycoprotein fibrillin, of which three types are known. Other concurring molecules are microfibril associated proteins (MFAPs) and microfibril associated glycoproteins (MAGPs); they, and other peripheral molecules, contribute to link microfibrils to elastin, to other extracellular matrix components and to cells. Fibrillinopathies are genetic disorders due to mutations in fibrillin genes (FBN). The most frequent is Marfan syndrome, caused by mutations in FBN-1 and involving primarily the cardiovascular, skeletal, ocular and central nervous systems. Several mutations have been identified, which lead to alteration or reduction in the secretion or assembly of fibrillin molecules and to increased microfibril proteolysis. Marfan related disorders are associated with alterations of TGF-beta signaling that interfere with extracellular matrix formation. Understanding the pathogenesis of Marfan and related syndromes requires advances in the physiology of the extracellular matrix and in turn can cast light on the roles of microfibrils and of extracellular matrix in general in organ formation and function.
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July 2010