Publications by authors named "Maria Giovanna Ciliberti"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessed versus Perceived Risks: Innovative Communications in Agri-Food Supply Chains.

Foods 2021 May 3;10(5). Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources and Engineering (DAFNE), University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

Food preparations, especially those based on animal products, are often accused of being responsible for the increase in food-borne infections, contributing to increased pressure on healthcare systems. The risk assessment in agri-food supply chains is of utmost importance for the food industry and for policymakers. A wrong perception of risks may alter the functioning of supply chains; thus, efforts should be devoted to communicating risks in an efficient way. We adopt a multidisciplinary approach to investigate how consumers perceive different food risks. Our analysis shows that planning effective communication strategies is very much important for efficiently informing consumers on food risks. We also comment on potential innovative ways to better organise the supply chains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10051001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147598PMC
May 2021

NETosis of Peripheral Neutrophils Isolated From Dairy Cows Fed Olive Pomace.

Front Vet Sci 2021 29;8:626314. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources, and Engineering, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Neutrophils represent primary mobile phagocytes recruited to the site of infection, and their functions are essential to enhance animals' health performance. Neutrophils have an essential role in innate immunity and are able to kill the pathogens the synthesis of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The objective of the present work was the study of the NETosis of peripheral neutrophils isolated from dairy cows supplemented with olive pomace. Dairy cows ( = 16) balanced for parity (3.67 ± 1.5 for CON, 3.67 ± 1.9 for OP), milk yield (24.3 ± 4.5 kg dfor CON and 24.9 ± 1.7 kg d for OP), the number of days in milk (109 ± 83.5 for CON and 196 ± 51 for OP), and body weight (647 ± 44.3 kg for CON and 675 ± 70.7 kg for OP) were divided into two experimental groups fed with a control diet (CON) and supplemented with 6% of olive pomace (OP). Peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated and stimulated with phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA) as a marker for activation and reactivity of the neutrophils. After isolation, both the viability and CD11b expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. Both NETosis by neutrophil elastase-DNA complex system and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated by ELISA. The specific antibodies against MPO and citrullination of Histone-H1 were used for investigating NETosis by immunofluorescence microscopy. The neutrophil elastase-DNA complexes produced during NETosis and MPO activity of neutrophil extracts were affected by OP supplementation. Furthermore, results from immunofluorescence analysis of NETosis depicted a similar result found by ELISA showing a higher expression of MPO and citrullination of Histone-H1 in OP than the CON neutrophils. In addition, all data showed that the OP diet resulted in a better response of neutrophils to PMA stimulation than the CON diet, which did not support the neutrophils' responses to PMA stimulation. Our results demonstrated that OP supplementation can enhance the neutrophil function in dairy cows leading to udder defense and inflammation response especially when an immunosuppression state can occur.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.626314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8118642PMC
April 2021

Effect of information on geographical origin, duration of transport and welfare condition on consumer's acceptance of lamb meat.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9754. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25-71121, Foggia, Italy.

Animal production system and welfare conditions can influence consumers' acceptance, as meat from animals grazing in natural pasture and labelled with information about high standards of welfare is preferred. In addition, geographical origin of food is recently considered one of the main information influencing the consumers' acceptance. Local products are collectively associated with high quality attributes by the consumers related to shorter transport and good welfare. Lamb meat is considered local and typical food; however, it is common to find in the same market both local and imported lamb meat. The present investigation aimed at understanding the importance of information about geographical origin, transport duration, and welfare condition of lambs for consumers and their actual liking. Moreover, the quality of lamb meat from local and imported animals as affected by short or long transport was assessed. Data demonstrated that both short and long transport did not affect organoleptic quality of meat; this result was corroborated by an absence of both metabolic and immune stressors in long term transport lambs except for haptoglobin, cortisol and glucose. However, the expected and actual acceptability were affected by the information with higher scores for local lamb when information on the geographical origin, transport duration, and welfare condition was provided to the consumers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66267-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298018PMC
June 2020

Nexus Between Immune Responses and Oxidative Stress: The Role of Dietary Hydrolyzed Lignin in Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Response.

Front Vet Sci 2020 20;7. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

The control of immune responses is particularly critical when an increase of oxidative stress occurs, causing an impairment of immune cell response and a condition of systemic inflammation, named oxinflammation. Nutritional strategies based on the use in the diet of phytochemicals extracted from plants, rich in antioxidants, could help restore the antioxidant/oxidant balance and obtain a modulation of immune response. Lignin represents a valuable resource of phenolic compounds, which are characterized by a corroborated antioxidant effect. To date, there are no studies reporting the effects of lignin in the diet on immune responses and oxidative stress in ruminants. The objective of the present experiment was the evaluation of the dietary inclusion of hydrolyzed lignin on the immune responses and oxidative stress biomarkers by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from beef steers. In order to test the effect during oxidative stress exposition, cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (HO). The proliferation test and the viability assay were carried out on cells, whereas, on supernatants, the cytokine profile and the oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. The dietary inclusion with hydrolyzed lignin resulted in cytoprotection after HO exposition, increasing the number of viable monocytes and decreasing the reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production in supernatants. The cytokine profile indicated the modulatory role of hydrolyzed lignin on immune response, with a concomitant decrease of TNF-α and increase of IL-8 production, which are strictly connected with monocyte activation and antioxidant response pathway. These results demonstrated that hydrolyzed lignin may provide a modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in PBMCs; thus, the hydrolyzed lignin could be suggested as an innovative phytochemical in ruminant feed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045060PMC
February 2020

Extracts from Microalga Exert an Anti-Proliferative Effect and Modulate Cytokines in Sheep Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Jan 30;9(2). Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71121 Foggia, Italy.

The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of the unsaponified fraction (UP), the acetylated unsaponified fraction (AUP), and the total lipid fraction (TL) extracted and purified from (CS) on the proliferation and cytokine profile of sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Cells were cultured with 0.4 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL concentrations of each extract (UP, AUP, and TL fractions) and activated with 5 μg/mL concanavalin A (ConA) and 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 37 °C for 24 h. PBMCs cultured with ConA and LPS represented the stimulated cells (SC), and PBMCs without ConA and LPS represented the unstimulated cells (USC). Cell-free supernatants were collected to determine IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-6 secretions; on cells, measurement of proliferation was performed. All the extracts tested significantly decreased the cell proliferation; in particular, the UP fraction at 0.4 mg/mL showed the lowest proliferative response. Furthermore, at 0.8 mg/mL, the UP fraction enhanced IL-10 secretion. On the contrary, the TL fraction at 0.4 mg/mL induced an increase in IL-10, IL-6, and, to a lesser extent, IL-1β secretions by cells. The AUP fraction did not change cytokine secretion. The results demonstrated that CS extracts could be useful ingredients in animal feed in order to minimize the use of antibiotics by modulating cell proliferation and cytokine response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9020045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406596PMC
January 2019

Effect of Diet Supplementation with Quinoa Seed and/or Linseed on Immune Response, Productivity and Meat Quality in Merinos Derived Lambs.

Animals (Basel) 2018 Nov 10;8(11). Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Agricultural Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25-71121 Foggia, Italy.

In the last years several studies have investigated the strong relation between nutrition and immune response in the livestock production, particularly in dairy cattle and sheep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation based on linseed, quinoa seeds and their combination on welfare, productivity and quality of meat from merinos derived lambs. 32 weaned lambs were divided into 4 experimental groups: quinoa (Q), linseed (LS) and combination of quinoa and linseed (LS + Q) that received the respective supplementation and control group (C) without supplementation. Lambs from all supplemented groups showed lower plasma urea, creatinine and cholesterol than control. Both linseed and quinoa supplementation enhanced the cell-mediated immune responses of lambs, furthermore, linseed supplementation resulted in the lowest level of cortisol secretion after handling, loading and transport. Meat from lambs supplemented with linseed and LS + Q showed the highest pH, at 1 and 3 h post-mortem, while, meat from all supplemented groups was more tender than meat from control. Results indicated that linseed and quinoa seeds supplementation can help the animal to cope with stressful events due to the close link between stress responses and the immune system and for improving meat quality in terms of better tenderness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani8110204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262584PMC
November 2018

Heat stress abatement during the postpartum period: effects on whole lactation milk yield, indicators of metabolic status, inflammatory cytokines, and biomarkers of the oxidative stress.

J Anim Sci 2019 Jan;97(1):122-132

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli, Foggia, Italy.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cooling upon calving in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress in Holstein lactating cows. Production performance, indicators of metabolic status, immune response, and biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured. Based on mature equivalent milk production, parity, and calving date, 46 multiparous lactating cows were allotted to groups of equal sizes (n = 23); heat stressed (HS; BW = 658 ± 28 kg [mean ± SD]; BCS = 2.7 ± 0.18; parity = 3 ± 0.12) and cooled (CL; BW = 668 ± 23 kg; BCS = 2.8 ± 0.14; parity = 3 ± 0.25). Cows were housed in sand-bedded individual stalls equipped with misters and fans which were on from 1000 to 1800 hours for CL group. DMI and milk yield were measured from calving for 7 wk. Body condition score and BW were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly to measure the metabolic and antioxidant status, inflammatory cytokines, and immunoglobulins. Rectal temperature was measured daily at 1400 hour. Mean daily maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and maximum temperature-humidity index was 37.0 °C, 31.9%, and 83.4 for HS and 27.3 °C, 44.9%, and 75.7 for CL, respectively. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperature (39.8 vs. 39.1 °C) and lower feed intake (19.8 vs. 21.3 kg/d) relative to CL cows. Milk yield, including raw (31.2 vs. 38.6 kg/d) and fat- and protein-corrected (32.1 vs. 35.7 kg/d) milk, was lower in HS vs. CL cows, respectively. The percentages of milk protein (3.25 vs. 3.06), lactose (4.73 vs. 4.58), and solids-not-fat (8.63 vs. 8.38) but not milk fat (4.31 vs. 3.59) were higher in HS cows than in CL cows, respectively. Somatic cell score was greater in HS cows as compared with CL cows. Cooled cows lost less body condition as compared with HS cows. Blood plasma concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyric acid were lower in HS cows. Blood plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (2.13 vs. 1.84 nmol/mL), reactive oxygen species (579 vs. 561 U/mL), and total antioxidant capacity (4.49 vs. 4.06 U/mL) were greater in HS cows than in CL cows. Blood plasma concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α, and interleukin-2) and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgG) were lower in HS cows than in CL cows. These findings demonstrated that cooling dairy cows during the early postpartum improved the production performance, indicators of metabolic status, immune response, and antioxidant capacity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6313133PMC
January 2019

Phytosterols from Dunaliella tertiolecta Reduce Cell Proliferation in Sheep Fed Flaxseed during Post Partum.

Mar Drugs 2017 Jul 6;15(7). Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25-71121 Foggia, Italy.

The post partum period is characterized by immunosuppression and increased disease susceptibility. Both phytosterols from microalga and dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence cell proliferation and cytokine release during inflammation. The objective of this paper was the evaluation of the effects of physterols, extracted and purified from , on the in vitro immune responses of ewes supplemented with flaxseed during post partum. Twenty Comisana parturient ewes were divided in two balanced groups, and supplemented with flaxseed (FS, 250 g/day) or fed with a conventional diet (CON). Blood samples (15 mL) were collected for five weeks, starting from lambing, in order to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Stimulated PBMC were treated with a total sterols fraction from (TS), a mix of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (purified extract, PE), and a mix of acetylated ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol (acetylated purified extract, AcPE), extracted and purified from at two concentrations (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL). Results of the experiment demonstrated that n-3 PUFA from flaxseed induced an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, with an increase of both IL-10, IL-6 and a decrease of IL-1β. TS, PE, and AcPE purified from showed an anti-proliferative effect on sheep PBMC regardless their chemical composition and concentration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md15070216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5532658PMC
July 2017

Fatty acid profile and coagulating ability of milk from Jersey and Friesian cows fed whole flaxseed.

J Dairy Res 2017 Feb;84(1):14-22

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture,Food and Environment (SAFE),University of Foggia,Via Napoli,25,71122 Foggia,Italy.

The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of a moderate level of flaxseed administration on milk coagulation properties and fatty acid profile of milk from two different breeds. The experiment was performed on 20 Italian Friesian cows and 20 Jersey cows divided into 2 groups of 10 animals each. The experimental diets were (1) a traditional diet (CON) administrated as unifeed and no supplemental fat and (2) a diet supplemented with 0·5 kg/d of whole flaxseed (FS). Cows were milked twice daily and milk yield was recorded. Milk samples were analysed at 1, 15, and 30 d of the experiment for composition, pH, and milk coagulation properties. To verify the effects of flaxseed administration on the coagulation properties of milk from Friesian and Jersey cows, an electrophoresis study on casein fractions was performed. Milk fatty acid profile can be improved by administrating a moderate level of flaxseed in the diet, however, milk fatty acid profile from Friesian and Jersey cows showed different contents of C18 : 1 trans-11, SFA and MUFA. The results demonstrated that milk coagulating ability can be increased by flaxseed administration in both breeds as a result of different aggregation of casein micelles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002202991600073XDOI Listing
February 2017

Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

J Dairy Res 2016 Aug;83(3):289-97

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture,Food and Environment (SAFE),University of Foggia,Via Napoli,25,71122 Foggia,Italy.

The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029916000431DOI Listing
August 2016

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids from flaxseed affect immune responses of dairy sheep around parturition.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2015 Nov 19;168(1-2):56-60. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

The objective of the study was to characterize the immune profile of dairy ewes fed flaxseed, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), around parturition. The hypothesis to be verified was that a physiological stressor, such as parturition, could be overcome with a nutritional manipulation in the diet of the animal in order to guarantee welfare of animals and to sustain their immune responses. Twenty Comisana ewes were divided in two groups (10 ewes/group), and fed a supplementation of whole flaxseed in the diet (FS group) or no supplementation (CON group). Blood samples were collected at parturition and then 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 day post partum. Plasma samples were used to assess the humoral immune response after ovalbumin (OVA) immunization. At parturition, at 14 day, and 42 day post partum the level of plasma cytokines was assessed. The sheep showed a reduced responsiveness to OVA immunization. In FS ewes the IL-6 level remained unchanged until 14 day post partum and then significantly decreased from 14 day to 42 day post partum. IL-10 level was significantly higher in FS ewes than in CON ewes at 14 day. At parturition IL-1β level was significantly lower in FS ewes than in CON ewes and significantly decreased in both groups from parturition to 42 day. In conclusion, PUFA from flaxseed, as supplement in the diet of ewes around parturition can modulate sheep immune reactivity by influencing cytokine production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2015.08.006DOI Listing
November 2015

Alterations in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine release by polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the diet under high ambient temperature.

J Dairy Sci 2015 Feb 12;98(2):872-9. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Department of the Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation from different sources in the diet of dairy sheep under high ambient temperatures on ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation and inflammatory responses. The experiment was carried out during summer: 32 Comisana ewes were divided into 4 groups of 8. The FS group was supplemented with whole flaxseed, the AG group was supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum, the FS+AG group was supplemented with a combination of flaxseed and A. nodosum. The fourth group (CON group) was a control and received a diet containing no supplement. The average maximum temperature was around 33°C during wk 2 and 3, whereas the mean temperature never decreased below 26°C. Following 15 d of treatment with respective diets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from sheep who received a diet supplemented with A. nodosum had impaired cell proliferation responses and IL-6 production after mitogen stimulation compared with PBMC from FS+AG sheep. In addition, PBMC from AG sheep displayed impaired cell proliferation compared with cells from the CON group. The FS+AG cells produced lower levels of IL-10 than CON cells, and higher IL-6 than AG and CON cells. Results demonstrated that the supplementation with PUFA from different sources in a sheep's diet can influence their immunological responses under high ambient temperatures depending on the composition of fatty acid supplementation. In particular, synergistic effects of different PUFA from flaxseed and A. nodosum, simultaneously administrated in the sheep diet, were observed on activation of inflammation response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2014-8333DOI Listing
February 2015

A mixture of phytosterols from Dunaliella tertiolecta affects proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cytokine production in sheep.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2012 Nov 13;150(1-2):27-35. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

Department of Sciences of Agriculture, Food and Environment (SAFE), University of Foggia, Via Napoli, 25, 71122 Foggia, Italy.

The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory role of a mixture of phytosterols extracted from the microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from sheep. PBMC were treated to determine cell proliferation and cytokine production with different sterols: ergosterol (E), a mixture of eleven Algae sterols extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta (Algae Extract, AE), a mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta (Purified Extract, PE). Cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10) was evaluated after cell treatment with Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol extracted and purified from D. tertiolecta showed a suppressive effect on cell proliferation, and a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Furthermore, a stimulatory effect on the production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 was found. The immunosuppressive effect exerted by the mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol from D. tertiolecta was dose-dependent both in suppressing cell proliferation and in stimulating IL-10 production. Present results showed that the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities were more apparent in the purified extract characterized by the mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol, and might depend on the existence of a synergic effect of the structures of the two phytosterols. Furthermore, findings from our study suggest that the purified extract characterized by the mixture of ergosterol and 7-dehydroporiferasterol from D. tertiolecta could be used to reduce immune reactions resulting from inflammatory diseases in sheep production systems, and could have innovative implications on the modulation of sheep immune system when used as feed supplements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.08.002DOI Listing
November 2012
-->