Publications by authors named "Mari Taniguchi"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sensitivity of turtles to anticoagulant rodenticides: Risk assessment for green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the Ogasawara Islands and comparison of warfarin sensitivity among turtle species.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Apr 25;233:105792. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan. Electronic address:

Although anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are effectively used for the control of invasive rodents, nontarget species are also frequently exposed to ARs and secondary poisonings occur widely. However, little data is available on the effects of ARs, especially on marine organisms. To evaluate the effects of ARs on marine wildlife, we chose green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are one of the most common marine organisms around the Ogasawara islands, as our primary study species. The sensitivity of these turtles to ARs was assessed using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. We administered 4 mg/kg of warfarin sodium either orally or intravenously to juvenile green sea turtles. The turtles exhibited slow pharmacokinetics, and prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) was observed only with intravenous warfarin administration. We also conducted an in vitro investigation using liver microsomes from green sea turtles, and two other turtle species (softshell turtle and red-eared slider) and rats. The cytochrome P450 metabolic activity in the liver of green sea turtles was lower than in rats. Additionally, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), which is the target enzyme of ARs, was inhibited by warfarin in the turtles at lower concentration levels than in rats. These data indicate that turtles may be more sensitive to ARs than rats. We expect that these findings will be helpful for sea turtle conservation following accidental AR-broadcast incidents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105792DOI Listing
April 2021

The evolutionary origin of the turtle shell and its dependence on the axial arrest of the embryonic rib cage.

J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2015 May 5;324(3):194-207. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan.

Turtles are characterized by their possession of a shell with dorsal and ventral moieties: the carapace and the plastron, respectively. In this review, we try to provide answers to the question of the evolutionary origin of the carapace, by revising morphological, developmental, and paleontological comparative analyses. The turtle carapace is formed through modification of the thoracic ribs and vertebrae, which undergo extensive ossification to form a solid bony structure. Except for peripheral dermal elements, there are no signs of exoskeletal components ontogenetically added to the costal and neural bones, and thus the carapace is predominantly of endoskeletal nature. Due to the axial arrest of turtle rib growth, the axial part of the embryo expands laterally and the shoulder girdle becomes encapsulated in the rib cage, together with the inward folding of the lateral body wall in the late phase of embryogenesis. Along the line of this folding develops a ridge called the carapacial ridge (CR), a turtle-specific embryonic structure. The CR functions in the marginal growth of the carapacial primordium, in which Wnt signaling pathway might play a crucial role. Both paleontological and genomic evidence suggest that the axial arrest is the first step toward acquisition of the turtle body plan, which is estimated to have taken place after the divergence of a clade including turtles from archosaurs. The developmental relationship between the CR and the axial arrest remains a central issue to be solved in future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.22579DOI Listing
May 2015

Comparative study of the shell development of hard- and soft-shelled turtles.

J Anat 2014 Jul 23;225(1):60-70. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Division of Gross Anatomy and Morphogenesis, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

The turtle shell provides a fascinating model for the investigation of the evolutionary modifications of developmental mechanisms. Different conclusions have been put forth for its development, and it is suggested that one of the causes of the disagreement could be the differences in the species of the turtles used - the differences between hard-shelled turtles and soft-shelled turtles. To elucidate the cause of the difference, we compared the turtle shell development in the two groups of turtle. In the dorsal shell development, these two turtle groups shared the gene expression profile that is required for formation, and shared similar spatial organization of the anatomical elements during development. Thus, both turtles formed the dorsal shell through a folding of the lateral body wall, and the Wnt signaling pathway appears to have been involved in the development. The ventral portion of the shell, on the other hand, contains massive dermal bones. Although expression of HNK-1 epitope has suggested that the trunk neural crest contributed to the dermal bones in the hard-shelled turtles, it was not expressed in the initial anlage of the skeletons in either of the types of turtle. Hence, no evidence was found that would support a neural crest origin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089346PMC
July 2014

A new retrieval system for a database of 3D facial images.

Forensic Sci Int 2005 Mar;148(2-3):113-20

National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882, Japan.

A new retrieval system for a 3D facial image database was designed and its reliability was experimentally examined. This system has two steps, firstly to automatically adjust the orientation of all 3D facial images in a database to that of the 2D facial image of a target person, and then to identify the facial image of the target person from the adjusted 3D facial images in the database using a graph-matching method. From the experimental study [M. Yoshino, K. Imaizumi, T. Tanijiri, J.G. Clement, Automatic adjustment of facial orientation in 3D face image database, Jpn. J. Sci. Tech. Iden. 8 (2003) 41-47], it is concluded that the software developed for the first step will be applicable to the automatic adjustment of facial orientation in the 3D facial image database. In 28 out of 110 sets (25.5%), the 3D image of the target person was chosen as the best match (from a database of 132 3D facial images) according to the similarity of the facial image characteristics based on the graph matching. The 3D facial image of the target person was ranked in the top of 10 of the database in 75 out of 110 sets (68.2%). These results suggest that this system is inadequate for the identification level, but may be feasible for screening method in a small database. It will be necessary to further pursue the possibility of realization of a facial image retrieval system for a large database such as suspects' facial images in future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.04.074DOI Listing
March 2005

Studies on the chronology of third molar mineralization in a Japanese population.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2004 Apr;6(2):73-9

Institute of Forensic Medicine (Charité), Humboldt University Berlin, Hannoversche Strasse 6, Berlin 10115, Germany.

In Germany, a sharp increase in forensic age estimations of living individuals has been observed in recent years. With regard to the relevant age group, radiologic assessment of the mineralization stage of the third molars is of particular importance. Still, the influence of ethnicity on the pace of mineralization has been insufficiently analyzed. A total of 1615 orthopantomograms of 929 female and 686 male Japanese subjects aged between 12 and 30 years was examined. The mineralization stages of third molars were evaluated on the basis of Demirjian's stages modified in accordance with Mincer's model. For the individual mineralization stages, the study presents the means and standard deviations for the genders separately. No statistically significant differences in the chronology of third molar mineralization between maxilla and mandible and between sides were observed. A comparison between genders largely did not render significant differences either. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2003.09.005DOI Listing
April 2004

Forensic age estimation in living subjects: the ethnic factor in wisdom tooth mineralization.

Int J Legal Med 2004 Jun 6;118(3):170-3. Epub 2004 Feb 6.

Institute of Legal Medicine (Charité), Humboldt University of Berlin, Hannoversche Strasse 6, 10115 Berlin, Germany.

Radiological assessment of the mineralization stage of third molars is a major criterion for age estimation of living people involved in criminal proceedings. To date insufficient knowledge has been obtained about how the ethnic origin can influence tooth mineralization. A comparative study of wisdom tooth mineralization was carried out on three population samples: one German, one Japanese and one South African. To this end, 3,652 conventional orthopantomograms were evaluated on the basis of Demirjian's stages. The Japanese subjects were on average 1-2 years older than their German counterparts upon reaching stages D-F, whereas the South African subjects were on average 1-2 years younger than the Germans when displaying stages D-G. To enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimates based on wisdom tooth mineralization we recommend the use of population-specific standards.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-004-0434-7DOI Listing
June 2004

Possible use of nasal septum and frontal sinus patterns to radiographic identification of unknown human remains.

Osaka City Med J 2003 Jun;49(1):31-8

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Japan.

The aim of the present study was to examine the combined use of the nasal septum and frontal sinus pattern for systemic radiographic identification of unknown human remains and the limitations. Postmortem skull radiographs were collected in 209 forensic autopsy and 163 clinical cases. In total cases, a combined use of the nasal septum deviation patterns (straight, left, right, sigmoid, reverse sigmoid and rare types) and the frontal sinus patterns (aplasia, symmetry, left or right dominant asymmetry in combination with the number of lobulations) achieved a classification of at least 204 different types (incidence up to 5%). Comparison of the ante- and postmortem films (n=24) gave an identical result in about 75%. The cases of inconsistency suggested the influences of the positioning in radiographic examination, the quality of radiographs and the complicated structures of the nasal septum and frontal sinus as possible causes of missing identity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2003

Possible use of nasal septum and frontal sinus patterns to radiographic identification of unknown human remains.

Osaka City Med J 2003 Jun;49(1):31-8

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Japan.

The aim of the present study was to examine the combined use of the nasal septum and frontal sinus pattern for systemic radiographic identification of unknown human remains and the limitations. Postmortem skull radiographs were collected in 209 forensic autopsy and 163 clinical cases. In total cases, a combined use of the nasal septum deviation patterns (straight, left, right, sigmoid, reverse sigmoid and rare types) and the frontal sinus patterns (aplasia, symmetry, left or right dominant asymmetry in combination with the number of lobulations) achieved a classification of at least 204 different types (incidence up to 5%). Comparison of the ante- and postmortem films (n=24) gave an identical result in about 75%. The cases of inconsistency suggested the influences of the positioning in radiographic examination, the quality of radiographs and the complicated structures of the nasal septum and frontal sinus as possible causes of missing identity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2003

Pulmonary immunohistochemistry and serum levels of a surfactant-associated protein A in fatal drowning.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2002 Mar;4(1):1-6

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Abeno, Japan.

To evaluate the immunohistochemical distribution and serum levels of a pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) in fatal drowning with regard to the pulmonary alveolar injury, 53 autopsy cases were investigated. SP-A was membranously or linearly demonstrated in varying intensities on the intra-alveolar interior surface and on the interface of the intra-alveolar effusion. A high score of intra-alveolar aggregates of SP-A was significantly more frequently observed in freshwater than saltwater drowning. The left/right ratios of cardiac blood SP-A level were significantly high both in fresh- and saltwater drowning, showing no relationship to aggregated SP-A scores. Immunohistochemical score and serum level of SP-A were independent of the lung weight or pleural effusion. These observations suggest a partial difference of pulmonary pathophysiology depending on the immersion medium in fatal drowning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(01)00051-7DOI Listing
March 2002

Inca bone in forensic autopsy: a report of two cases with a review of the literature.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2002 Sep;4(3):197-201

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, Osaka, Japan.

Complete tripartite and complete asymmetric bipartite bones were, respectively, found in the interparietal region of the occipital bone in two forensic autopsy cases that we encountered. These isolated bones are called the Inca bones, or interparietal bones, which occasionally occur as a result of incomplete fusion of the ossifying nuclei during the developmental course. The Inca bones were detectable on ante-mortem cranial radiographs in these two cases. We review the embryological background of this variation, discuss the significance of this variation in forensic medicine, and additionally, present a review of the frequencies of other non-metrical characteristics of the skulls that may be detectable at the time of autopsy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00029-9DOI Listing
September 2002

Postmortem lung weight in drownings: a comparison with acute asphyxiation and cardiac death.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2003 Mar;5(1):20-6

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.

There are several controversial findings and arguments about the lung weight as a marker of drowning. The aim of the present study was to examine the difference in the lung weight and the amount of pleural effusion between freshwater and saltwater drownings (n=70 and n=75, respectively), in comparison with asphyxiation (n=85) and acute cardiac death (n=82), for the diagnosis of drowning. In drowning cases, a gradual postmortem time-dependent decrease in the lung weight and a reciprocal increase in the pleural effusion suggested postmortem transudation from the lungs. The decrease in the total value of the combined lung weight and the amount of pleural effusion was marked in saltwater immersion after 3 days postmortem, suggesting a leakage of the effusion out of the thoracic cavity under an osmotic effect of the immersion medium. In cases within 3 days postmortem, when the combined lung weight and amount of pleural effusion were added to estimate possible combined lung weight at the time of death, there was a gross difference among the causes of death: the value was the largest in saltwater drowning, followed by freshwater drowning, acute cardiac death and asphyxiation. However, the value depended on the gender and age of the subjects, suggesting a relation to the individual physical constitution and survival time or vital activity. These factors should be taken into consideration in evaluation of the lung weight in the diagnosis of drownings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00172-4DOI Listing
March 2003

Hemorrhages in the root of the tongue in fire fatalities: the incidence and diagnostic value.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2003 Mar;5 Suppl 1:S332-4

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, 545-8585 Osaka, Japan.

Hemorrhages in the root of the tongue have been considered to be a finding associated with asphyxiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence and diagnostic value of the lingual hemorrhages in fire fatalities with reference to the related pathological and toxicological findings, in comparison with asphyxiation and drowning cases. In fire fatalities (n=90), small to marked hemorrhages were observed in 26 cases (28.9%). In the reference groups (asphyxiation and drowning), the hemorrhages were frequently observed in ligature strangulation (n=10/15), manual strangulation (n=5/7) and traumatic asphyxia (n=4/5). In fire fatalities, the hemorrhages were closely associated with a lower blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level, suggesting an influence of fatal burns: n=16/32 (50.0%), n=8/26 (30.8%) and n=2/32 (6.2%), respectively, in cases of COHb<30%, 30-60% and >60%. These findings suggested possible acute hemodynamic disturbance in the head including brain (cranial congestion) in the dying process due to fires. A careful differentiation from neck compression may be necessary in such cases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00164-5DOI Listing
March 2003

Labor-related fatalities in forensic postmortem investigations during the past 6 years in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2003 Mar;5 Suppl 1:S325-7

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, 545-8585 Osaka, Japan.

To investigate fatal factors involved in labor-related accidents and events, forensic postmortem cases (n=874) during the past 6 years (1996-2001) at our institute were reviewed. Among them, there were 67 labor-related fatalities, showing a varied annual incidence (6-15 cases per year). All the victims were males (19-68 years of age). The most common sites of the accidents were manufacturing factories (n=21, 31.3%), warehouses (n=14, 20.9%), construction and demolition sites (n=11 and n=5, 16.4 and 7.5%, respectively). There were some characteristic types of accidents: falls from heights at work during construction and maintenance, and crushes by heavy materials and moving vehicles in transportation, by collapsing structures at demolition sites or by working machinery in factories. The most severely injured body regions were usually the head in falls (n=13/23) and the chest/abdomen in crushes (n=19/32). Most of the victims (n=54, 80.6%) died within 24 h. Alcohol was detected only in four cases. Most accidents were considered to be due to carelessness and simple fault of the workers without any significant relationship to their professional training and career.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00162-1DOI Listing
March 2003

Medical practice-related fatalities in forensic autopsy during the past 6 years in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2003 Mar;5 Suppl 1:S322-4

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, 545-8585 Osaka, Japan.

To investigate the features of recent unnatural deaths from mishaps and possible negligence related to medical practice, forensic autopsy cases (n=856) during the past 6 years (1996-2001) at our institute were reviewed. Among them, there were 28 cases of medical practice-related fatalities (male/female, n=16/12; range 32-87 years of age). Half of the cases (n=14) were related to possible negligence in nursing and care. These unnatural deaths were reported to the police by physicians in charge (n=14), second physicians and ambulance attendants (n=6), patients' relatives (n=6) and others (n=2). In most cases, there was an event, which was sudden, unexpected and clearly noticeable not only by the medical personnel but also by bystanders. The cases where the deaths were reported to the police by patients' relatives included unexpected deaths during medical treatments following accidental traumas (n=2) and an anesthetic accident. Clinically unexpected deaths should be more critically assessed by the physicians themselves on the basis of the rights, benefit and welfare of the patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00161-xDOI Listing
March 2003

Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A as a marker of respiratory distress in forensic pathology: assessment of the immunohistochemical and biochemical findings.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2003 Mar;5 Suppl 1:S318-21

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, 545-8585 Osaka, Japan.

The aim of the present study was to review the immunohistochemical and biochemical findings with reference to the causes of death in routine casework (total, n=492). In the immunohistochemistry (n=283), an increase in intra-alveolar granular SP-A (SP-A score) was often observed in asphyxiation (n=21/34, 61.8%) and freshwater drowning (n=15/24, 62.5%), and also in fire and methamphetamine (MA) fatalities (n=22/76, 28.9% and n=5/16, 31.3%). Serum SP-A level (n=134) was elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome and in some cases of drowning, fire and MA fatalities, hyperthermia and chest traumas. A quantitative analysis of SP-A subclass-gene expression (SP-A1/A2 mRNA) in the lung tissue specimens (n=126) revealed an increase in the SP-A1/A2 mRNA ratio in asphyxiation (n=17/21, 80.9%), freshwater drowning (n=7/9, 77.7%), fire and MA fatalities (n=20/35, 57.1% and n=8/10, 80.0%). These findings suggested the usefulness of SP-A as a marker of asphyxiation, respiratory distress and alveolar injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00160-8DOI Listing
March 2003

Possible postmortem serum markers for differentiation between fresh-, saltwater drowning and acute cardiac death: a preliminary investigation.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2003 Mar;5 Suppl 1:S298-301

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, Osaka 545-8585, Japan.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in postmortem blood biochemistry between fresh-, saltwater drowning and acute myocardial infarction/ischemia (AMI) (n=11, n=15 and n=23, respectively; postmortem interval <48 h). Left and right cardiac blood samples were examined for the serum markers: sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) and cardiac troponin T (cTn-T). The most efficient markers were the left-right cardiac BUN ratio for determination of drowning (hemodilution) and the left heart blood Mg level for differentiation between fresh- and saltwater aspiration. A characteristic feature of saltwater drowning was a low left-right BUN ratio and a marked elevation in the serum Cl, Mg and Ca levels of the left heart blood. Serum cTn-T level was usually low in drownings, showing a difference from most cases of AMI. Freshwater drowning showed a significant elevation of serum SP-A, although there was considerable overlapping with saltwater drowning and AMI. These findings suggested the usefulness of serum markers in the investigation of death from drownings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00155-4DOI Listing
March 2003

Lung-heart weight ratio as a possible index of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology in drowning.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2003 Mar;5 Suppl 1:S295-7

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, 545-8585 Osaka, Japan.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the lung-heart weight ratio in fresh- and saltwater drowning (n=67 and n=75, respectively) as a possible index of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, in comparison with acute myocardial infarction/ischemia (AMI, n=75) and asphyxiation (n=85). In drowning cases, the total value of the combined lung weight and the amount of pleural effusion was regarded as a possible total lung weight. The median value of the combined/total lung weight was the highest in saltwater drowning, which was followed by freshwater drowning, AMI and asphyxiation, showing a tendency to be mildly increased depending on the heart weight. The lung-heart weight ratio was significantly higher in fresh-/saltwater drownings (3.944+/-1.538 and 4.825+/-2.242, respectively) than in asphyxiation (2.846+/-1.042) and AMI (2.641+/-0.916) (P<0.0001), showing a tendency to be higher in saltwater than freshwater drowning. However, the value depended on the gender and age of the subjects, and the difference between freshwater drowning and asphyxiation was insignificant in females. These results suggested that the lung-heart weight ratio may be an index for investigating the influence of aspirated immersion medium in drownings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00154-2DOI Listing
March 2003

Comparative study on the chronology of third molar mineralization in a Japanese and a German population.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2003 Mar;5 Suppl 1:S256-60

Institute of Legal Medicine (Charité), Humboldt University Berlin, Hannoversche Strasse 6, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.

In Germany, a sharp increase in forensic age estimations of living persons has been observed in recent years. German law defines four legally relevant age limits: 14, 16, 18 and 21 years. In these age groups, radiographic assessment of the mineralization status of third molars is of particular importance. So far, the influence of ethnicity on the mineralization rate has been insufficiently analyzed. A total of 3031 orthopantomograms of 1597 Japanese and 1434 Germans aged between 12 and 26 years were examined. The mineralization status of third molars was evaluated on the basis of the classification proposed by Demirjian. For the individual mineralization stages, the study presents the mean values and standard deviations (SD) separately for both populations and sexes. The majority of probands from both the Japanese and the German population achieved the C stage and the late G and H stages of third molar development at similar ages. Significant differences between Japanese and Germans were observed, however, with regard to the D, E and F stages defined by Demirjian. Japanese men and women achieved the D, E and F stages approximately 2-3 years later than German men and women. In addition to forensic age determination in living persons, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified deceased persons and skeletons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1344-6223(02)00143-8DOI Listing
March 2003

Longitudinal brainstem laceration associated with complex basilar skull fractures due to a fall: an autopsy case.

Forensic Sci Int 2002 Mar;126(1):40-2

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, 545-8585, Osaka, Japan.

This report describes an autopsy case of a rare longitudinal brainstem laceration associated with complex basilar skull fractures. The victim was a 40-year-old male who died immediately after falling from a roof (9.2m in height) of a factory onto a concrete floor. The postmortem examination revealed an incomplete ring fracture of the base of the skull with longitudinal fractures of the sphenoid (clivus of the dorsum sellae turcicae) and occipital bones, cerebral contusions in the frontal and temporal poles, a longitudinal brainstem laceration at the posterior median sulcus of the pons accompanied with multiple contusional hemorrhages in the brainstem and corpus callosum. Related blunt-force injuries were observed in the parieto-occipital region of the head, shoulder and upper back involving the fractures of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae, and sternum and ribs, indicating a huge impact to the occiput and subsequent impression of the vertebral column into the base of the skull due to violent anteroflexion of the neck, which caused the complex basilar skull fractures, contusions and longitudinal laceration of the brainstem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0379-0738(02)00029-4DOI Listing
March 2002

Postmortem serum uric acid and creatinine levels in relation to the causes of death.

Forensic Sci Int 2002 Jan;125(1):59-66

Department of Legal Medicine, Osaka City University Medical School, Asahi-machi 1-4-3, Abeno, 545-8585 Osaka, Japan.

Serum uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Cr) mainly derive from skeletal muscle tissues. Although, remarkable postmortem stability of the serum levels has been reported, there appears to be very poor knowledge of the diagnostic value in investigation of death, except for uremia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate postmortem serum UA and Cr levels using 395 forensic autopsy cases, in comparison with blood urea nitrogen (BUN), for investigation of the pathophysiology of death with special regard to the causes of death involving possible skeletal muscle damage, e.g. due to hypoxia, heat or agonal convulsions. Cr and BUN showed relatively good topographic stability in the cadaveric blood, whereas, UA was often much higher in the right heart blood than in the left heart and peripheral blood, independent of postmortem intervals. Moderate to marked elevation of Cr and BUN accompanied with hyperuricemia was observed in delayed death. In the acute death cases (survival time <30 min), UA, especially in the right heart blood, showed a considerable elevation in mechanical asphyxiation and drowning. The Cr level in fire victims with a lower carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level (<60%) was significantly higher than in those with the possible fatal level (>60%). A similar elevation of Cr was observed in fatalities from heat stroke and methamphetamine (MA) poisoning. The observations suggested that hyperuricemia in acute death may be indicative of advanced hypoxia and that elevated Cr level may reflect the skeletal muscle damage, especially due to thermal influence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0379-0738(01)00617-xDOI Listing
January 2002