Publications by authors named "Mari Enoksson"

15 Publications

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Enhanced potency of recombinant factor VIIa with increased affinity to activated platelets.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 01 14;18(1):104-113. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Background: Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) enhances thrombin generation in a platelet-dependent manner; however, rFVIIa binds activated platelets with relatively low affinity. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-like transcript (TLT)-1 is expressed exclusively on activated platelets.

Objective: To enhance the potency of rFVIIa via binding TLT-1.

Methods: Recombinant FVIIa was conjugated to a TLT-1 binding Fab. In vitro potency of this platelet-targeted rFVIIa (PT-rFVIIa) was evaluated using factor X activation assays and by measuring viscoelastic changes in whole blood. In vivo potency was evaluated using a tail vein transection model in F8 mice expressing human TLT-1.

Results: PT-rFVIIa and rFVIIa had similar dissociation constant values for tissue factor binding and similar tissue factor-dependent factor X activation. However, PT-rFVIIa had increased catalytic efficiency on TLT-1-loaded vesicles and activated platelets. The in vitro potency in normal human blood with antibody-induced hemophilia A was dependent on assay conditions used; with maximally activated platelets, the half maximal effective concentration for clot time for PT-rFVIIa was 49-fold lower compared with rFVIIa. In the murine bleeding model, a 53-fold lower half maximal effective concentration was observed for blood loss for PT-rFVIIa, supporting the relevance of the assay conditions with maximally activated platelets. In vitro analysis of blood from subjects with hemophilia A confirmed the data obtained with normal blood.

Conclusions: Increasing the affinity of rFVIIa to activated platelets resulted in approximately 50-fold increased potency both in vitro and in the mouse model. The correlation of in vivo with in vitro data using maximally activated platelets supports that these assay conditions are relevant when evaluating platelet-targeted hemostatic concepts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14644DOI Listing
January 2020

Monoclonal antibodies targeting the disintegrin-like domain of ADAMDEC1 modulates the proteolytic activity and enables quantification of ADAMDEC1 protein in human plasma.

MAbs 2018 01 29;10(1):118-128. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

a Department of Haemophilia Biochemistry , Novo Nordisk A/S , Måløv , Denmark.

Decysin-1 (ADAMDEC1) is an orphan ADAM-like metalloprotease with unknown biological function and a short domain structure. ADAMDEC1 mRNA has previously been demonstrated primarily in macrophages and mature dendritic cells. Here, we generated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the mature ADAMDEC1 protein, as well as mAbs specific for the ADAMDEC1 pro-form, enabling further investigations of the metalloprotease. The generated mAbs bind ADAMDEC1 with varying affinity and represent at least six different epitope bins. Binding of mAbs to one epitope bin in the C-terminal disintegrin-like domain efficiently reduces the proteolytic activity of ADAMDEC1. A unique mAb, also recognizing the disintegrin-like domain, stimulates the caseinolytic activity of ADAMDEC1 while having no significant effect on the proteolysis of carboxymethylated transferrin. Using two different mAbs binding the disintegrin-like domain, we developed a robust, quantitative sandwich ELISA and demonstrate secretion of mature ADAMDEC1 protein by primary human macrophages. Surprisingly, we also found ADAMDEC1 present in human plasma with an approximate concentration of 0.5 nM. The presence of ADAMDEC1 both in human plasma and in macrophage cell culture supernatant were biochemically validated using immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis demonstrating that ADAMDEC1 is secreted in a mature form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2017.1395541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5800386PMC
January 2018

Death on the slopes. Symposium on Cell Death Pathways.

EMBO Rep 2009 Aug 17;10(8):827-31. Epub 2009 Jul 17.

Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/embor.2009.160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2726676PMC
August 2009

Proteolytic needles in the cellular haystack.

Nat Chem Biol 2008 Nov;4(11):651-2

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio1108-651DOI Listing
November 2008

Profiling constitutive proteolytic events in vivo.

Biochem J 2007 Oct;407(1):41-8

Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Most known organisms encode proteases that are crucial for constitutive proteolytic events. In the present paper, we describe a method to define these events in proteomes from Escherichia coli to humans. The method takes advantage of specific N-terminal biotinylation of protein samples, followed by affinity enrichment and conventional LC (liquid chromatography)-MS/MS (tandem mass spectrometry) analysis. The method is simple, uses conventional and easily obtainable reagents, and is applicable to most proteomics facilities. As proof of principle, we demonstrate profiles of proteolytic events that reveal exquisite in vivo specificity of methionine aminopeptidase in E. coli and unexpected processing of mitochondrial transit peptides in yeast, mouse and human samples. Taken together, our results demonstrate how to rapidly distinguish real proteolysis that occurs in vivo from the predictions based on in vitro experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20070775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2267409PMC
October 2007

Identification of proteolytic cleavage sites by quantitative proteomics.

J Proteome Res 2007 Jul 5;6(7):2850-8. Epub 2007 Jun 5.

Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

The identification of natural substrates and their cleavage sites is pivotal to defining proteolytic pathways. Here we report a novel strategy for the identification of the signature of proteolytic cleavage events based on quantitative proteomics. Lysine residues in proteins are blocked by guanidination so that free N-terminals can be labeled with amine-specific iTRAQ reagents. The quantitative nature of iTRAQ reagents allows us to distinguish N-terminals newly formed by proteolytic treatment (neoepitopes) from original N-terminals in proteins. Proteins are digested with trypsin and analyzed using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Peptides labeled with iTRAQ reagents are distinguished from other peptides by exhibiting intense signature ions in tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A corresponding data acquisition strategy was developed to specifically analyze iTRAQ tagged N-terminal peptides. To validate the procedure, we examined a set of recombinant Escherichia coli proteins that have predicted caspase-3 cleavage motifs. The protein mixture was treated with active or inactive caspase-3 and subsequently labeled with two different iTRAQ reagents. Mass spectrometric analysis located 10 cleavage sites, all corresponding to caspase-3 consensus. Spiking caspase-cleaved substrate into a human cell lysate demonstrated the high sensitivity of the procedure. Moreover, we were able to identify proteolytic cleavage products associated with the induction of cell-free apoptosis. Together, these data reveal a novel application for iTRAQ technology for the detection of proteolytic substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr0701052DOI Listing
July 2007

Overexpression of glutaredoxin 2 attenuates apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005 Feb;327(3):774-9

Division of Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) catalyzes glutathione-dependent dithiol reaction mechanisms, reducing protein disulfides, and monothiol reactions, reducing mixed disulfides between proteins and GSH (de-/glutathionylation). Here, we have overexpressed Grx2 in HeLa cells in its mitochondrial form (mGrx2-HeLa) as well as a truncated cytosolic form, lacking the mitochondrial translocation signal (tGrx2-HeLa). The resulting clones were less susceptible to apoptosis induced by 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) or doxorubicin (Dox). Overexpression of Grx2 inhibited cytochrome c release and caspase activation induced by both agents. In addition, Grx2 prevented 2-DG- and Dox-induced loss of cardiolipin, the phospholipid anchoring cytochrome c to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Overexpression of mGrx2 provided better protection than tGrx2 overexpression, especially after treatment with 2-DG. We propose that Grx2 facilitates the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis upon treatment with apoptotic agents, thereby preventing cardiolipin oxidation and cytochrome c release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.12.067DOI Listing
February 2005

Caspase-2 permeabilizes the outer mitochondrial membrane and disrupts the binding of cytochrome c to anionic phospholipids.

J Biol Chem 2004 Nov 8;279(48):49575-8. Epub 2004 Oct 8.

Division of Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Caspases are cysteine proteases that play a central role in the execution of apoptosis. Recent evidence indicates that caspase-2 is activated early in response to genotoxic stress and can function as an upstream modulator of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In particular, we have shown previously that fully processed caspase-2 can permeabilize the outer mitochondrial membrane and cause cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO release from these organelles. Using permeabilized cells, isolated mitochondria, and protein-free liposomes, we now report that this effect is direct and depends neither on the presence or cleavage of other proteins nor on a specific phospholipid composition of the liposomal membrane. Interestingly, caspase-2 was also shown to disrupt the interaction of cytochrome c with anionic phospholipids, notably cardiolipin, and thereby enhance the release of the hemoprotein caused by treatment of mitochondria with digitonin or the proapoptotic protein Bax. Combined, our data suggest that caspase-2 possesses an unparalleled ability to engage the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by permeabilizing the outer mitochondrial membrane and/or by breaching the association of cytochrome c with the inner mitochondrial membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.C400374200DOI Listing
November 2004

Short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of glutaredoxin 2 increases the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward doxorubicin and phenylarsine oxide.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Sep 24;101(36):13227-32. Epub 2004 Aug 24.

Medical Nobel Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.

Glutaredoxin (Grx) belongs to the thioredoxin fold superfamily and catalyzes glutathione-dependent oxidoreductions. The recently discovered mitochondrial and nuclear Grx (Grx2) differs from the more abundant cytosolic Grx (Grx1) by its higher affinity toward S-glutathionylated proteins and by being a substrate for thioredoxin reductase. Here, we have successfully established a method to silence the expression of Grx2 in HeLa cells by using short interfering RNA to study its role in the cell. Cells with levels of Grx2 <3% of the control were dramatically sensitized to cell death induced by doxorubicin/adriamycin and phenylarsine oxide but did not show signs of a general increase in oxidative damage with respect to carbonylation and glutathionylation. The ED(50) for doxorubicin dropped from 40 to 0.7 microM and for phenylarsine oxide from 200 to 5 nM. However, no differences were detected after treatment with cadmium, a known inhibitor of Grx1. These results indicate a crucial role of Grx2 in the regulation of the mitochondrial redox status and regulation of cell death at the mitochondrial checkpoint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0401896101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC516552PMC
September 2004

Differential regulation of the mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in neural stem cells.

Eur J Neurosci 2004 May;19(10):2613-21

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Karolinska Institutet, 71 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Despite an increasing interest in neural stem cell (NSC) research, relatively little is known about the biochemical regulation of cell death pathways in these cells. We demonstrate here, using murine-derived multipotent C17.2 NSCs, that cells undergo mitochondria-mediated cell death in response to apoptotic stimuli such as oxidative stress induced by 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). In particular, treated cells exhibited apoptotic features, including Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and -3, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Although C17.2 cells possess the Fas receptor and express procaspase-8, agonistic Fas mAb treatment failed to induce apoptosis. Fas treatment activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway, which may have an antiapoptotic as well as a growth stimulating role. Combined, our findings indicate that while NSCs are sensitive to cytotoxic stimuli that involve an engagement of mitochondria, Fas treatment does not induce death and may have an alternative role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0953-816X.2004.03391.xDOI Listing
May 2004

Mitochondrial cytochrome c release may occur by volume-dependent mechanisms not involving permeability transition.

Biochem J 2004 Feb;378(Pt 1):213-7

Division of Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

The mechanisms regulating mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization and the release of cytochrome c during apoptosis remain controversial. In the present study, we show in an in vitro model system that the release of cytochrome c may occur via moderate modulation of mitochondrial volume, irrespective of the mechanism leading to the mitochondrial swelling. In contrast with mitochondrial permeability transition-dependent release of cytochrome c, in the present study mitochondria remain intact and functionally active.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20031193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1223940PMC
February 2004

Cardiolipin is not required for Bax-mediated cytochrome c release from yeast mitochondria.

J Biol Chem 2004 Jan 8;279(2):1100-7. Epub 2003 Oct 8.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Toxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that contributes to optimal mitochondrial function and is gaining widespread attention in studies of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Divergent hypotheses describing the role of CL in cytochrome c release and apoptosis have evolved. We addressed this controversy directly by comparing the spontaneous- and Bax-mediated cytochrome c release from mitochondria isolated from two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: one lacking CL-synthase and therefore CL (DeltaCRD1) and the other, its corresponding wild type (WT). We demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry that the main yeast CL species [(16:1)2(18:1)2] differs in fatty acid composition from mammalian CL [(18:2)4], and we verified the absence of the yeast CL species in the DeltaCRD1 strain. We also demonstrated that the mitochondrial association of Bax and the resulting cytochrome c release is not dependent on the CL content of the yeast mitochondrial membranes. Bax inserted equally into both WT and DeltaCRD1 mitochondrial membranes under conditions that lead to the release of cytochrome c from both strains of yeast mitochondria. Furthermore, using models of synthetic liposomes and isolated yeast mitochondria, we found that cytochrome c was bound more "loosely" to the CL-deficient systems compared with when CL is present. These data challenge recent studies implicating that CL is required for Bax-mediated pore formation leading to the release of proteins from the mitochondrial intermembrane space. In contrast, they support our recently proposed two-step mechanism of cytochrome c release, which suggests that CL is required for binding cytochrome c to the inner mitochondrial membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M305020200DOI Listing
January 2004

Visualization of the compartmentalization of glutathione and protein-glutathione mixed disulfides in cultured cells.

FASEB J 2003 Jan 15;17(1):124-6. Epub 2002 Nov 15.

Division of Biochemical Toxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Sweden.

Fluorescence microscopy of A549 cells stained with a glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH)-specific polyclonal antibody displayed uniform staining of the peri-nuclear cytosol, with the nuclear region apparently lacking GSH staining. This discontinuous staining was confirmed in other cell types and also corroborated in A549 cells stained with the thiol-reactive dye mercury orange. The selectivity of antibody binding was confirmed by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)-dependent inhibition of GSH synthesis. However, confocal visualization of antibody-stained A549 cells in the z-plane revealed the majority of the peri-nuclear staining intensity in the upper half of the cell to be associated with mitochondria, as confirmed by double staining for cytochrome oxidase. Integration of the confocal signals from the nuclear and cytosolic regions halfway down the z-plane showed that the GSH concentrations of these compartments are close to equilibrium. Confirmation of the relatively high levels of mitochondrial glutathione was provided in cells treated with BSO and visualized in z-section, revealing the mitochondrial GSH content of these cells to be well preserved in apposition to near-complete depletion of cytosolic/nuclear GSH. Localized gradients within the cytosolic compartment were also visible, particularly in the z-plane. The antibody also provided initial visualization of the compartmentalization of protein-GSH mixed disulfides formed in A549 cells exposed to diamide. Discontinuous staining was again evident, with heavy staining in membrane blebs and in the nuclear region. Using FACS analysis of anti-GSH antibody-stained Jurkat T lymphocytes, we also demonstrated population variations in the cellular compliment of GSH and protein-GSH mixed disulfides, formed in response to diamide. In addition, we showed cell-cycle variation in GSH content of the cells, with the highest levels of GSH associated with the G2/M mitotic phase of the cell cycle, using double staining with propidium iodide. Similar FACS analyses performed in isolated mitochondria presented a considerable variation in GSH content within mitochondria of uniform granularity from the same preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.02-0259fjeDOI Listing
January 2003

Caspase-2 acts upstream of mitochondria to promote cytochrome c release during etoposide-induced apoptosis.

J Biol Chem 2002 Aug 13;277(33):29803-9. Epub 2002 Jun 13.

Division of Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

DNA damage induced by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug etoposide triggers the onset of a series of intracellular events characteristic of apoptosis. Among the early changes observed is the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, although the mechanism responsible for this effect is unclear. We demonstrate here a role for caspase-2 in etoposide-induced cytochrome c release. In particular, Jurkat T-lymphocytes treated with an irreversible caspase-2 inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Asp-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (z-VDVAD-fmk), or stably transfected with pro-caspase-2 antisense (Casp-2/AS) are refractory to cytochrome c release stimulated by etoposide. Experiments performed using a reconstituted cell-free system indicate that etoposide-induced cytochrome c release by way of caspase-2 occurs independently of cytosolic factors, suggesting that the nuclear pool of pro-caspase-2 is critical to this process. Apart from inhibiting cytochrome c release, undermining caspase-2 activity results in an attenuation of downstream events, such as pro-caspase-9 and -3 activation, phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane, and DNA fragmentation. Taken together, our data indicate that caspase-2 provides an important link between etoposide-induced DNA damage and the engagement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M204185200DOI Listing
August 2002