Publications by authors named "Margit Heier"

175 Publications

Incidence, progression and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in 35-95-year-old individuals from three jointly designed German cohort studies.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2022 4;7(1):e000912. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Objective: To estimate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) incidence/progression across a wide age range.

Methods And Analysis: AMD at baseline and follow-up (colour fundus imaging, Three Continent AMD Consortium Severity Scale, 3CACSS, clinical classification, CC) was assessed for 1513 individuals aged 35-95 years at baseline from three jointly designed population-based cohorts in Germany: Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA-Fit, KORA-FF4) and Altersbezogene Untersuchungen zur Gesundheit der Universität Regensburg (AugUR) with 18-year, 14-year or 3-year follow-up, respectively. Baseline assessment included lifestyle, metabolic and genetic markers. We derived cumulative estimates, rates and risk factor association for: (1) incident early AMD, (2) incident late AMD among no AMD at baseline (definition 1), (3) incident late AMD among no/early AMD at baseline (definition 2), (4) progression from early to late AMD.

Results: Incidence/progression increased by age, except progression in 70+-year old. We observed 35-55-year-old with 3CACSS-based early AMD who progressed to late AMD. Predominant risk factor for incident late AMD definition 2 was early AMD followed by genetics and smoking. When separating incident late AMD definition 1 from progression (instead of combined as incident late AMD definition 2), estimates help judge an individual's risk based on age and (3CACSS) early AMD status: for example, for a 65-year old, 3-year late AMD risk with no or early AMD is 0.5% or 7%, 3-year early AMD risk is 3%; for an 85-year old, these numbers are 0.5%, 21%, 12%, respectively. For CC-based 'early/intermediate' AMD, incidence was higher, but progression was lower.

Conclusion: We provide a practical guide for AMD risk for ophthalmology practice and healthcare management and document a late AMD risk for individuals aged <55 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjophth-2021-000912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8728420PMC
January 2022

Association of circulating MR-proADM with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the general population: Results from the KORA F4 cohort study.

PLoS One 2022 6;17(1):e0262330. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Medicine IV, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Germany.

Background And Aim: Despite its vasodilatory effect, adrenomedullin and its surrogate mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) have been found to be positively associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms thereof remain unclear and the associations were mostly shown in geriatric cohorts or in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible involvement of abdominal obesity, selected adipokines, and biomarkers of subclinical inflammation in the association of MR-proADM with mortality in a population based study cohort.

Methods: Prospective analysis of the KORA F4 study; median follow-up 9.1 (8.8-9.4) years. Complete data on MR-proADM and mortality was available for 1551 participants, aged 56.9±12.9 years (mean±SD). Correlation and regression analyses of MR-proADM with overall (BMI) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference), selected adipokines and biomarkers of subclinical inflammation. Cox proportional hazard models on the association of MR-proADM with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality with adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and selected biomarkers in study subgroups (n = 603-1551).

Results: MR-proADM associated with all-cause (HR (95%CI): 2.37 (1.72-3.26) and 2.31 (1.67-3.20)) and cardiovascular mortality (4.28 (2.19-8.39) and 4.44 (2.25-8.76)) after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors including BMI or waist circumference, respectively. MR-proADM was further associated with four out of seven examined adipokines (leptin, retinol-binding protein-4, chemerin, and adiponectin) and with five out of eleven examined biomarkers of subclinical inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-22, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) after multivariable adjustment and correction for multiple testing. However, only IL-6 substantially attenuated the association of MR-proADM with all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: We found an association of MR-proADM with (abdominal) obesity, selected adipokines, and biomarkers of subclinical inflammation. However, the association of MR-proADM with mortality was independent of these parameters. Future studies should investigate the role of IL-6 and further characteristics of subclinical inflammation in the association between MR-proADM and all-cause mortality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0262330PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8735665PMC
January 2022

Blood Immunoproteasome Activity Is Regulated by Sex, Age and in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: A First Population-Based Study.

Cells 2021 11 28;10(12). Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Comprehensive Pneumology Center (CPC), University Hospital, Helmholtz Center Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, 81377 Munich, Germany.

Dysfunction of the immunoproteasome has been implicated in cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Its potential as a biomarker for predicting disease stages, however, has not been investigated so far and population-based analyses on the impact of sex and age are missing. We here analyzed the activity of all six catalytic sites of the proteasome in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 873 study participants of the KORA FF4 study using activity-based probes. The activity of the immuno- and standard proteasome correlated clearly with elevated leukocyte counts of study participants. Unexpectedly, we observed a strong sex dimorphism for proteasome activity with significantly lower immunoproteasome activity in women. In aging, almost all catalytic activities of the proteasome were activated in aged women while maintained upon aging in men. We also noted distinct sex-related activation patterns of standard and immunoproteasome active sites in chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as determined by multiple linear regression modeling. Our data thus provides a conceptual framework for future analysis of immunoproteasome function as a bio-marker for chronic inflammatory disease development and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10123336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8699521PMC
November 2021

Association of serum uromodulin with adipokines in dependence of type 2 diabetes.

Cytokine 2022 Feb 15;150:155786. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Germany; Clinical Cooperation Group Diabetes, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Partner München-Neuherberg, Germany.

Background: The renal tubular glycoprotein uromodulin is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the association of serum uromodulin with adipokines and tested the effect modification by diabetes status.

Methods: The associations of serum uromodulin with eight adipokines were assessed in 795-1080 participants of the KORA F4 study aged 62-81 years using linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate and diabetes. Significant associations were assessed for effect modification by diabetes status. We further tested using logistic regression whether adjustment for the significant adipokines affected the association of uromodulin with type 2 diabetes.

Results: Serum uromodulin was inversely associated with chemerin and retinol-binding protein-4 after multivariable adjustment (p < 0.001) and Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. No significant association was observed between uromodulin and the other adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, secreted frizzled-related protein 5, progranulin, omentin-1 and vaspin) after correcting for multiple testing. The association of uromodulin with chemerin and retinol-binding protein-4 was stronger in participants with type 2 diabetes than in participants without diabetes (p for interaction < 0.05). However, inclusion of chemerin and retinol-binding protein-4 in logistic regression models did not attenuate the association of serum uromodulin with diabetes.

Conclusions: Serum uromodulin was inversely associated with the predominantly pro-inflammatory adipokines chemerin and retinol-binding protein-4. The associations were stronger in participants with type 2 diabetes compared to participants without diabetes. However, the association of serum uromodulin with type 2 diabetes was independent of chemerin and retinol-binding protein-4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155786DOI Listing
February 2022

Diagonal earlobe crease and long-term survival after myocardial infarction.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 12 16;21(1):597. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Chair of Epidemiology, University Augsburg, University Hospital Augsburg, Stenglinstr. 2, 86156, Augsburg, Germany.

Background: The association between the presence of a diagonal earlobe crease (DEC) and coronary artery disease has been prescribed earlier. However, it is unclear whether patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and DEC have a higher risk of dying.

Methods: Study participants were persons with AMI who were included in the KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry Augsburg from August 2015 to December 2016. After taking pictures of both earlobes, two employees independently assessed the severity of DEC in 4°. For analysis, the expression of the DEC was dichotomized. Information on risk factors, severity and therapy of the AMI was collected by interview and from the medical record. Vital status post AMI was obtained by population registries in 2019. The relationship between DEC and survival time was determined using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Out of 655 participants, 442 (67.5%) showed DEC grade 2/3 and 213 (32.5%) DEC grade 0/1. Median observation period was 3.06 years (5-1577 days). During this period, 26 patients (12.2%) with DEC grade 0/1 and 92 patients (20.8%) with grade 2/3 died (hazard ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-2.96, p = 0.0037). In the fully adjusted model, patients with DEC grade 2/3 had a 1.48-fold increased risk of death compared to the DEC grade 0/1 patient group (CI 0.94-2.34, p = 0.0897). The fully adjusted model applied for 1-year survival revealed a significant, 2.57-fold hazard ratio of death (CI 1.07-6.17, p = 0.0347) for the patients with DEC grade 2/3.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that DEC is independently associated with 1-year AMI survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02425-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8679982PMC
December 2021

Novel associations between inflammation-related proteins and adiposity: A targeted proteomics approach across four population-based studies.

Transl Res 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; Chair of Epidemiology, University of Augsburg, University Hospital Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany; Independent Research Group Clinical Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.

Chronic low-grade inflammation has been proposed as a linking mechanism between obesity and the development of inflammation-related conditions such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Despite major advances in the last 2 decades, the complex relationship between inflammation and obesity remains poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel inflammation-related proteins associated with adiposity. We investigated the association between BMI and waist circumference and 72 circulating inflammation-related proteins, measured using the Proximity Extension Assay (Olink Proteomics), in 3,308 participants of four independent European population-based studies (KORA-Fit, BVSII, ESTHER, and Bialystok PLUS). In addition, we used body fat mass measurements obtained by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the Bialystok PLUS study to further validate our results and to explore the relationship between inflammation-related proteins and body fat distribution. We found 14 proteins associated with at least one measure of adiposity across all four studies, including four proteins for which the association is novel: DNER, SLAMF1, RANKL, and CSF-1. We confirmed previously reported associations with CCL19, CCL28, FGF-21, HGF, IL-10RB, IL-18, IL-18R1, IL-6, SCF, and VEGF-A. The majority of the identified inflammation-related proteins were associated with visceral fat as well as with the accumulation of adipose tissue in the abdomen and the trunk. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into the immune dysregulation observed in obesity that might help uncover pathophysiological mechanisms of disease development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2021.11.004DOI Listing
November 2021

Epidemiological trends in mortality, event rates and case fatality of acute myocardial infarction from 2004 to 2015: results from the KORA MI registry.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):2142-2152

Independent Research Group Clinical Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.

Aim: This study examines epidemiological trends of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Germany from 2004-2015 across different age groups, using data of the population-based KORA myocardial infarction registry.

Methods: Annual age-standardised, age-group- and sex-specific mortality and event rates (incident and recurrent) per 100,000 population as well as 28-day case fatality were calculated from all registered cases of AMI and coronary heart disease deaths in 25-74-year-olds from 2004-2015 and 75-84-year-olds from 2009-2015. Average annual percentage changes (AAPC) were calculated by joinpoint regression.

Results: Mortality rates declined considerably among the elderly (75-84 years), in men by -6.0% annually, due to declines of case fatality by -3.0% and incidence rate by 3.4% and in women by -10.0%, driven by declines in incidence (-9.1%) and recurrence rate (-4.9%). Significant mortality declines also occurred in males, 65-74 years of age (AAPC -3.8%). Among the age groups 25-54 years and 55-64 years, there was no substantial decline in mortality, event rates or case fatality except for a decline of incidence rate in 55-64-year-old men (AAPC -1.8%).

Conclusion: Inhomogeneous AMI trends across age-groups indicate progress in prevention and treatment for the population >64 years, while among <55-year-olds, we found no significant trend in AMI morbidity and mortality.KEY MESSAGESAge standardised AMI mortality continued to decline from 2009 to 2015 in the study region.Declines in AMI mortality were driven by declines in event rates (both incidence and recurrence rates) and case fatality.AMI trends were inconsistent across different age groups with the strongest declines in mortality and event rates among the elderly population (75-84 years of age).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.2002926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8604473PMC
December 2021

Cardiovascular mortality risk in young adults with isolated systolic hypertension: findings from population-based MONICA/KORA cohort study.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, München, Germany.

The clinical significance of isolated systolic hypertension in young adults (ISHY) remains a topic of debate due to evidence ISHY could be a spurious condition resulting from exageratted pulse pressure amplification in "young tall men with elastic arteries". Hence, we aimed to investigate whether ISHY is associated with an increased risk of cardivascular (CVD) mortality in a sample of 5597 young adults (49.8% men, 50.2% women) between 25 and 45 years old from the prospective population-based MONICA/KORA cohort. ISHY was prevalent in 5.2% of the population, affecting mostly men (73.1%), and associated with increased smoking, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia in comparison to participants with normal blood pressure (BP). Within a follow-up period of 25.3 years (SD ± 5.2; 141,768 person-years), 133(2.4%) CVD mortality cases were observed. Participants with ISHY had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.89(1.01-3.53, p < 0.05) times higher risk of CVD mortality than participants with normal BP, even following adjustment for CVD risk factors. However, adjustment for antihypertensive medication (HR 0.46; 0.26-0.81, p < 0.001) and increasing height (HR 0.96; 0.93-0.99, p < 0.05) revealed independently protective effects against CVD mortality, suggesting that although ISHY is associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality, the protective effects of increasing height or antihypertensive medication should be considered in treatment rationale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00619-zDOI Listing
October 2021

Determinants of prehospital coronary heart disease death.

Sci Rep 2021 08 24;11(1):17134. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Independent Research Group Clinical Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

Limited data on prehospital and early in-hospital coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths is available. Aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive description on CHD cases and to analyse determinants of prehospital death. From a population-based myocardial infarction (MI) registry in Augsburg, Germany we included 12,572 CHD cases aged 25-74 years between 2003-2017 and 4754 CHD cases aged 75-84 years between 2009-2017. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify patient characteristics associated with prehospital death compared to 28-day survival. In patients aged 25-74 years, 1713 (13.6%) died prehospital, 941 (7.5%) died within the first 24 h in-hospital and 560 (4.5%) died within the 2nd and 28th day after the acute event; in patients aged 75-84 years the numbers were 1263 (26.6%), 749 (15.8%) and 329 (6.9%), respectively. In both age groups increasing age, actual smoking or nicotine abuse, previous MI, angina pectoris and previous stroke were more likely and hypertension was less likely in cases, who died prehospital compared to 28-day survivors. For example, in the 25-74 years old we revealed an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.53 (95% CI 3.84-5.34) for angina pectoris and an OR of 0.69 (95% CI 0.57-0.85) for hypertension. In cases aged 25-74 years, an association of living alone (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.49) and diabetes (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.41) with prehospital death was found. Whereas in cases aged 75-84 years, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 2.20, 95%CI 1.69-0.2.85) was associated with prehospital death. In summary, we observed high prehospital and early in-hospital case fatality. Besides classical cardiac risk factors, the impact of living alone on prehospital death was more important in patients aged 25-74 years than in older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96575-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385003PMC
August 2021

Performance of antigen testing for diagnosis of COVID-19: a direct comparison of a lateral flow device to nucleic acid amplification based tests.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Aug 10;21(1):798. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

III. Medical Clinic-Gastroenterology, Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Augsburg, Stenglinstraße 2, 86156, Augsburg, Germany.

Objectives: The gold standard for diagnosing an infection with SARS-CoV-2 is detection of viral RNA by nucleic acid amplification techniques. Test capacities, however, are limited. Therefore, numerous easy-to-use rapid antigen tests based on lateral flow technology have been developed. Manufacturer-reported performance data seem convincing, but real-world data are missing.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed all prospectively collected antigen tests results performed between 23.06.2020 and 26.11.2020, generated by non-laboratory personnel at the point-of-care from oro- or nasopharyngeal swab samples at the University Hospital Augsburg and compared them to concomitantly (within 24 h.) generated results from molecular tests.

Results: For a total of 3630 antigen tests, 3110 NAAT results were available. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of antigen testing were 59.4%, 99.0%, 98.7% and 64.8%, respectively. Sensitivity and PPV were lower in asymptomatic patients (47.6% and 44.4%, respectively) and only slightly higher in patients with clinical symptoms (66.7% and 85.0%, respectively). Some samples with very low Ct-values (minimum Ct 13) were not detected by antigen testing. 31 false positive results occurred. ROC curve analysis showed that reducing the COI cut-off from 1, as suggested by the manufacturer, to 0.9 is optimal, albeit with an AUC of only 0.66.

Conclusion: In real life, performance of lateral-flow-based antigen tests are well below the manufacturer's specifications, irrespective of patient's symptoms. Their use for detection of individual patients infected with SARS-CoV2 should be discouraged. This does not preclude their usefulness in large-scale screening programs to reduce transmission events on a population-wide scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06524-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354301PMC
August 2021

Correction to: Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Overcommitment in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI): Associations with Return to Work 6 Months After AMI.

J Occup Rehabil 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Chair of Epidemiology, UNIKA-T Augsburg, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Neusässer Str. 47, 86156, Augsburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10926-021-09996-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Linking the obesity rs1421085 variant circuitry to cellular, metabolic, and organismal phenotypes in vivo.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 21;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell Institute, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD, UK.

Variants in FTO have the strongest association with obesity; however, it is still unclear how those noncoding variants mechanistically affect whole-body physiology. We engineered a deletion of the rs1421085 conserved cis-regulatory module (CRM) in mice and confirmed in vivo that the CRM modulates and gene expression and mitochondrial function in adipocytes. The CRM affects molecular and cellular phenotypes in an adipose depot-dependent manner and affects organismal phenotypes that are relevant for obesity, including decreased high-fat diet-induced weight gain, decreased whole-body fat mass, and decreased skin fat thickness. Last, we connected the CRM to a genetically determined effect on steroid patterns in males that was dependent on nutritional challenge and conserved across mice and humans. Together, our data establish cross-species conservation of the rs1421085 regulatory circuitry at the molecular, cellular, metabolic, and organismal level, revealing previously unknown contextual dependence of the variant's action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg0108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294759PMC
July 2021

Serum uromodulin is inversely associated with biomarkers of subclinical inflammation in the population-based KORA F4 study.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Jun 6;14(6):1618-1625. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU, München, Germany.

Background: Uromodulin is a kidney-specific glycoprotein synthesized in tubular cells of Henle's loop exerting nephroprotective and immunomodulatory functions in the urinary tract. A small amount of uromodulin is also released into the systemic circulation, where its physiological role is unknown. Serum uromodulin (sUmod) has been associated with metabolic risk factors and with cardiovascular events and mortality, where these associations were partly stronger in men than in women. In this study, we investigated the associations of sUmod with biomarkers of subclinical inflammation in a population-based sample of women and men.

Methods: Associations of sUmod with 10 biomarkers of subclinical inflammation were assessed in 1065 participants of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 study aged 62-81 years using linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate and diabetes. Analyses were performed in the total study sample and stratified by sex.

Results: sUmod was inversely associated with white blood cell count, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor-α, myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase-3, IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-22 after multivariable adjustment and correction for multiple testing (P < 0.001 for each observation). There was a trend towards a stronger association of sUmod with pro-inflammatory markers in men than in women, with a significant P for sex interaction (<0.001) regarding the relation of sUmod with IL-6.

Conclusions: sUmod was inversely associated with biomarkers of subclinical inflammation in older participants of the KORA F4 study. The association of sUmod with IL-6 differed between women and men. Future research should focus on whether the immunomodulatory properties of sUmod are one explanation for the association of sUmod with cardiovascular outcomes and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfaa165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248959PMC
June 2021

White matter hyperintensity volume in pre-diabetes, diabetes and normoglycemia.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 06;9(1)

Department of Radiology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

Introduction: As white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of the brain are associated with an increased risk of stroke, cognitive decline, and depression, elucidating the associated risk factors is important. In addition to age and hypertension, pre-diabetes and diabetes may play important roles in the development of WMHs. Previous studies have, however, shown conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the effect of diabetes status and quantitative markers of glucose metabolism on WMH volume in a population-based cohort without prior cardiovascular disease.

Research Design And Methods: 400 participants underwent 3 T MRI. WMHs were manually segmented on 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered to all participants not previously diagnosed with diabetes to assess 2-hour serum glucose concentrations. Fasting glucose concentrations and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses of WMH volume and measures of glycemic status were performed while controlling for cardiovascular risk factors and multiple testing.

Results: The final study population comprised 388 participants (57% male; age 56.3±9.2 years; n=98 with pre-diabetes, n=51 with diabetes). Higher WMH volume was associated with pre-diabetes (p=0.001) and diabetes (p=0.026) compared with normoglycemic control participants after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. 2-hour serum glucose (p<0.001), but not fasting glucose (p=0.389) or HbA1c (p=0.050), showed a significant positive association with WMH volume after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that high 2-hour serum glucose concentration in OGTT, but not fasting glucose levels, may be an independent risk factor for the development of WMHs, with the potential to inform intensified prevention strategies in individuals at risk of WMH-associated morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-002050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240582PMC
June 2021

Admission glucose level and short-term mortality in older patients with acute myocardial infarction: results from the KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry.

BMJ Open 2021 06 3;11(6):e046641. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Chair of Epidemiology, UNIKA-T Augsburg, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Augsburg, Germany.

Study Objectives: To investigate the association between admission blood glucose levels and 28-day mortality as well as in-hospital complications in older patients with incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing modern treatment.

Methods: From a German population-based regional MI registry, 5530 patients (2016 women), aged 65-84 years, hospitalised with an incident AMI between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2016 were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between admission blood glucose and 28-day mortality as well as in-hospital complications after AMI. Analyses stratified according to age, diabetes and type of infarction (ST-elevation MI (STEMI)/non-STEMI) were conducted.

Results: The adjusted ORs for the association between admission blood glucose and 28-day mortality in young-old (65-74 years) and old (75-84 years) patients with AMI were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.21 to 1.62) and 1.21 (95% CI: 0.98 to 1.50) per 1 SD increase in admission blood glucose, respectively. Furthermore, higher admission blood glucose was related to case fatality irrespective of the diabetes status and type of infarction only in the under-75 group. For the patients aged 75-84 years, it was only true for those without diabetes and STEMI. Admission blood glucose was also associated with major cardiac complications in both age groups.

Conclusion: Admission blood glucose was significantly associated with 28-day case fatality in patients with AMI aged 65-74 years but not 75-84 years; furthermore, in both age groups there was an increased risk of major complications. It seems that admission glucose may play a rather minor role in terms of case fatality in higher aged patients with AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183232PMC
June 2021

Simulating the dynamics of atherosclerosis to the incidence of myocardial infarction, applied to the KORA population.

Stat Med 2021 06 19;40(14):3299-3312. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Radiation Medicine, Helmholtz Zentrum München German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Munich, Germany.

Analyzing epidemiological data with simplified mathematical models of disease development provides a link between the time-course of incidence and the underlying biological processes. Here we point out that considerable modeling flexibility is gained if the model is solved by simulation only. To this aim, a model of atherosclerosis is proposed: a Markov Chain with continuous state space which represents the coronary artery intimal surface area involved with atherosclerotic lesions of increasing severity. Myocardial infarction rates are assumed to be proportional to the area of most severe lesions. The model can be fitted simultaneously to infarction incidence rates observed in the KORA registry, and to the age-dependent prevalence and extent of atherosclerotic lesions in the PDAY study. Moreover, the simulation approach allows for non-linear transition rates, and to consider at the same time randomness and inter-individual heterogeneity. Interestingly, the fit revealed significant age dependence of parameters in females around the age of menopause, qualitatively reproducing the known vascular effects of female sex hormones. For males, the incidence curve flattens for higher ages. According to the model, frailty explains this flattening only partially, and saturation of the disease process plays also an important role. This study shows the feasibility of simulating subclinical and epidemiological data with the same mathematical model. The approach is very general and may be extended to investigate the effects of risk factors or interventions. Moreover, it offers an interface to integrate quantitative individual health data as assessed, for example, by imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8951DOI Listing
June 2021

Distribution patterns of intramyocellular and extramyocellular fat by magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with diabetes, prediabetes and normoglycaemic controls.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 08 17;23(8):1868-1878. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Aim: To evaluate the distribution of intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCLs) as well as total fat content in abdominal skeletal muscle by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a dedicated segmentation algorithm in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), prediabetes and normoglycaemic controls.

Materials And Methods: Subjects from a population-based cohort were classified with T2D, prediabetes or as normoglycaemic controls. Total myosteatosis, IMCLs and EMCLs were quantified by multiecho Dixon MRI as proton-density fat-fraction (in %) in abdominal skeletal muscle.

Results: Among 337 included subjects (median age 56.0 [IQR: 49.0-64.0] years, 56.4% males, median body mass index [BMI]: 27.2 kg/m ), 129 (38.3%) were classified with an impaired glucose metabolism (T2D: 49 [14.5%]; prediabetes: 80 [23.7%]). IMCLs were significantly higher than EMCLs in subjects without obesity (5.7% [IQR: 4.8%-7.0%] vs. 4.1% [IQR: 2.7%-5.8%], P < .001), whereas the amounts of IMCLs and EMCLs were shown to be equal and significantly higher in subjects with obesity (both 6.7%, P < .001). Subjects with prediabetes and T2D had significantly higher amounts of IMCLs and EMCLs compared with normoglycaemic controls (P < .001). In univariable analysis, prediabetes and T2D were significantly associated with both IMCLs (prediabetes: β: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.28-1.24, P = .002; T2D: β: 1.56, 95% CI: 0.66-2.47, P < .001) and EMCLs (prediabetes: β: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.56-2.51, P = .002; T2D: β: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.33-2.96, P < .001). After adjustment for age and gender, the association of IMCLs with prediabetes attenuated (P = 0.06), whereas for T2D, both IMCLs and EMCLs remained significantly and positively associated (P < .02).

Conclusion: There are significant differences in the amount and distribution ratio of IMCLs and EMCLs between subjects with T2D, prediabetes and normoglycaemic controls. Therefore, these patterns of intramuscular fat distribution by MRI might serve as imaging biomarkers in both normal and impaired glucose metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14413DOI Listing
August 2021

Admission ECG changes predict short term-mortality after acute myocardial infarction less reliable in patients with diabetes.

Sci Rep 2021 03 18;11(1):6307. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Chair of Epidemiology, LMU München at UNIKA-T Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.

Prior studies examined association between short-term mortality and certain changes in the admission ECG in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Nevertheless, little is known about possible differences between patients with diabetes and without diabetes in this regard. So the aim of the study was to investigate the association between 28-day case fatality according to certain ECG changes comparing AMI cases with and without diabetes from the general population. From 2000 until 2017 a total of 9756 AMI cases was prospectively recorded in the study Area of Augsburg, Germany. Each case was assigned to one of the following groups according to admission ECG: 'ST-elevation', 'ST-depression', 'only T-negativity', 'predominantly bundle branch block', 'unspecific changes' and 'normal ECG' (the last two were put together for regression analyses). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were calculated to compare 28-day case-fatality between the ECG groups for the total sample and separately for diabetes and non-diabetes cases. For the non-diabetes group, the parsimonious logistic regression model revealed significantly better 28-day-outcome for the 'normal ECG / unspecific changes' group (OR: 0.47 [0.29-0.76]) compared to the reference group (STEMI). Contrary, in AMI cases with diabetes the category 'normal ECG / unspecific changes' was not significantly associated with lower short-term mortality (OR: 0.87 [0.49-1.54]). Neither of the other ECG groups was significantly associated with 28-day-mortality in the parsimonious logistic regression models. Consequently, the absence of AMI-typical changes in the admission ECG predicts favorable short-term mortality only in non-diabetic cases, but not so in patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85674-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973741PMC
March 2021

Serum uromodulin and decline of kidney function in older participants of the population-based KORA F4/FF4 study.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Jan 1;14(1):205-211. Epub 2020 May 1.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Background: Uromodulin, a tissue-specific tubular glycoprotein, has recently emerged as a promising biomarker for kidney function and tubular integrity. However, the association of serum uromodulin (sUmod) with renal function decline is still unknown in an older general population.

Methods: We analysed the association of sUmod with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in 1075 participants of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 study, ages 62-81 years, at baseline and prospectively after a mean follow-up time of 6.5 years ( = 605) using logistic and linear regression models as well as receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses.

Results: Cross-sectionally, sUmod was positively associated with eGFR (β = 0.31 ± 0.02 per higher standard deviation sUmod; P < 0.001) and inversely associated with the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (β = -0.19 ± 0.04; P < 0.001) after adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, arterial hypertension, prediabetes and diabetes. After multivariable adjustment including baseline eGFR, sUmod was not associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as a decrease in eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m after 6.5 years of follow-up {odds ratio [OR] 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.36] per higher SD sUmod} but was inversely associated with advanced CKD, defined as incident eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m [OR 0.64 (95% CI 0.42-0.98)]. The ROC showed no added predictive value of sUmod for kidney function decline in the fully adjusted model.

Conclusions: Higher sUmod was inversely associated with progression to advanced kidney disease but does not provide additional predictive value for the development of CKD in elderly participants of the population-based KORA study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfaa032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857794PMC
January 2021

Low serum calcium is associated with higher long-term mortality in myocardial infarction patients from a population-based registry.

Sci Rep 2021 01 28;11(1):2476. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

LMU München at UNIKA-T Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.

Calcium plays an essential role in physiology of the cardiovascular system. Aberrations from normal serum calcium levels are known to be associated with several cardiovascular diseases. Its possible role as a predictor for long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still uncertain. In this study, a total of 3732 patients (aged 25-74 years) with incident AMI surviving at least 28 days after AMI was included. The median follow-up time was 6.0 years. Admission total serum calcium levels were divided into quartiles. The Kaplan-Meier-Curve suggested a division of the follow up time in two different time periods. So, Cox regression models were calculated to assess association between admission serum calcium levels and all-cause long-term mortality with two observation periods: 28-2500 days and > 2500 days. The final model was adjusted for various comorbidities, clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment and medication. The third quartile (normal-high Calcium levels) served as the reference group. The fully adjusted Cox-regression model shows significantly higher mortality risk for low serum calcium (quartile 1) within the timeframe 28-2500 days after the event (OR 1.53 [1.19-1.98]). The other groups did not differ significantly from each other. In the later observation period (from 2500 days until death or censoring) no more significant differences were seen between the four calcium quartiles. In summary, low serum calcium is an independent predictor of adverse outcome in the first 2500 days (about 7 years) after AMI. On later points in time this effect attenuates, so that no more significant differences can be observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81929-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843683PMC
January 2021

Associated factors of white matter hyperintensity volume: a machine-learning approach.

Sci Rep 2021 01 27;11(1):2325. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

To identify the most important parameters associated with cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH), in consideration of potential collinearity, we used a data-driven machine-learning approach. We analysed two independent cohorts (KORA and SHIP). WMH volumes were derived from cMRI-images (FLAIR). 90 (KORA) and 34 (SHIP) potential determinants of WMH including measures of diabetes, blood-pressure, medication-intake, sociodemographics, life-style factors, somatic/depressive-symptoms and sleep were collected. Elastic net regression was used to identify relevant predictor covariates associated with WMH volume. The ten most frequently selected variables in KORA were subsequently examined for robustness in SHIP. The final KORA sample consisted of 370 participants (58% male; age 55.7 ± 9.1 years), the SHIP sample comprised 854 participants (38% male; age 53.9 ± 9.3 years). The most often selected and highly replicable parameters associated with WMH volume were in descending order age, hypertension, components of the social environment (i.e. widowed, living alone) and prediabetes. A systematic machine-learning based analysis of two independent, population-based cohorts showed, that besides age and hypertension, prediabetes and components of the social environment might play important roles in the development of WMH. Our results enable personal risk assessment for the development of WMH and inform prevention strategies tailored to the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81883-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840689PMC
January 2021

Association of antecedent cardiovascular risk factor levels and trajectories with cardiovascular magnetic resonance-derived cardiac function and structure.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 01 4;23(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Institute of Epidemiology, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.

Background: The association of longitudinal trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-measures of cardiac structure and function in the community is not well known. Therefore we aimed to relate risk factor levels from different examination cycles to CMR-measures of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle in a population-based cohort.

Methods: We assessed conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors in 349 participants (143 women; aged 25-59 years) at three examination cycles (Exam 1 [baseline], at Exam 2 [7-years follow-up] and at Exam 3 [14-years follow-up]) of the KORA S4 cohort and related single-point measurements of individual risk factors and longitudinal trajectories of these risk factors to various CMR-measures obtained at Exam 3.

Results: High levels of diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and LDL-cholesterol at the individual exams were associated with worse cardiac function and structure. Trajectory clusters representing higher levels of the individual risk factors were associated with worse cardiac function and structure compared to low risk trajectory clusters of individual risk factors. Multivariable (combining different risk factors) trajectory clusters were associated with different cardiac parameters in a graded fashion (e.g. decrease of LV stroke volume for middle risk cluster β = - 4.91 ml/m, 95% CI - 7.89; - 1.94, p < 0.01 and high risk cluster β = - 7.00 ml/m, 95% CI - 10.73; - 3.28, p < 0.001 compared to the low risk cluster). The multivariable longitudinal trajectory clusters added significantly to explain variation in CMR traits beyond the multivariable risk profile obtained at Exam 3.

Conclusions: Cardiovascular disease risk factor levels, measured over a time period of 14 years, were associated with CMR-derived measures of cardiac structure and function. Longitudinal multivariable trajectory clusters explained a greater proportion of the inter-individual variation in cardiac traits than multiple risk factor assessed contemporaneous with the CMR exam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-020-00698-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780638PMC
January 2021

Incidental findings in whole-body MR imaging of a population-based cohort study: Frequency, management and psychosocial consequences.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jan 28;134:109451. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Objectives: Management of incidental findings (IF) remains controversial but highly relevant. Our aim was to assess the frequency, management and psychosocial consequences of IF reporting in a population-based cohort study undergoing whole-body MR imaging.

Methods: The study was nested in a prospective cohort from a longitudinal, population-based cohort (KORA-FF4) in southern Germany. All MR obtained on 3 T MR scanner were reviewed by board-certified radiologists regarding clinically relevant IF. A baseline and follow-up questionnaires including PHQ-9 were completed prior to and 6-month after to the scan.

Results: Of 400 participants (56.3 ± 9.2years, 58 % male) undergoing whole-body MR, IF were found in 22 % of participants (n = 89); most frequently located in the abdominal sequences. In the pre-scan survey, most participants stated as the motivation that they wanted to "contribute to a scientific purpose" (91 %), while "knowing whether I'm healthy" was the most frequent motivation reported 6 months post-scan (88 %). The desire for IF reporting increased over time (pre- vs. 6-months-post-scan), also for clinically less important IF (72 % vs. 84 %, p = 0.001). Regarding psychosocial impact, a small portion (3.4 %) reported that awaiting the IF report added "definitely" or "very probably" additional stress burden. Of participants with reported IF, 56.8 % classified the results as "very helpful". In the post-scan survey moderate depression was observed in 3.3 % and severe depression in 1.2 %. This did not differ between participants with and without reported IF.

Conclusion: In a cohort with whole-body MR imaging, the prevalence of IF was high. Participants considered reporting of IF highly important and added only minor psychological burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109451DOI Listing
January 2021

Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Overcommitment in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI): Associations with Return to Work 6 Months After AMI.

J Occup Rehabil 2021 09 16;31(3):532-542. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Chair of Epidemiology, UNIKA-T Augsburg, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Neusässer Str. 47, 86156, Augsburg, Germany.

Purpose Stress-related factors influence the adaptation to life after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), including return to work. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of work-related stress, (expressed by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model) on return to work after AMI. Methods A longitudinal study with AMI patients was conducted in order to assess associations between the independent variables effort, reward, ERI and overcommitment and the outcome return to work after AMI. Return to work was inquired at 6 months follow-up. Logistic regression models were applied in the analysis. The fully-adjusted model included demographic, clinical, social, stress-related and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) covariables. Results Of the 346 enrolled patients aged 31 to 82 years, 239 (69.1%) were included in the regression analysis. In the unadjusted model ERI presented an odds ratio (OR) of 1.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-3.42). Associations for effort and overcommitment were 0.98 (95% CI 0.83-1.15) and 1.09 (95% CI 0.99-1.18). However, reward showed a significantly inverse association with return to work with an OR of 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.99). In the fully adjusted model the OR of ERI decreased to 1.20 (95% CI 0.49-2.96). Effort, reward and overcommitment also showed attenuated ORs without significant results in all models. Diabetes mellitus, current smoking, low physical and low mental HRQOL presented significantly negative relations with return to work. Conclusions Work-related stress appears less important than HRQOL and resilience in terms of return to work after AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10926-020-09942-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298327PMC
September 2021

Serum uromodulin is inversely associated with arterial hypertension and the vasoconstrictive prohormone CT-proET-1 in the population-based KORA F4 study.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(8):e0237364. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, LMU München, Munich, Germany.

Objectives: Uromodulin has been associated with arterial hypertension in genome-wide association studies, but data from clinical and preclinical studies are inconsistent. We here analyzed the association of serum uromodulin (sUmod) with arterial hypertension and vasoactive hormones in a population-based study.

Methods: In 1108 participants of the KORA F4 study aged 62-81 years, sUmod was measured and the association of sUmod with arterial hypertension was assessed using logistic regression models. The associations of sUmod with renin and aldosterone and with the vasoconstrictive prohormone C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) were analyzed in 1079 participants and in 618 participants, respectively, using linear regression models.

Results: After multivariable adjustment including sex, age, eGFR, BMI, fasting glucose, current smoking, previous stroke and myocardial infarction, sUmod was inversely associated with arterial hypertension (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68-0.91; p = 0.001). SUmod was not significantly associated with renin and aldosterone after adjustment for sex, age and eGFR. However, sUmod was inversely associated with CT-proET-1 (β -0.19 ± 0.04; p < 0.001) after adjustment for sex, age, eGFR, BMI, arterial hypertension, fasting glucose, current smoking, previous stroke and myocardial infarction. The association with CT-proET-1 was stronger in participants with hypertension (β -0.22 ± 0.04) than in normotensive participants (β -0.13 ± 0.06; p for interaction hypertension = 0.003 in the model adjusted for hypertension).

Conclusions: SUmod was inversely associated with arterial hypertension and the vasoconstrictive prohormone CT-proET-1, suggesting direct or indirect effects of sUmod on blood pressure regulation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237364PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413541PMC
October 2020

Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in older people: results from the population-based KORA-age 1 study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 2;20(1):1049. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Independent Research Group Clinical Epidemiology, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

Background: Hypertension remains a significant modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. We aimed to describe sex-stratified age-standardized estimates of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension, and their associated factors in older adults.

Methods: The KORA-Age1 is a population-based cross-sectional survey carried out in 2008/2009 on individuals aged 65-94 years in Augsburg region, Germany. Blood pressure measurements were available for 1052 out of 1079 persons who participated in the physical examination. Factors associated with prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension were investigated by multivariable logistic regression.

Results: The overall prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was 73.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 69.3-77.9], representing 74.8% (95% CI, 68.4-80.2) in men and 73.5% (95% CI, 66.8-79.3) in women. Among those with hypertension, 80.2% (95% CI, 75.3-84.4) were aware of their hypertensive condition and 74.4% (95% CI, 69.2-79.1) were on treatment for hypertension. Among those aware of their hypertension status, 92.8% (95% CI, 88.8-95.6) were on treatment and 53.7% (95% CI, 47.0-60.1) had their blood pressure controlled. Hypertension was more frequent in individuals who were older, obese, or had diabetes. Higher education attainment or presence of comorbidities was associated with higher level of hypertension awareness. Individuals taking three antihypertensive drug classes were more likely to have controlled hypertension compared with those taking one antihypertensive drug class, odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% CI, 1.14-2.99).

Conclusion: Our findings identified high prevalence of hypertension and relevant health gaps on awareness, treatment and suboptimal control of hypertension in older adults in Germany. Screening for hypertension should especially target older adults with low educational attainment and 'healthy' elderly with less contact to physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09165-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331188PMC
July 2020

Diverging Trends in Age at First Myocardial Infarction: Evidence from Two German Population-Based Studies.

Sci Rep 2020 06 15;10(1):9610. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Hannover Medical School, Medical Sociology Unit, Hannover, Germany.

Little is known about trends in the age of onset of first myocardial infarction. Thus, we examined trends in the age of onset distribution of first myocardial infarction using two population-based datasets from Germany. First, we used German claims data based on an annual case number of approximately 2 million women and men covering the period from 2006 to 2016. Second, we used data from the KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) Myocardial Infarction Registry covering the period from 2000-2016. Analyses were performed by means of quantile regression to estimate trends across the whole distribution of age of onset. Overall, N = 69627 and N = 9954 first myocardial infarctions were observed. In both samples, we found highly heterogeneous trends in age of onset. In men, we consistently found that age of onset increased before 50 and after 70 but decreased within this age bracket. For women, on the other hand, we consistently found that age of onset decreased for first myocardial infarctions before 70 but increased slightly or remained relatively stable thereafter. Therefore, late myocardial infarctions tended to occur later in life, while regular myocardial infarctions tended to occur earlier. These results suggest that in myocardial infarction, both morbidity compression and morbidity expansion might have occurred at the same time but for different parts of the age at onset distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66291-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296035PMC
June 2020

Whole Blood DNA Methylation Signatures of Diet Are Associated With Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and All-Cause Mortality.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 08 11;13(4):e002766. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

The Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (S.A.G., N.S., J.A.B., C.M.S.).

Background: DNA methylation patterns associated with habitual diet have not been well studied.

Methods: Diet quality was characterized using a Mediterranean-style diet score and the Alternative Healthy Eating Index score. We conducted ethnicity-specific and trans-ethnic epigenome-wide association analyses for diet quality and leukocyte-derived DNA methylation at over 400 000 CpGs (cytosine-guanine dinucleotides) in 5 population-based cohorts including 6662 European ancestry, 2702 African ancestry, and 360 Hispanic ancestry participants. For diet-associated CpGs identified in epigenome-wide analyses, we conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to examine their relations to cardiovascular disease risk factors and examined their longitudinal associations with all-cause mortality.

Results: We identified 30 CpGs associated with either Mediterranean-style diet score or Alternative Healthy Eating Index, or both, in European ancestry participants. Among these CpGs, 12 CpGs were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (Bonferroni corrected <1.6×10). Hypermethylation of cg18181703 () was associated with higher scores of both Mediterranean-style diet score and Alternative Healthy Eating Index and lower risk for all-cause mortality (=5.7×10). Ten additional diet-associated CpGs were nominally associated with all-cause mortality (<0.05). MR analysis revealed 8 putatively causal associations for 6 CpGs with 4 cardiovascular disease risk factors (body mass index, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus; Bonferroni corrected MR <4.5×10). For example, hypermethylation of cg11250194 () was associated with lower triglyceride concentrations (MR, =1.5×10).and hypermethylation of cg02079413 (; ) was associated with body mass index (corrected MR, =1×10).

Conclusions: Habitual diet quality was associated with differential peripheral leukocyte DNA methylation levels of 30 CpGs, most of which were also associated with multiple health outcomes, in European ancestry individuals. These findings demonstrate that integrative genomic analysis of dietary information may reveal molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442697PMC
August 2020

Proinsulin to insulin ratio is associated with incident type 2 diabetes but not with vascular complications in the KORA F4/FF4 study.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 05;8(1)

Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, LMU Klinikum der Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Introduction: We investigated the association of the proinsulin to insulin ratio (PIR) with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), components of the metabolic syndrome, and renal and cardiovascular outcomes in the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 study (2006-2008)/FF4 study (2013-2014).

Research Design And Methods: The analyses included 1514 participants of the KORA F4 study at baseline and 1132 participants of the KORA FF4 study after a median follow-up time of 6.6 years. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as cardiovascular events were analyzed after a median time of 9.1 and 8.6 years, respectively. The association of PIR with T2D, renal and cardiovascular characteristics and mortality were assessed using logistic regression models. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of PIR with components of the metabolic syndrome.

Results: After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity, PIR was associated with prevalent (OR: 2.24; 95% CI 1.81 to 2.77; p<0.001) and incident T2D (OR: 1.66; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.17; p<0.001). PIR was associated with fasting glucose (β per SD: 0.11±0.02; p<0.001) and HbA1c (β: 0.21±0.02; p<0.001). However, PIR was not positively associated with other components of the metabolic syndrome and was even inversely associated with waist circumference (β: -0.22±0.03; p<0.001), BMI (β: -0.11±0.03; p<0.001) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (β: -0.22±0.02; p<0.001). PIR was not significantly associated with the intima-media thickness (IMT), decline of kidney function, incident albuminuria, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: In the KORA F4/FF4 cohort, PIR was positively associated with prevalent and incident T2D, but inversely associated with waist circumference, BMI and insulin resistance, suggesting that PIR might serve as a biomarker for T2D risk independently of the metabolic syndrome, but not for microvascular or macrovascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245418PMC
May 2020
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