Publications by authors named "Margaret M Mc Gee"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cyclophilin A regulates secretion of tumour-derived extracellular vesicles.

Transl Oncol 2021 May 10;14(8):101112. Epub 2021 May 10.

UCD School of Biomolecular & Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are a heterogenous population of particles that play an important role in cell-cell communication in physiological and pathophysiological situations. In this study we reveal that the peptidyl prolyl isomerase Cyclophilin A (CypA) is enriched in cancer-derived EVs from a range of haematopoietic malignancies. CypA-enriched blood cancer EVs were taken up by normal monocytes independent of EV surface trypsin-sensitive proteins and potently stimulated pro-inflammatory MMP9 and IL-6 secretion. Further characterisation revealed that CypA is intravesicular, however, it is not present in all EVs derived from the haematopoietic cells, instead, it is predominantly located in high density EVs with a range of 1.15-1.18 g/ml. Furthermore, loss of CypA expression in haematological cancer cells attenuates high density EV-induced pro-inflammatory MMP9 and IL-6 secretion from monocytes. Mechanistically, we reveal that homozygous loss or siRNA knockdown of CypA expression significantly reduced the secretion of EVs in the range of 100-200 nm from blood cancer cells under normal and hypoxic conditions. Overall, this work reveals a novel role for CypA in cancer cell EV biogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131927PMC
May 2021

Listeria Membrane Protrusion Collapse: Requirement of Cyclophilin A for Listeria Cell-to-Cell Spreading.

J Infect Dis 2019 01;219(1):145-153

Department of Biological Sciences, Centre for Cell Biology, Development, and Disease, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Listeria generate actin-rich tubular protrusions at the plasma membrane that propel the bacteria into neighboring cells. The precise molecular mechanisms governing the formation of these protrusions remain poorly defined.

Methods: In this study, we demonstrate that the prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) cyclophilin A (CypA) is hijacked by Listeria at membrane protrusions used for cell-to-cell spreading.

Results: Cyclophilin A localizes within the F-actin of these structures and is crucial for their proper formation, as cells depleted of CypA have extended actin-rich structures that are misshaped and are collapsed due to changes within the F-actin network. The lack of structural integrity within the Listeria membrane protrusions hampers the microbes from spreading from CypA null cells.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a crucial role for CypA during Listeria infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy255DOI Listing
January 2019

Recessive NEK9 mutation causes a lethal skeletal dysplasia with evidence of cell cycle and ciliary defects.

Hum Mol Genet 2016 05 21;25(9):1824-35. Epub 2016 Feb 21.

Clinical Genetics, Children's University Hospital, Temple Street, Dublin 1, Ireland, UCD Academic Centre on Rare Diseases, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences.

Skeletal dysplasias are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of bone and cartilage disorders. Whilst >450 skeletal dysplasias have been reported, 30% are genetically uncharacterized. We report two Irish Traveller families with a previously undescribed lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by fetal akinesia, shortening of all long bones, multiple contractures, rib anomalies, thoracic dysplasia, pulmonary hypoplasia and protruding abdomen. Single nucleotide polymorphism homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous stop-gain mutation in NEK9 (c.1489C>T; p.Arg497*) as the cause of this disorder. NEK9 encodes a never in mitosis gene A-related kinase involved in regulating spindle organization, chromosome alignment, cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. This is the first disorder to be associated with NEK9 in humans. Analysis of NEK9 protein expression and localization in patient fibroblasts showed complete loss of full-length NEK9 (107 kDa). Functional characterization of patient fibroblasts showed a significant reduction in cell proliferation and a delay in cell cycle progression. We also provide evidence to support possible ciliary associations for NEK9. Firstly, patient fibroblasts displayed a significant reduction in cilia number and length. Secondly, we show that the NEK9 orthologue in Caenorhabditis elegans, nekl-1, is almost exclusively expressed in a subset of ciliated cells, a strong indicator of cilia-related functions. In summary, we report the clinical and molecular characterization of a lethal skeletal dysplasia caused by NEK9 mutation and suggest that this disorder may represent a novel ciliopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddw054DOI Listing
May 2016

Targeting the Mitotic Catastrophe Signaling Pathway in Cancer.

Mediators Inflamm 2015 27;2015:146282. Epub 2015 Sep 27.

School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Mitotic catastrophe, as defined in 2012 by the International Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death, is a bona fide intrinsic oncosuppressive mechanism that senses mitotic failure and responds by driving a cell to an irreversible antiproliferative fate of death or senescence. Thus, failed mitotic catastrophe can promote the unrestrained growth of defective cells, thereby representing a major gateway to tumour development. Furthermore, the activation of mitotic catastrophe offers significant therapeutic advantage which has been exploited in the action of conventional and targeted anticancer agents. Yet, despite its importance in tumour prevention and treatment, the molecular mechanism of mitotic catastrophe is not well understood. A better understanding of the signals that determine cell fate following failed or defective mitosis will reveal new opportunities to selectively target and enhance the programme for therapeutic benefit and reveal biomarkers to predict patient response. This review is focused on the molecular mechanism of mitotic catastrophe induction and signalling and highlights current strategies to exploit the process in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/146282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600505PMC
June 2016

Cyclophilin function in Cancer; lessons from virus replication.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2015 ;9(2):148-64

UCD School of Biomolecular & Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Cyclophilins belong to a group of proteins that possess peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity and catalyse the cis-trans conversion of proline peptide bonds. Cyclophilin members play important roles in protein folding and as molecular chaperones, in addition to a well-established role as host factors required for completion of the virus life cycle. Members of the cyclophilin family are overexpressed in a range of human malignancies including hepatocellular cancer, pancreatic cancer, nonsmall cell lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and glioblastoma multiforme, however, their precise role in tumourigenesis remains unclear. In recent years, mounting evidence supports a role for prolyl isomerisation during mammalian cell division; a process with striking similarity to plasma membrane remodelling during virus replication. Here, we summarise our current understanding of the role of cyclophilins in cancer. We review the function of cyclophilins during mammalian cell division and during HIV-1 infection, and highlight common processes involving members of the ESCRT and Rab GTPase families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467208666150519115443DOI Listing
October 2016

Myc inhibition is effective against glioma and reveals a role for Myc in proficient mitosis.

Nat Commun 2014 Aug 18;5:4632. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

1] Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Edifici Mediterrània, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, 08035 Barcelona, Spain [2] Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), 08193 Barcelona, Spain.

Gliomas are the most common primary tumours affecting the adult central nervous system and respond poorly to standard therapy. Myc is causally implicated in most human tumours and the majority of glioblastomas have elevated Myc levels. Using the Myc dominant negative Omomyc, we previously showed that Myc inhibition is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we preclinically validate Myc inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in mouse and human glioma, using a mouse model of spontaneous multifocal invasive astrocytoma and its derived neuroprogenitors, human glioblastoma cell lines, and patient-derived tumours both in vitro and in orthotopic xenografts. Across all these experimental models we find that Myc inhibition reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis and remarkably, elicits the formation of multinucleated cells that then arrest or die by mitotic catastrophe, revealing a new role for Myc in the proficient division of glioma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4143920PMC
August 2014

The peptidyl prolyl isomerase cyclophilin A localizes at the centrosome and the midbody and is required for cytokinesis.

Cell Cycle 2012 Apr 1;11(7):1340-53. Epub 2012 Apr 1.

School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland.

Failed cytokinesis leads to tetraploidy, which is an important intermediate preceding aneuploidy and the onset of tumorigenesis. The centrosome is required for the completion of cytokinesis through the transport of important components to the midbody; however, the identity of molecular components and the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that the peptidyl prolyl isomerase cyclophilin A (cypA) is a centrosome protein that undergoes cell cycle-dependent relocation to the midzone and midbody during cytokinesis in Jurkat cells implicating a role during division. Depletion of cypA does not disrupt mitotic spindle formation or progression through anaphase; however, it leads to cytokinesis defects through an inability to resolve intercellular bridges, culminating in delayed or failed cytokinesis. Defective cytokinesis is also evident by an increased prevalence of midbody-arrested cells. Expression of wild-type cypA reverses the cytokinesis defect in knockout cells, whereas an isomerase mutant does not, indicating that the isomerisation activity of cypA is required for cytokinesis. In contrast, wild-type cypA and the isomerase mutant localize to the centrosome and midbody, suggesting that localization to these structures is independent of isomerase activity. Depletion of cypA also generates tetraploid cells and supernumerary centrosomes. Finally, colony formation in soft agar is impaired in cypA-knockout cells, suggesting that cypA confers clonogenic advantage on tumor cells. Collectively, this data reveals a novel role for cypA isomerase activity in the completion of cytokinesis and the maintenance of genome stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.19711DOI Listing
April 2012

Cyclin B1 interacts with the BH3-only protein Bim and mediates its phosphorylation by Cdk1 during mitosis.

Cell Cycle 2011 Nov 15;10(22):3886-96. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Protracted mitotic arrest leads to cell death; however, the molecular signals that link these distinct processes remain poorly understood. Here we report that the pro-apoptotic BH3-only family member Bim undergoes phosphorylation in K562 cells following treatment with the microtubule targeting agents Taxol and Nocodazole. The phosphorylation of two Bim isoforms, BimEL and BimL, at the mitochondria correlates with mitotic arrest and precedes cell death induced by Taxol. It was also found that Bim undergoes transient phosphorylation during normal mitosis in K562 cells. In addition, siRNA silencing of Bim reduces sensitivity to Taxol-induced cell death. The transition of K562 cells from mitosis to G1 results in the loss of BimEL and BimL phosphorylation and correlates with the degradation of cyclin B1. The Cdk1 inhibitors, RO-3306 and Purvalanol A, block Bim phosphorylation in mitotically arrested cells. Importantly, it was found that cyclin B1 co-immunoprecipitates with endogenous Bim in mitotic extracts. Furthermore, active recombinant Cdk1/cyclin B1 phosphorylates BimEL and BimL in vitro and Serine 44 on BimL has been identified as a Cdk1 phosphorylation site. Collectively, these results suggest that Cdk1/cyclin B1-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Bim during prolonged mitotic arrest is an important cell death signal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.10.22.18020DOI Listing
November 2011

Mechanism of cell death mediated by a BF2-chelated tetraaryl-azadipyrromethene photodynamic therapeutic: dissection of the apoptotic pathway in vitro and in vivo.

Int J Cancer 2012 Feb 26;130(3):705-15. Epub 2011 May 26.

UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality for cancer. ADPM06 is an emerging non-porphyrin PDT agent which has been specifically designed for therapeutic application. Recently, we have demonstrated that ADPM06-PDT is well tolerated in vivo and elicits impressive complete response rates in various models of cancer when a short drug-light interval is applied. Herein, the mechanism of action of ADPM06-PDT in vitro and in vivo is outlined. Using a drug and light combination that reduces the clonogenicity of MDA-MB-231 cells by >90%, we detected a well-orchestrated apoptotic response accompanied by the activation of various caspases in vitro. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photosensitizer irradiation was found to be the key instigator in the observed apoptotic response, with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) found to be the intracellular site of initial PDT damage, as determined by induction of a rapid ER stress response post-PDT. PDT-induced apoptosis was also found to be independent of p53 tumor suppressor status. A robust therapeutic response in vivo was demonstrated, with a substantial reduction in tumor proliferation observed, as well as a rapid induction of apoptosis and initiation of ER stress, mirroring numerous aspects of the mechanism of action of ADPM06 in vitro. Finally, using a combination of (18) F-labeled 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ((18) F-FLT) nuclear and optical imaging, a considerable decrease in tumor proliferation over 24-hr in two models of human cancer was observed. Taken together, this data clearly establishes ADPM06 as an exciting novel PDT agent with significant potential for further translational development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568043PMC
February 2012

Understanding the role of aneuploidy in tumorigenesis.

Biochem Soc Trans 2009 Aug;37(Pt 4):910-3

UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, UCD Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

The role of aneuploidy in tumorigenesis remains poorly understood, although the two have been known to be linked for more than 100 years. Recent studies indicate that aneuploidy can promote tumour cell growth and cell death and that the cellular outcome is dependent on the extent of aneuploidy induced. The mitotic checkpoint plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of genome stability and has been the focus of work investigating the distinct outcomes of aneuploidy. In the present article, we review the molecular mechanisms involved and discuss the potential of the mitotic checkpoint as a therapeutic target in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST0370910DOI Listing
August 2009

The microtubule-targeting agents, PBOX-6 [pyrrolobenzoxazepine 7-[(dimethylcarbamoyl)oxy]-6-(2-naphthyl)pyrrolo-[2,1-d] (1,5)-benzoxazepine] and paclitaxel, induce nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerases, cyclophilin A and pin1, in malignant hematopoietic cells.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2009 Apr 8;329(1):38-47. Epub 2009 Jan 8.

School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Microtubule assembly and disassembly is required for the maintenance of cell structure, mobility, and division. However, the cellular and biochemical implications of microtubule disruption are not fully understood. Using a proteomic approach, we found that the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, cyclophilin A, was increased in plasma membrane extracts from chronic myeloid leukemia cells after microtubule disruption. In addition, we found that two peptidyl-prolyl isomerases, cyclophilin A and pin1, are overexpressed up to 10-fold in hematological malignancies compared with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Although previous reports suggest that cyclophilin A is localized to the cytosol of mammalian cells, we found that cyclophilin A and pin1 are both localized to the nucleus and nuclear domains in hematopoietic cells. Microtubule disruption of hematopoietic cells caused a dramatic subcellular redistribution of cyclophilin A and pin1 from the nucleus to the cytosol and plasma membrane. We suggest that this accounts for the increased cyclophilin A at the plasma membrane of chronic myeloid leukemia cells after microtubule disruption. The subcellular redistribution of cyclophilin A and pin1 occurred in a c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase- and serine protease-dependent manner. Moreover, the altered subcellular localization of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerases occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner after microtubule disruption and was found to correlate with G(2)/M arrest and precede induced cell death. These results suggest that the function of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases may be influenced by microtubule dynamics throughout the cell cycle, and their altered localization may be an important part of the mechanism by which microtubule-disrupting agents exert their cytostatic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.108.148130DOI Listing
April 2009

Identification of tubulin as the molecular target of proapoptotic pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines.

Mol Pharmacol 2006 Jul 29;70(1):60-70. Epub 2006 Mar 29.

School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

We have demonstrated previously that certain members of a series of novel pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine (PBOX) compounds potently induce apoptosis in a variety of human chemotherapy-resistant cancer cell lines and in primary ex vivo material derived from cancer patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptotic effects of these PBOX compounds is essential to their development as antineoplastic therapeutic agents. This study sought to test the hypothesis that proapoptotic PBOX compounds target the microtubules. We show that a representative proapoptotic PBOX compound, PBOX-6, induces apoptosis in both the MCF-7 and K562 cell lines. An accumulation of cells in G2/M precedes apoptosis in response to PBOX-6. PBOX-6 induces prometaphase arrest and causes an accumulation of cyclin B1 levels and activation of cyclin B1/CDK1 kinase in a manner similar to that of two representative antimicrotubule agents, nocodazole and paclitaxel. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrates that both PBOX-6 and another pro-apoptotic PBOX compound, PBOX-15, cause microtubule depolymerization in MCF-7 cells. They also inhibit the assembly of purified tubulin in vitro, whereas a nonapoptotic PBOX compound (PBOX-21) has no effect on either the cellular microtubule network or on the assembly of purified tubulin. This suggests that the molecular target of the pro-apoptotic PBOX compounds is tubulin. PBOX-6 does not bind to either the vinblastine or the colchicine binding site on tubulin, suggesting that it binds to an as-yet-uncharacterised novel site on tubulin. The ability of PBOX-6 to bind tubulin and cause microtubule depolymerization confirms it as a novel candidate for antineoplastic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.105.021204DOI Listing
July 2006

Pyrrolo[1,5]benzoxa(thia)zepines as a new class of potent apoptotic agents. Biological studies and identification of an intracellular location of their drug target.

J Med Chem 2005 Jun;48(13):4367-77

Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

We have recently developed five novel pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines as proapoptotic agents. Their JNK-dependent induction of apoptosis in tumor cells suggested their potential as novel anticancer agents. The core structure of the apoptotic agent 6 was investigated, and the SARs were expanded with the design and synthesis of several analogues. To define the apoptotic mechanism of the new compounds and the localization of their drug target, two analogues of 6 were designed and synthesized to delineate events leading to JNK activation. The cell-penetrating compound 16 induced apoptosis in tumor cells, while its nonpenetrating analogue, 17, was incapable of inducing apoptosis or activating JNK. Plasma membrane permeabilization of tumor cells resulted in 17-induced JNK activation, suggesting that the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine molecular target is intracellular. Interestingly, compound 6 displayed cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines but demonstrated negligible toxicity in vivo with no effect on the animals' hematology parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm049402yDOI Listing
June 2005

Selective induction of apoptosis by the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine 7-[[dimethylcarbamoyl]oxy]-6-(2-naphthyl)pyrrolo-[2,1-d] (1,5)-benzoxazepine (PBOX-6) in Leukemia cells occurs via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004 Sep 13;310(3):1084-95. Epub 2004 May 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Overexpression of the Bcl-2 proto-oncogene in tumor cells confers resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we describe how the novel pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine compound 7-[[dimethylcarbamoyl]oxy]-6-(2-naphthyl)pyrrolo-[2,1-d] (1,5)-benzoxazepine (PBOX-6) selectively induces apoptosis in Bcl-2-overexpressing cancer cells, whereas it shows no cytotoxic effect on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PBOX-6 overcomes Bcl-2-mediated resistance to apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cells by the time- and dose-dependent phosphorylation and inactivation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. PBOX-6 also induces Bcl-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis in wild-type T leukemia CEM cells and cells overexpressing Bcl-2. This is in contrast to chemotherapeutic agents such as etoposide, actinomycin D, and ultraviolet irradiation, whereby overexpression of Bcl-2 confers resistance against apoptosis. In addition, PBOX-6 induces Bcl-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis in wild-type Jurkat acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and cells overexpressing Bcl-2. However, Jurkat cells containing a Bcl-2 triple mutant, whereby the principal Bcl-2 phosphorylation sites are mutated to alanine, demonstrate resistance against Bcl-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis. PBOX-6 also induces the early and transient activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in CEM cells. Inhibition of JNK activity prevents Bcl-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis, implicating JNK in the upstream signaling pathway leading to Bcl-2 phosphorylation. Collectively, these findings identify Bcl-2 phosphorylation and inactivation as a critical step in the apoptotic pathway induced by PBOX-6 and highlight its potential as an effective antileukemic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.067561DOI Listing
September 2004

Caspase-3 is not essential for DNA fragmentation in MCF-7 cells during apoptosis induced by the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine, PBOX-6.

FEBS Lett 2002 Mar;515(1-3):66-70

Biochemistry Department, Trinity College, 2, Dublin, Ireland.

Effector caspases-3, -6 and -7 are responsible for producing the morphological features associated with apoptosis, such as DNA fragmentation. The present study demonstrates that a member of a novel series of pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines, PBOX-6, induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which lack caspase-3. Apoptosis was accompanied by DNA fragmentation and the activation of caspase-7, but not caspases-3 and -6. Inhibition of caspase-7 activity reduced the extent of apoptosis induced, indicating that activation of caspase-7 is involved in the mechanism by which PBOX-6 induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This study suggests that caspase-3 is not necessarily essential for DNA fragmentation and the morphological changes associated with apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0014-5793(02)02440-7DOI Listing
March 2002

Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is essential during PBOX-6-induced apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells.

J Biol Chem 2002 May 20;277(21):18383-9. Epub 2002 Feb 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family is activated in response to a wide variety of external stress signals such as UV irradiation, heat shock, and many chemotherapeutic drugs and leads to the induction of apoptosis. A novel series of pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines have been shown to potently induce apoptosis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells, which are resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents. In this study we have delineated part of the mechanism by which a representative compound known as PBOX-6 induces apoptosis. We have investigated whether PBOX-6 induces activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways in CML cells. Treatment of K562 cells with PBOX-6 resulted in the transient activation of two JNK isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2. In contrast, PBOX-6 did not activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or p38. Apoptosis was found to occur independently of the small GTPases Ras, Rac, and Cdc42 but involved phosphorylation of the JNK substrates, c-Jun and ATF-2. Pretreatment of K562 cells with the JNK inhibitor, dicoumarol, abolished PBOX-6-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun and ATF-2 and inhibited the induced apoptosis, suggesting that JNK activation is an essential component of the apoptotic pathway induced by PBOX-6. Consistent with this finding, transfection of K562 cells with the JNK scaffold protein, JIP-1, inhibited JNK activity and apoptosis induced by PBOX-6. JIP-1 specifically scaffolds JNK, MKK7, and members of the mixed-lineage kinase (MLK) family, implicating these kinases upstream of JNK in the apoptotic pathway induced by PBOX-6 in K562 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112058200DOI Listing
May 2002