Publications by authors named "Margaret Amankwah-Poku"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Disclosure and health-related outcomes among children living with HIV and their caregivers.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 Apr 20;18(1):13. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Background: The prevalence of disclosure of status to children living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is low in most sub-Saharan African countries, leading to poor compliance and adverse psychological outcomes in these children. This study examined the influence of disclosure on health outcomes in children living with HIV and their caregivers.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 155 HIV-positive children between age 6-15 years and their caregivers were administered standardized questionnaires measuring adherence to medication, children's psychological well-being, caregiver burden, and caregivers' psychological health.

Results: Results indicated that only 33.5% of the children sampled knew their status. Disclosure of HIV status was significantly related to medication adherence, psychological wellbeing, the burden of caregiving, and the length of the disclosure. A child's age and level of education were the only demographic variables that significantly predicted disclosure of HIV status. In a hierarchical analysis, after controlling for all demographic variables medication adherence, psychological well-being and burden of caregiving were found to be significant predictors of disclosure of status in children living with HIV.

Conclusions: Findings suggest the need for disclosure of status among children living with HIV for a positive impact on their medication adherence and psychological health. These findings underscore the need for the development of context-specific interventions that will guide and encourage disclosure of status by caregivers to children living with HIV.
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April 2021

Psychosocial distress, clinical variables and self-management activities associated with type 2 diabetes: a study in Ghana.

Clin Diabetes Endocrinol 2020 14;6:14. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Ghana Medical School, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Aim: Psychosocial distress can act as a barrier to diabetes self-care management and thus compromise diabetes control. Yet in Ghana, healthcare centres mainly focus on the medical aspect of diabetes to the neglect of psychosocial care. This study determined the relationship amongst psychosocial distress, clinical variables, and self-management activities associated with type 2 diabetes management.

Method: Questionnaires were administered to 162 patients from four hospitals in Accra, Ghana, to assess psychosocial distress (e.g. diabetes distress), clinical variables (e.g. glycaemic control), and self- management activities (e.g. medication intake) related to diabetes. In assessing diabetes distress, the use of the PAID allowed evaluation of broader range of emotional concerns (diabetes-related emotional distress), while the DDS allowed evaluation of factors more closely related to diabetes self-management (diabetes distress).

Results: Diabetes-related emotional distress, diabetes distress and depressive symptoms were reciprocally positively correlated, while non-supportive family behaviour correlated negatively with these psychological variables. Diabetes-related emotional distress correlated positively with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and correlated negatively with exercise regimen. On the other hand, diabetes distress correlated negatively with dietary and exercise regimen and correlated positively with glycaemic levels, while depressive symptoms correlated positively with glycaemic levels, diabetes complication and systolic blood pressure. Contrary to the literature, non-supportive family behaviour correlated positively with diet, exercise and medication regimen.

Conclusion: The positive association of psychological variables with glycaemic levels and blood pressure levels, and the positive association of non-supportive family behaviour with self-management activities suggests the need for psychosocial care to be incorporate in the management of type 2 diabetes in Ghana. Patients can be screened for diabetes-related distress and symptoms of depression and provided psychosocial care where necessary.
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July 2020

Weight perceptions, weight management practices, and nutritional status of emerging adults living in the Accra Metropolis.

BMC Nutr 2018 27;4:53. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

2Department of Psychology, College of Humanities, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Many young people have a tendency to be concerned about their physical appearance and undertake practices in order to achieve certain body ideals. There is however limited information from developing countries on the weight perceptions of emerging adults (i.e. individuals leaving the adolescence life stage and preparing to take on adulthood) and whether these opinions influence their nutritional status and weight management practices. This study sought to assess emerging adults' nutritional status, their weight perceptions and the methods they use to manage their weight.

Methods: This study was cross-sectional, involving emerging adults ( = 192) recruited at shopping areas in the Accra Metropolis of Ghana. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, weight perceptions, and weight management strategies. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard procedures. Descriptive analysis was performed on the demographic data, methods used to manage weight, and weight perceptions. Logistic regression was used to assess possible relationships between weight perceptions and nutritional status as well as weight perceptions and weight management practices.

Results: The mean age of participants was 21.8(2.2) years with 51.0% of participants being female. Majority of the participants perceived normal weight status as the ideal body for themselves and half of them thought that they were slimmer than they actually were in reality. Three major weight management strategies were identified: engaging in physical activity, dieting and making lifestyle modifications (i.e. changes in normal eating habits coupled with regular physical activity and behavioral changes). Emerging adults who had an inaccurate body image perception were less likely (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15-0.61) to have a healthy nutritional status than emerging adults who had an accurate body image perception.

Conclusion: Weight perception was associated with nutritional status. Discussions with nutrition professionals regarding realistic weight ideals would be beneficial for this age-group since half of the study's participants had inaccurate perceptions about their current weight statuses even though their statuses were normal.
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December 2018

Sources of nutrition information and level of nutrition knowledge among young adults in the Accra metropolis.

BMC Public Health 2018 Nov 29;18(1):1323. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychology, College of Humanities, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Acquiring accurate and adequate nutrition information is important as it could inform nutritional choices positively and promote the maintenance of a healthy nutritional status. This study assessed a sample of young adults' nutrition knowledge and identified where they gather information from to guide nutritional choices.

Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving young adults (N=192) between 18 to 25 years recruited at shopping areas in the Accra Metropolis of Ghana. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, sources of nutrition information and basic nutrition knowledge. Pearson chi-square test was used to identify possible differences between high and low scorers of the knowledge assessment in terms of their nutrition information acquisition behaviours and logistic regression was conducted to ascertain whether source of nutrition information was related to participants' nutrition knowledge.

Results: Online resources were the most popular source (92.7%) used to seek information on nutrition among study participants, and healthcare professionals were perceived to be the most reliable source of nutrition information. Additionally, participants who used healthcare professionals as a source of nutrition information were 61% (95% CI: 0.15-0.99) more likely to have a high nutrition knowledge than participants who did not consult healthcare professionals for nutrition information.

Conclusion: Online resources serve as a very common source of nutrition information for young adults. Thus, healthcare professionals may need to adopt this as a useful channel to circulate trustworthy nutrition information to this age group.
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November 2018