Publications by authors named "Margalit E Rosenkranz"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy of Repository-Corticotropin Injection (Acthar) in Refractory Juvenile Dermatomyositis: A Case Series.

J Clin Rheumatol 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

School of Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA Bon Secours Rheumatology Center and Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA. Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000001422DOI Listing
June 2020

T Cell Receptor-Independent, CD31/IL-17A-Driven Inflammatory Axis Shapes Synovitis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

Front Immunol 2018 6;9:1802. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

T cells are considered autoimmune effectors in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but the antigenic cause of arthritis remains elusive. Since T cells comprise a significant proportion of joint-infiltrating cells, we examined whether the environment in the joint could be shaped through the inflammatory activation by T cells that is independent of conventional TCR signaling. We focused on the analysis of synovial fluid (SF) collected from children with oligoarticular and rheumatoid factor-negative polyarticular JIA. Cytokine profiling of SF showed dominance of five molecules including IL-17A. Cytometric analysis of the same SF samples showed enrichment of αβT cells that lacked both CD4 and CD8 co-receptors [herein called double negative (DN) T cells] and also lacked the CD28 costimulatory receptor. However, these synovial αβT cells expressed high levels of CD31, an adhesion molecule that is normally employed by granulocytes when they transit to sites of injury. In receptor crosslinking assays, ligation of CD31 alone on synovial CD28CD31 DN αβT cells effectively and sufficiently induced phosphorylation of signaling substrates and increased intracytoplasmic stores of cytokines including IL-17A. CD31 ligation was also sufficient to induce RORγT expression and -activation of the promoter. In addition to T cells, SF contained fibrocyte-like cells (FLC) expressing IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and CD38, a known ligand for CD31. Stimulation of FLC with IL-17A led to CD38 upregulation, and to production of cytokines and tissue-destructive molecules. Addition of an oxidoreductase analog to the bioassays suppressed the CD31-driven IL-17A production by T cells. It also suppressed the downstream IL-17A-mediated production of effectors by FLC. The levels of suppression of FLC effector activities by the oxidoreductase analog were comparable to those seen with corticosteroid and/or biologic inhibitors to IL-6 and TNFα. Collectively, our data suggest that activation of a CD31-driven, αβTCR-independent, IL-17A-mediated T cell-FLC inflammatory circuit drives and/or perpetuates synovitis. With the notable finding that the oxidoreductase mimic suppresses the effector activities of synovial CD31CD28 αβT cells and IL-17RACD38 FLC, this small molecule could be used to probe further the intricacies of this inflammatory circuit. Such bioactivities of this small molecule also provide rationale for new translational avenue(s) to potentially modulate JIA synovitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6087740PMC
October 2019

Premature cell senescence and T cell receptor-independent activation of CD8+ T cells in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Arthritis Rheum 2013 Aug;65(8):2201-10

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA.

Objective: CD8+ T cells lacking CD28 were originally reported to be a characteristic feature of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but the relevance of these unusual cells to this disease remains to be elucidated. Because of recent evidence that loss of CD28 cells is typical of terminally differentiated lymphocytes, the aim of this study was to examine functional subsets of CD8+ T cells in patients with JIA.

Methods: Blood and/or waste synovial fluid samples were collected from children with a definite diagnosis of JIA (n = 98). Deidentified peripheral blood (n = 33) and cord blood (n = 13) samples from healthy donors were also collected. CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were screened for novel receptors, and where indicated, bioassays were performed to determine the functional relevance of the identified receptor.

Results: JIA patients had a naive T cell compartment with shortened telomeres, and their entire T cell pool had reduced proliferative capacity. They had an overabundance of CD31+CD28(null) CD8+ T cells, which was a significant feature of oligoarticular JIA (n = 62) as compared to polyarticular JIA (n = 36). CD31+ CD28(null) CD8+ T cells had limited mitotic capacity and expressed high levels of the senescence antigens histone γH2AX and/or p16. Ligation of CD31, which was independent of the T cell receptor (TCR), sufficiently induced tyrosine phosphorylation, vesicle exocytosis, and production of interferon-γ and interleukin-10.

Conclusion: These data provide the first evidence of cell senescence, as represented by CD31+CD28(null) CD8+ T cells, in the pathophysiology of JIA. Activation of these unusual cells in a TCR-independent manner suggests that they are maladaptive and could be potential targets for immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.38015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3729743PMC
August 2013

Synovial fluid proteins differentiate between the subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Arthritis Rheum 2010 Jun;62(6):1813-23

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Division of Rheumatology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.

Objective: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases, and no clinically useful prognostic markers to predict disease outcome in children with JIA are currently available. Synovial fluid likely reflects the proteins present in the inflamed synovium. The purpose of this study was to delineate the synovial fluid proteome and determine whether protein expression differs in the different subtypes of JIA.

Methods: Synovial fluid samples obtained from children with oligoarticular JIA, polyarticular JIA, or systemic JIA were compared. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for protein separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quadripole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein identification were used for this study. Synovial fluid cells were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of haptoglobin messenger RNA (mRNA).

Results: The synovial fluid proteome of the samples was delineated. The majority of proteins showed overexpression in JIA synovial fluid as compared with noninflammatory control samples. There were 24 statistically significantly differentially expressed spots (>2-fold change; P < 0.05) between the subtypes of JIA. PCR analysis revealed haptoglobin mRNA, suggesting that haptoglobin is locally produced in an inflamed joint in JIA.

Conclusion: Despite the similar histologic appearance of inflamed joints in patients with different subtypes of JIA, there are differences in protein expression according to the subtype of JIA. Haptoglobin is differentially expressed between the subtypes of JIA and is locally produced in an inflamed joint in JIA. Haptoglobin and other differentially expressed proteins may be potential biomarkers in JIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.27447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2918379PMC
June 2010

Systemic and localized scleroderma in children: current and future treatment options.

Paediatr Drugs 2006 ;8(2):85-97

Hospital for Special Surgery, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, New York, New York, USA.

Scleroderma is a group of rare and complex diseases with varied clinical manifestations. The most obvious manifestation of the diseases is skin hardening and sclerosis. Scleroderma can be divided into two main subgroups: systemic and localized. The systemic form, also known as systemic sclerosis, involves diffuse skin involvement and potentially severe visceral involvement. Localized scleroderma on the other hand is more common in children and usually confined to a specific region of the body with no internal organ involvement. The juvenile forms of systemic sclerosis and localized scleroderma are important conditions in children because of the clinical severity and substantial mortality of systemic scleroderma and the major growth defects associated with childhood-onset localized disease even if the active disease itself is self-limited. The pathogenic pathways of the various forms of scleroderma are only partially defined, but the main defect in scleroderma is abnormal collagen deposition leading to eventual fibrosis in the skin as well as multiple organ systems such as the heart and lungs in juvenile systemic sclerosis. Therapeutics are divided into three main subgroups for systemic sclerosis: antifibrotics, anti-inflammatories, and vasodilators. For localized disease, anti-inflammatories, vitamin D analogs, and UV irradiation have been investigated. However, the infrequency of scleroderma in the pediatric population plus the fact that this disease is very often self-limiting makes randomized controlled trials very difficult. It is for this reason that most data on treatment modalities for this disease have been extrapolated from studies in adult patients. There is no one therapy for systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma that has proven to be very effective or significantly disease modifying. However, current therapeutic strategies must be initiated early in the disease course for maximum beneficial clinical effects. New interventions such as autologous stem cell transplant and cytokine-directed therapies are under investigation as potential treatments for this complex disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00148581-200608020-00002DOI Listing
September 2006

TLR2 and MyD88 contribute to Lactobacillus casei extract-induced focal coronary arteritis in a mouse model of Kawasaki disease.

Circulation 2005 Nov;112(19):2966-73

Pediatric Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Kawasaki disease is the most common cause of acquired cardiac disease and acute vasculitis in children, targets the coronary arteries, and can occasionally be fatal. The pathogenesis and the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. After injection of Lactobacillus casei cell-wall extract (LCCWE), mice develop a focal coronary arteritis that histopathologically resembles Kawasaki disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through their key downstream adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is required for the cellular activation and coronary arteritis produced by LCCWE.

Methods And Results: Bone marrow-derived macrophages from TLR2- or MyD88-deficient mice were unresponsive to LCCWE-induced stimulation. In contrast, macrophages obtained from TLR4-deficient mice produced the same amount of interleukin-6 as macrophages from wild-type mice after stimulation with LCCWE. Intraperitoneal injection of LCCWE produced severe focal coronary arteritis in TLR4(-/-) and C57BL/6 control mice but not in TLR2(-/-) or MyD88(-/-) mice. Collectively, these results indicate that LCCWE is a potent inducer of nuclear factor-kappaB via TLR2 but not TLR4 and that this activation proceeds via the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. In vivo studies suggest that TLR2(-/-) mice are protected from LCCWE-induced coronary arteritis and that this protection is mediated through the adaptor molecule MyD88.

Conclusions: Our results provide important insights into the molecular signaling in this mouse model of coronary arteritis. We show here that LCCWE-induced coronary arteritis is dependent on intact TLR2 and MyD88 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.537530DOI Listing
November 2005

Clinical trials for pediatric scleroderma.

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2002 Dec;4(6):449-51

Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Hospital for Special Surgery, Sanford Weill Medical College, Cornell University, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA.

Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a rare disease in the pediatric population. Many children with PSS have significant involvement of their internal organs, which leads to decreased survival. Because of the infrequency of the condition and delayed diagnosis, there are no large studies to evaluate therapy for PSS in children. Treatment is controversial in the adult literature, and its applicability to children is unclear. Only through collaborative efforts will researchers be able to clearly delineate the etiopathogenesis of PSS, and gather information from multicenter studies to ultimately provide appropriate and effective care for children with PSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11926-002-0049-2DOI Listing
December 2002